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I™ 



RY, 1884.J 



[No. 1, Vol. II. 




THE 



NEW ZEALAND 





nFVtYTED TO THE FURTHERANCE OF 

mEl n:™ T sc, E »o E ™,o»c«o U — »« 



^ • et u HU vera videntur 
Dedc manus . aur si j< 



CONTENTS 



PAGF 



dFlo „ of New Zealand. 
,„ the Origin of the Fauna and Mora of 

(with plate) •• • B y Baron von Minuxrat,^. 

.„ the Hybridism **"^*$Zj*, U*« ^^"'t^ 
3 , ay s from Laboratory of School °f >^ io „, M Higb te*!*^^^ H»* 

P'wX V - Not°» « the ^""^^ *"" 
™^« VI. -Notes on Wool. 

HemW.-i-New Intro luccd Plim» 

^"^1^^ ... .- ,; 

. ... - '•' o >h Wiles— TliiloSQpllieal 

Meetings of Societies-- ^ h - Wa , K _ Roya , Society «« New Booto 

U """"„s S t S y of Ca«eTb„Vo^o.ns t , t o,, .. ... 

* cwZ ea,a n d L are„tid*. By A,K, P~ B.A- At 

Index to Vol. I, ••• 

tmiOB 2s • ANNUAL SUBSCRIPT*, 10* 
PRICE, ^S., ^ Australia, us. 



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I UARY, 1884.) 



t 

THE 



NEW ZEALAND 



JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 



DEVOTED TO THE FURTHERANCE OF 
PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE THROUGHOUT THE COLONY 



Judicio perpende: et si tibi vera videntur 

Dede manus : aut si falsum est, adcingere contra. 



VOLUME II. 

1884-1885. 




DUUEDIN', N.Z. - 
WISE. CAFFIN S>- CO.. PRINCES STREET. 



nr\Ki>i\ : 
MATTHEWS, BAXTER & CO., LUU.Y 
DOWLIXG STREET. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Accena huttoni — J. B. Armstrong-, 122 

Algae, on the Classification of — E. M. Laing, 525 

Allocharis marginata, Larva of — A. Pirrdie, 166 

Amphipoda, Polymorphism among — C. Chilton, 560 

Anaesthetic, A valuable new, 394 

Ants— A. H., 128 

Aphidian Insect infesting Pine trees— W. M. Maskell, 291 

Auckland Institute and Museum, 122, 174, 238, 406, 593 

Bacillus of Typhoid Fever, 398 

Bacteria— T. J. Parker, 49, 102 

Biology, Atlas of Practical, by G. B. Howes (Review), 521 

Black Stilt, Pied Specimen of the— A. H., 230 

Botanical Evolution — Geo, M. Thomson, 361, 409, 457 

Botany of New Zealand, Dr. Berggren's Contributions to the, 430 

Bronze- winged Cuckoo — G. M. T., 576 

Buchanan, Mr. John, 528 

Butterflies, On a New Genus of — A. G. Butler, 159 

On the Occurrence of English, in N.Z.— T. W. Kirk, 169 

Canterbury, Philosophical Institute of, 33, 95, 140, 175, 233, 345, 523 

Carminic Acid for Microsocopical Preparations, 128 

City Wells, 546 

Coleoptera, White's types of — Dr. Sharp, 297 

Comfort and Longevity, 545 

Coprosma Baueriana, 172 

Cox, Mr. S. H., 123 

Crustacea, Additions to the Sessile-eyed — C. Chilton, 35 ; Subterra- 
nean — C. Chilton, 89 ; Phylogeny of the higher — W. K. 
Brooks, 96; Distribution of the Terrestrial — C. Chilton, 
154; Evolution of the Decapod Zoea, 193; Parasitic 
— G. M. Thomson, 453 ; New— G. M. Thomson, 576 ; 
Critical List of the— G. M. Thomson and C. Chilton, 583 

Dactylanthus taylori — A. H., 127 

Defects of the Senses — A Graham Bell, 421 

Degrees in Science, 80 

Dermestes introduced — A. Purdie, 166 

Diamond Mines of South Africa— F. W. Hutton, 151, 175 

Diptera of New Zealand, 168, 198; Collection and Preservation of, 295 

Earthquakes, 95, 124, 172, 395 

Eclipse of the Sun, 360 

Endowment of Scientific Research, 77 



IV. GENERAL INDEX. 

ErecJdiles prenanthoides, Rapid Increase of— D. Petrie, 455 
Eruptive Rocks from Banks' Peninsula— B. Kolenko, 548 
Evolution of the Decapod Zoea, 193 

Fauna and Flora of N.Z., Origin of the— F. W. Hutton, 1, 249 

Feroniidae, On a new decade of — T. Broun, 226 

Fin Whale. Skeleton and Baleen of— T. J. Parker, 351 

Flora, A New K.Z.—D. P., 563 

Forestry Exhibition, 81 

Forster Herbarium, 578 

Fossils of the Australian Auriferous Drift, New Vegetable, 30 

Fossil Egg, 325 

Frost Fish, Notes on the N.Z — W. Arthur, 157 ; — C. H. Robson, 289 

Fucoidse of Banks' Peninsula— R. M. Laing, 524 

Geology of N.Z., Sketch of the— F. W. Hutton, 435, 486 

of Scinde Island— F. W. Hutton, 523 

Geometrina, Synonymy of — A. Purdie, 88; Larva? of — A. Purdie, 160; 
Collected near Dunedin — A. Purdie, 163; Suppt. to a 
Monograph of the N.Z. — E. Meyrick, 234 ; Notes on 
Nomenclature of— E. Meyrick, 589 

Geyser Eruptions and Terrace Formations — J. Martin, 239, 240 

Glossogyne (?) Kennedyi — T. Kirk, 28 

( 1 ij mnobathra sarcoxantha—A. Purdie, 167 

Haast, Prof. J, von, Biographical Notice of (with portrait) - A. W B 

112 
Hawk, Anecdote of a — W. E. Barker, 397 
Hawkes' Bay, Notes from — A. H., 485 

Philosophical Institute of, 455 

Heredity, The law of; by R. W. Brooks (Review), 136 

Hieracidea Novce-zealandice — W. W. S., 84 

Hochstetter, F. R. von (In memoriam) — J. von Haast (with two 

portraits), 202, 237 
Hooker, Sir Joseph, Biographical Notice of — J. G., 425 
Hutton, Prof, F. W., Biographical Notice of (with portrait) — G. M. T 

301 
Hyalea, Occurrence of, in N.Z„ 484 
Hybridism of N.Z. Plants— F. von Mueller, 20 
Hydrophilidaj of N.Z.— Dr. Sharp, 395 
Hymenoptera of N.Z.— W. F. Kirby, 65 

Idotea, A new species of — C. Chilton, 320 
Insect Life, Notes on — A. Purdie, 116 
Introduced Plants, New— T. Kirk, 29 

Kakapo as a domestic pet, 324 
Kent, Mr. W. Saville, 326 

Larentidae, N.Z. — A. Purdie, 45, 64 
Lendenfeld, Dr. R, von, 85 
Lepidopus caudatus — R. von Lendenfeld, 108 
Lichenographia of N.Z. — Dr. Knight, 94 
Lincoln School of Agriculture, 22, 78 

Linnrean Society of N. S. Wales, 31, 89, 143, 177, 243, 327, 399, 486, 
491, 528, 579 



GENERAL INDEX. 



TAothula oDinivora, Life History of— G. V. Hudson, 537 
Lomaria pumila, 173 

Lucanidiv, Notes on Nomenclature of the N.Z. — D. Sharp, 220, 
of N.Z.— T. Broun, 381 



522 



Maori Race, The Decrease of the — W. Buller, 55 
Micro-Lepidoptera, Descriptions of N.Z. — E. Meyrick, 235, 346 
Mineral Occurrences at Dusky Sound — G. H. F. Ulrich; 300 
Moas and Moa-hunters — W. M. Maskell, 315 
Moa Remains from the Mackenzie Country — F. R. Chapman, 175 

from Tengawai Biver— W. W. S., 293 

, 394 

Moera petriei — C. Chilton, 230 

Monotremes, Embryology of, 321, 383 

Mosquitoes versus Trout, 574 

Moths, Introduced— G. M. T., 229 

Mountain Ranges of Canterbury, Notes on the Structure of — Dr. 

Hector, 399 
Museum, What it should be, 125 i 

Nesodaphne tawa, The timber of — Jas. ButlandTHlO 
New Zealand Institute, 60, 109, 132, 145, 241,^6, 516 
Notes from Te Anau, 82 •>><, 

Notornis, Notes on a Skeleton of — T. J. Parker, 526 

Olearia hectori, Notes on — D. Petrie, 37 

Oology of New Zealand— T. H. Potts, 222, 274, 373, 475, 505. ^ 

Orakei Bay Beds, On the age of the— F. W. Hutton, 350 

Orocrambus sp. — A. Purdie, 167 

Otago Acclimatisation Society, 575 

Otago Institute, 36, 175, 241, 351, 503, 525, 583 

Owen, Sir Richard, Biographical Notice of, 553 

Oxford Chalk— F. W. Hutton, 565 

Parakeets, A Plague of— F. R. C, 320 

Paryphanta hochstetteri — F. "W. Hutton, 573 

Peripatus—A. H., 230 

Petroica albifrons, On an abnormally coloured specimen of — T. H. 

Potts, 169 
Philougria, New Species of — C. Chilton, 576 
Plants suitable for cultivation in N.Z., 77, 125 

New Species of N.Z.— D. Petrie, 242, 352, 504, 526 

Stations, List of New— 1). Petrie, 391 

of Otago, Introduced— G. M. T., 573 

Pselaphidie of N.Z.— T. Broun, 238 
Psepholax libiaHs — G. V. Hudson, 123 

, Species of — G. V. Hudson, 511 

Puffins, On N.Z.— A. Reischek, 593 
Pycnogonida, New Species of — G. M. Thomson, 38 

Rabbit Pest, 79 

Red Phalarope, On the Occurrence of the — J. von Haast, 37 

Red Sunsets — J. Rmgwood, 142 

Rhipidurse of N.Z.— T. H. Potts, 170 

Biver Terraces— F. W. Hutton, 511, 523 



VI. UKNERAL INDKX. 

Royal Society of N. 8. Wales, 33, L82, 245, 339, 405, 493, 530, 583 
— . . , Journal and Proceedings of, 85, 325, 51 «.*■ 



Sceloglaux albifacies- -W. W. 8., 86 

Science Degrees in the N.Z. University T. J. Parker, 441) 

Science Teaching, 565 

Scydmsenidie of N.Z. T. Broun, 384 

Seririculture, Advantages of N.Z. for— Federh, 233 

Serolis, On the distribution of the genus— F. E. Beddard, 388 

Shark, A large— A. II.. 127 

Abroad V. R. C, 172 

Sharks' Teeth. 504 

Shells from N.Z., Description of two new — F. W. Mutton, 173 

. Fresh-water, of N.Z. -F. W. Hutton, 175 

, Descriptions of new tertiary — F. "W. Hutton. 350, 524 

Silphidse T. Broun, 27 
Small Birds— F. H. C, 578 
Soils and Health, 542 

Southern Alps, On the Geological Structure of the — J. von Haast, 350 
Spiders, New Species of — A. T. Urquhart, 593 

Spontaneous Generation, Van Hensen's hypothesis of — R. von 
Lendenfeld, 299 

Tasmania, Royal Society of, 231, 335, 404, 488, 534, 570 

' , Proceedings, 173 

Technical Education, 140 

Teraticum typicum—C. Chilton, 320 

Torpedo Bay, Habits of the C. II. Robson, 27, 123 

Transport of Small erratic boulders — F. E. C, 168 

Trout, On the Brown W. Arthur, 30 

Tuatara, < >n a new variety of — A. Ileischek, 593 

Tuhua or Mayor Island, Description of — E. C. Goldsmith, 240 

University of New Zealand. 81, 118, 122, 395 

Vegetable Tissues, Recent Microscopical work on, 171 

Waimakariri, On the lower gorge of the — F. W. Hutton, 3 I 

Wanganui System, The— F. W. Hutton, 525 

Weights and Measures, 394 

Wekas laying in Captivity— W. W. S., 577 

Wellington Philosophical Society, 94, 398, 527 

Zoology, Clause Elementary Text-book of (Review), 519 

Zootomy, A course of Instruction in, by T. J. Parker (Review), 228 

Zoytia pungent, Occurrence of in Central Otago — T>. Petrie, 454 



AUTHORS' INDEX. 



.Armstrong, J. B. Acceua huttoni, 122 

Arthur, W. — On the Brown Trout, 36 ; Notes on the New Zealand 
Frost- .Fish, 157 

Barker, W. E. — Anecdote of a Hawk, 397 

Beddard, F. E. — Note on the distribution of the genus Serolls, 388 

Bennett, Geo. — Embryology of the Monotremes, 383 

Brooks, W. K. — The Phylogeny of the Higher Crustacea, 96 

Broun, Capt. T. — N.Z. Silphida?, 27; New Species of Feroniidse, 175, 

226; Notes on the Pselaphidai of N.Z., [238; Lucanida* of 

N.Z., 381 ; N.Z. Scydmamidaj, 384 
Buller, Dr. — The decrease of the Maori race, 55 
Butler, A. G. — On a new genus of Butterfly from N.Z., 159 

Chapman, F. R. — Moa Remains from the Mackenzie Country, 175 
Chilton, Chas. — Additions to sessile-eyed Crustacea of N.Z., 35 ; Dis- 
tribution of terrestrial Crustacea, 154 ; Moera petriei, 230 ; 
Teraticum typicum, 320; New species of Idotea, 320; Polymor- 
phism among the Amphipoda, 560; New species of Philougria, 
576; Critical list of Crustacea Malacostraca, 583 

ITedeiii, — Exceptional advantages of N.Z. for Sericiculture, 233 

Goldsmith, E. C. — description of Tuhua Island, 240 

Haast, J. von — On the occurrence of the Red Phalarope, 37 ; F. R. 
von Hochstetter (In Memorium), 202; On the geological struc- 
ture of the Southern Alps, 350 

Hector, Jas. — Note on the structure of the mountain ranges of 
Canterbury, 399 

Hudson, G. "V. — Psepholax tibialis, 123; Species of Psepholax, 515; 
Life History of Liothula omnivora, 537 

Hutton, F. W.— On the origin of the Fauna and Flora of N.Z., 1, 249; 
On the lower gorge of the Waimakariri, 34; Earthquakes, 95: 
N.Z. Institute, 109; Diamond Mines of S. Africa, 151; Des- 
cription of two new shells, 173; The fresh water shells of N.Z., 
175; On the age of the Orakei Bay beds near Auckland, 350 ; 
Descriptions of new tertiary shells, 350; Sketch of the geology 
of N.Z., 435, 486; River terraces, 414, 523; Geology of Scinde 
Island, 523; New species of Tertiary shells, 524; The Wanganui 
system, 525; Oxford chalk, 565; Paryphanta hochstetter i, 573 

Kirby, W. F.— Hymenoptera of N.Z., 65 

Kirk, T. — Glossogyne (?) Kennedyi, 28; New Introduced Plants, 2'J 
Kirk, T. W. — On the occurrence of English butterflies in N.Z., 169 
Knight, Dr. Chas. — On the Lichenographia of N.Z. , 94 
Kolenko, B. — Microscopical Investigation of rocks from B inks' 
Peninsula, 544 



VIII. AUTHORS INI) IX. 

Lain-, R. fcL- Fucoideie of Banks' Peninsula, ~»2 I : On the classifica- 
tion of the Alga?, 525 

I. ndcnfeld, II. von Lepidopm caudatus, 108; Van Hensen's hypo 
thesis of spontaneous generation, 299 

Martin, .1. - On Geyser Eruptions and Terrace Formations, 239, 240 
kell, W. M. — On an Aphidian insect infesting pine trees, 291: 

.M< as and Moa hunters, 315 
Mevrick, E. Supplemenl to a monograph of N.Z. Geometrina, 234; 

Descriptions of N.Z. Micro-Lepidoptera, 235,340; Nomencla 

lure of N.Z. Geometrina, 589 
Montgomery, A. Presidential address to Otago Institute. 38 
Mueller, Baron F. von On Hybridism in N.Z. Plants, 20 

Parker, T. J. Bacteria, 49, 102; Notes on the skeleton and baleen of 
a fin-whale, 351; On regulations for Degrees in Science, 449; 
Note on a skeleton of Notomis, 526 
Petrie, l>. -Notes on Olearia hectori, 37 ; New species of N.Z. plants, 
242; New species of Flowering Plants, 352; Presidential 
address to OtagO Institute. 353; New Plant Stations, 391; 
( lecurrence of Zoysia puwjens in Otago, S-"> •! ; Rapid increase of 
Erechtites prenantJtoides s 454; New species of Flowering Plants. 
502, 526 
Phillips. Coleman — The New Zealand Institute. 132 
Pond, J. A. —On the minerals of Cape Colville Peninsula, 593 
Potts. T. I I . On an abnormally coloured specimen of Petroica cdbifrons, 
L69; Rhipidurae of N.Z., 170; Lomaria pumUa, 173; Oology of 
New Zealand. 222, 274, 373, 175, 505, 556 
Purdie, Alex. N.Z. Larentiidae, 45, 64; Synonymy of N.Z. Geome- 
trina, 88; Notes on Insect Life, 11G; Larva? of N.Z. Geometrina, 
160; List of Geometrina collected near Dunedin, 163; Larva of 
AUocharh marginata, 166: Dermestes introduced, 166; Semi- 
apterous Lepidoptera, 167; Orocrambus sp., 167 

Reischek, A. On N.Z. Puffins, 593; On a new variety of Tuatara, 

593 : < >!>:;< rvations on N.Z. birds, 59 1 
R -on. ( '. II. Breeding habits of the Torpedo. 27, 123; Notes on 

the N.Z. Frost Pish, 289 
Rutland, Ja Timber of Nesoda/phne tawa f 110 

Saeken. C. U. < >sten On the N.Z. Dipterous Fauna, 198 
Scott, •'• H. Presidential address to the Otago Institute, 584 
Sharp. I». -Notes on the Nomenclature of the N.Z. Lucanida?, 220, 

522; Examination of some of White's types of N.Z. Coleoptera. 

297; Hydrophilidae of N.Z., 395 

Thomson, G. .M. New species of Pycnogonida?, 38; N.Z. Institute, 
60, 135; Botanical Evolution, 361, 109,457; Parasitic Crustacea, 
I 55; [ntroduced Plants of Otago, 573; New Crustacea, 576 ; 

Critical List of the Crustacea Malaeostraca, 583 

TJlridi. G. H. F.— Mineral Occurrences in Dusky Sound, 306 
CTrquhart, a. T. New species of Spiders, 593 

"Winkelmann, Cho irrence of Uyalea in N.Z., 484 



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Vol. II., No. 1, JANUARY, 1884]. 



ON THE ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA 
OF NEW ZEALAND.* 



BY CAPTAIN F. W. HUTTON. 



I.— The Australian and South American Elements. 

Eleven years have elapsed since I read a paper to the Wel- 
lington Philosophical Society, on the " Geographical Relations 
of the New Zealand Fauna."f During that time the data on 
which the discussion of this question rest have very much in- 
creased, and the literature of the subject has been enriched by 
the valuable works of Mr. A. R. Wallace on the distribution of 
animals ; works which embody the results of much patient 
research and acute reasoning. Under these circumstances I 
wish, in this address, to return to my theme once more. I wish 
to explain how far I now think my own ideas of 1872 to be 
erroneous ; how far I am able to agree with Mr. Wallace in his 
view of the origin of our fauna and flora, published in 1880 in 
" Island Life ;" and how far, as it appears to me, Mr. Wallace's 
theory fails to explain the whole of the facts. I also wish to 
suggest the alterations and additions that seem to be necessary 
in order to get a good working hypothesis. It will be advisable, 
however, not to limit ourselves to New Zealand, but to take first 
a wider view of the subject ; for the faunas and floras of Australia 
and Polynesia are so intimately connected with those of New 
Zealand, that the origin of the latter cannot well be considered 
•until a general knowledge of the biological and geological history 
of the Pacific area has been obtained. 

Fossil plants have been found in many places in New Zealand, 
often abundantly and in good preservation, and they belong to 
several different geological periods. These plants have not yet 
been described, but they have been examined by Dr. Hector, 
who has published an abstract of the results of his examination 
in the Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, Vol. XI. (1878), 
p. 536, and in the " Handbook of New Zealand " (1880). The 
earliest traces of plants are very obscure, but the triassic rocks 
contain Ferns {Glossopteris), Horse-tails (Schizonezira), Cycads 
(Zamites), and wood of a Kauri {Dammar a). The oldest known 
extensive flora is of Jurassic age ; it consists chiefly of ferns and 
cycads, which are closely allied to those which inhabited India 
at the same period, as exemplified by the fossils of the Rajmahal 
Hills. In the cretaceous rocks numerous dicotyledonous plants 
occur, forty different species having been distinguished. These, 
as well as some conifers, belong to species closely allied to those 

* Presidential address to the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury. 1st 
November, 1883. 

t Trans. N. Z. Inst., Vol. V. (1872), p. 227; and Annals and Magazine of 
Nat, Hist., series 4, Vol. 13, p. 25. 



2 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

at present living in the country, although some, such as Araucaria, 
have become extinct in New Zealand. In the lower beds of the 
system these plants are associated with ferns that are also found 
in the Jurassic strata. The flora of the tertiary era " is badly 
preserved, and the collections are scanty ; but, as far as yet 
studied, it bears a very close affinity to the recent flora of the 
country." It thus appears that the main features of the present 
New Zealand flora are very old, dating from the cretaceous 
period, with a mixture of still older forms among the ferns and 
conifers. 

Let us now turn to Australia. No fossil plants, so far as I 
know, have as yet been found in Western Australia, but in East- 
ern Australia they occur in several places. The palaeozoic rocks 
of Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland contain Calamites, 
Lepidodendron, and Ferns, in some cases identical with plants 
of the same era in Europe and America. In the triassic and 
Jurassic beds Cycads and Conifers are found, together with the 
same ferns which occur in New Zealand and in India in equi- 
valent systems. No plants are known of cretaceous age, but in 
the eocene, vegetable remains have been found in New South 
Wales which, according to Baron von Miiller and Baron von 
Ettingshausen, are all extinct forms but little allied to the 
-present Australian flora ; for with Pittosporum, Knightia, and 
four kinds of Eucalyptus, there occur Birches, Alders, Oaks and 
Beeches ; while in Victoria extinct tropical trees are found which 
resemble those of Asia. The fossil plants mentioned by Mr. 
Darwin, at Geilston Bay, near Hobart, in a fresh-water limestone 
of probably miocene age, are also very different from those now 
living in Tasmania. They belong, as Mr. Darwin says, to a lost 
vegetation.* They represent Willows, Birches, Alders, Oaks and 
Beeches, along with Coprosma, Araucaria, and others. They 
are more characteristic of Australia than are the eocene plants, 
but still both are much nearer to the tertiary floras of Europe, 
Asia, and North America, than to the recent Australian flora. 
In beds of newer pliocene age plant remains have been found 
both in New South Wales and in Victoria, and these, according 
to Baron von Miiller, are allied to the present flora of Eastern 
Australia. What a contrast to New Zealand is here. The 
present flora of Eastern Australia does not date beyond the 
pliocene period, previous to which the country was covered by a 
lost vegetation allied to the tertiary floras of Europe and Asia ; 
while in New Zealand, as we have just seen, the present flora 
dates from the cretaceous period. 

Mr. Wallace has given a very simple explanation of these 
curious facts. The Australian flora, he says, consists of 
two large divisions : (i) The characteristic Australian flora, 
which is chiefly temperate, and hardly represented in New Zea- 
land ; and (2) A tropical flora, which is less in number than the 
first, is closely allied to the floras of India and Malaya, and has 

* Volcanic Islands, p. 140. 



FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 3 

many representatives in New Zealand and in South America. 
Western Australia has no European, Antarctic, nor South 
American types, but it is far richer than Eastern Australia 
in true Australian forms, many of which are only found there. 
He also points out that a submarine ridge, nowhere more than 
iooo fathoms below the present sea surface, runs from New Zea- 
land to Northern Queensland, and that the distribution of the 
cretaceous rocks in Australia proves that at that period the sea 
flowed over the centre portion of the continent, dividing the east 
from the west. From these facts Mr. Wallace infers : (i) That 
the submarine ridge between New Zealand and North-eastern 
Australia was elevated above the ocean at the same time that Cen- 
tral Australia was submerged ; and (2) That South-western Aus- 
tralia is the remnant of an extensive isolated continent which 
received the ancestral forms of its fauna and flora at a very early, 
probably Jurassic date, by a temporary union with the Asiatic 
continent over what is now the Java sea ; and it was on this 
continent that the characteristic Australian flora and mamma- 
lian fauna were developed.* He supposes that during the cre- 
taceous period Eastern Australia, separated from Western Aus- 
tralia by a wide arm of the sea, supported a flora that was princi- 
pally tropical and of Polynesian type, derived from the north 
through New Guinea ; but, in addition, there were fragments of 
the typical Australian vegetation which had reached it as strag- 
glers from Western Australia, and also a few south temperate 
forms from Antarctic lands, which had arrived from Tasmania. 
New Zealand, which at this time is supposed to have been joined 
to North-eastern Australia, was open to the immigration of the 
Polynesian flora, and of such Australian types as had reached the 
tropical portions of Eastern Australia. At the close of the cre- 
taceous period the northern prolongation of land between New 
Zealand and Queensland sank : New Zealand was separated 
from Australia, and has ever since remained isolated with its 
flora. Eastern Australia remained separated from the West 
until late in the tertiary era, when Central Australia was elevated. 
The flora of Western Australia then invaded the east and ex- 
terminated, to a large extent, the older tropical vegetation, and 
completely changed the character of the flora. 

Such is Mr. Wallace's hypothesis, which, except in some de- 
tails, is so far satisfactory ; the only obvious objections being : 

(1) That the origin of the Australian flora is attributed to a 
period when no dicotyledons are known to have existed ; and 

(2) That the majority of the characteristic Australian mammals 
belong to Eastern and not to Western Australia. These are 
difficulties, however, which further knowledge may dispel, but 
the hypothesis cannot be considered as a complete solution of 
the problem, because one large class of facts is not satisfactorily 
explained. I allude to the South American types found in 

* This had been indicated by the Rev. J. Tenison-Woods in the Pro. Roy. Soc. 
Tasmania, 1875, p. 2 °> and previously by Prof. Jukes in his " Physical Structure of 
Australia," quoted by Hooker, " Flora Tasmania?," Int. p. ci. 



4 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Eastern Australia and New Zealand, many of which belong to 
tropical and sub-tropical genera. Mr. Wallace's explanation for 
the presence of these forms is that a migration took place 
through New Zealand, South Victoria Land, South Shetland 
Islands, and Tierra del Fuego over a greater extension of 
southern lands during a warm miocene period. Now Dr. Martin 
Duncan is certainly of opinion that the sea in this portion of 
the southern hemisphere was much warmer in the miocene 
period than at present, and he has suggested that this was due 
to an extension of the Antarctic Continent up to 50 S.,* but, on 
the other hand, Mr. Darwin considered the eocene sea of Chili 
to have been no warmer than at present, and Mr. Tenison- 
Woods says that — " The whole evidence of the [tertiary] fossil 
corals shows a climate and isolation in the New Zealand fauna 
not very different from the conditions which exist now," and that 
the tertiary fauna of New Zealand generally " is not that of 
a warm sea, nor like what we should find on the warmer extra- 
tropical portions of the Australian coast/'-f The miocene mol- 
lusca appear to me to indicate a rather warmer sea, but as 
several of the species still live as far south as Foveaux Straits,j 
no elevation of temperature sufficient to take tropical and sub- 
tropical plants and animals to 50 S. is probable ; and in addi- 
tion to other difficulties presently to be mentioned, I shall, I 
think, be able to show that the South American connection is of 
a far older date than the miocene. Before doing so, however, 
it will be necessary to give a short review of the fauna of the 
Australian region. 

In Mr. Wallace's opinion the deep oceans, i.e. the Pacific, 
Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, have been in existence from the 
earliest geological times. All the principal groups of land 
animals, he thinks, have originated in the northern hemisphere, 
and have gradually migrated southwards through the continen- 
tal extensions of America, Africa, and Australia, (including the ' 
Indian Archipelago), comparatively few having subsequently 
spread east and west by means of antarctic islands now sub- 
merged. If this be true, it is evident that the fauna of Australia 
ought to be more nearly allied to that of South Africa than to 
that of South America, because the connection of the former 
with India is so much closer than the connection with the latter 
by Kamschatka and Alaska. Let us sec if this is so. 

The Australian mammalia arc very peculiar, and are more 
closely allied to the Jurassic mammals of Europe and America 
than to any now living. The marsupials of America are related 
to the eocene marsupials of Europe and arc, evidently, a younger 
branch of the family from which the Australian mammals had 
been separated long previously. Consequently the relationship 

Quar. Jour. GeoL Soc, 1876, p. 345. 
t Palaeontology of New Zealand, Part iv. p. 4 (1880) 

uch as Voluta pacifica, Triton spengleri, Parmophorus unguis, Chione 
stutchburyi, Tapes intermedia, Pcctunculus laticostatus, Waldheiinia lenticularis, 
and others. 



FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 5 

between the American and Australian marsupials does not 
militate against Mr. Wallace's theory. The distribution of the 
birds is decidedly favourable to it. The Fly-catchers, Sunbirds, 
Hornbills, Bee-eaters, King-crows, Kingfishers, Nightjars, Swifts, 
Bustards, and other Australian birds are all related to Old-world 
forms ; exceptions, perhaps, being found in the Megapodes, or 
Mound-builders, which are probably allied to the Curassows of 
Brazil, and also in the Brush-tongued parrots, which have their 
nearest allies in the parrots of South America. 

Most of the families of lizards follow the same rule of distri- 
bution as the birds, but the Gymnophthalmidcs are not known in 
North America although found in Timor, New Guinea, Polynesia, 
and South America ; and of the Iguanidce (a characteristic 
South American family) a very distinct species is found in Fiji, 
and another is supposed to occur in Australia. With the snakes 
the case is different. Out of the fourteen families of land snakes 
inhabiting the Australian region, no less than four are found in 
India, Africa, and South America, but not in North America ; 
and another family, the Amblycephalidce, is found in India, in 
South America, and doubtfully in New Caledonia, but not in 
North America ; although all, according to Mr. Wallace, must 
have passed through North America. The fresh-water tortoises 
are found only in Africa, Australia, and South America. The 
principal genus, however, occurs both in Australia and in South 
America, but not in Africa. Here, therefore, the distribution is 
not in accordance with theory. 

The affinity between the faunas of Australia and South 
America is still better shewn in the frogs, whose distribution is 
quite at variance with that of the birds. One family (Pelodryadoz) 
is confined to these two regions : two others have the same dis- 
tribution as the families of snakes just mentioned, being absent 
irom North America ; while closely allied forms are found in 
Australia and South America : and a family of tree frogs, 
although widely spread and occurring in North America, has the 
South American species more closely related to those of Australia 
than to those of North America. 

The marine and most of the fresh-water fishes (except Osteo- 
glossum, which is found only in Borneo, Queensland, and Brazil), 
as well as some groups of insects, such as most of the butterflies 
and stag beetles, follow the same rule in distribution as the birds; 
while other groups of insects, such as the Bupestridai, Longicorn 
beetles, and the family of Castniidce among moths, follow the 
distribution of the frogs. 

The distribution of the marine mollusca of Australia and 
Polynesia is favourable to Mr. Wallace's theory ; but the terres- 
trial mollusca, although most nearly allied to those of the Indian 
Archipelago, have strong affinities with the mollusca of South 
America, and shew no connection with those of Africa. This is 
seen in Trochomorpha, Tornatellina, Cyclotus, Cyclophorns, and 
Helicina, which are found in Polynesia, Australia, and South 
America ; Macrocyclis in Australia and South America ; Partula 



6 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

(a characteristic Polynesian genus) is found also in South 
America ; Placostytus is allied to Ortlialicus of Chili, Peru, and 
the Solomon Islands ; and Vaginulus, a marine pulmonate, 
occurs in India, the Philippines, and in South America. This 
remarkable distribution is very instructive ; for as the marine 
shells of the Indo-pacific province have been unable, during the 
whole of the tertiary era, to cross from Polynesia to America, it 
follows that when the ancestors of these land shells crossed, the 
physical geography of the region must have been very different 
from what it is now ; for there it no trace of their having passed 
into South America from the north. 

We see then that the Australian fauna consists of three 
elements. The first is typified by the mammals, and is charac- 
teristically Australian. The second is typified by the birds, and 
is more nearly related to African than to American forms. The 
third is typified by the frogs, and is more nearly related to South 
America than to any other part of the globe. There is also a 
fourth element, — the Antarctic, — which I pass over for the 
present. 

Now it is very difficult, or even impossible, to believe that all 
the groups of semi-tropical plants and animals which connect 
Australia, Polynesia, and even the Sandwich Islands with South 
America have travelled down from the north by the present land 
routes, for then we should have to suppose that all had become 
extinct in North America, and certainly we should expect to find 
the connection between Australia and Africa at least as close as 
it is between Australia and South America, which is not the case. 
But even if we got over this difficulty we should still be unable 
to explain the facts. If, for example, the frogs had passed into 
South America by the same route as the birds, both would have 
shown a similarity in their distribution. The assumption that 
the present frogs are mere relics of a formerly more extended 
distribution, and that allied groups have become discontinuous 
through extermination, will not help us. For if all birds were 
now to become extinct north of the equator, we should still find 
the avi-fauna of Australia more nearly related to that of Africa 
than to that of South America ; and it is impossible, by assuming 
any reasonable amount of extermination, to make the distribution 
of birds accord with that of the frogs. The lines of migration of 
frogs must therefore have been different from those of birds. 
Again Mr. Wallace himself allows that salt water is almost a 
complete barrier to the dispersal of frogs,* consequently where 
frogs could pass birds could pass also ; and as the former have 
passed between Australia and South America but n^t the latter, 
it follows that the two could not have spread together but each 
must have pursued a different route at a different time. And as 
the present shape of the land accounts for the distribution of the 
birds, the distribution of the frogs must have taken place before 
the present groups of birds were in existence. But birds of many 

* Geographical Distribution of Animals, i., p. 416. 



FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. jr 

kinds were abundant in Europe and in America in eocene times, 
and as we know that penguins inhabited New Zealand at the 
same period, it is probable that birds then existed in Australia 
also. Consequently the South American migration must have 
taken place before the eocene, and cannot be referred to a warm 
miocene period. Evidently, therefore, the existence of the South 
American element in the Australian fauna and flora requires 
some explanation which Mr. Wallace's hypothesis does not supply. 

It was these considerations, together with the fact that the 
earthquake wave of 1868 had proved that the average depth of 
the South Pacific Ocean was not great, which led me in 1872 to 
propose the hypothesis that in the lower cretaceous period an 
antarctic continent extended northwards into Polynesia, con- 
necting Australia with South America, and perhaps with South 
Africa. I introduced the African connection solely to account 
for the Struthious birds, but I am now satisfied that Mr. Wal- 
lace's explanation of the spread of these birds from the north is 
more correct, and no reason, therefore, remains for supposing 
that Australia was ever connected with Africa. But the evi- 
dence of a connection with South America is stronger than ever. 
Nevertheless, I now abandon the idea of an extensive antarctic 
continent, because the soundings that have been lately taken in 
the Pacific Ocean have shown that such a supposition is highly 
improbable. At the same time, these soundings have made it 
clear how the connection really took place. 

The surveys of the " Tuscarora," the "Gazelle," and the "Chal- 
lenger," have proved that a vast submarine plateau, nowhere more 
than 2000 fathoms below the sea-level, runs from New Guinea and 
North Australia in an easterly direction through the Fiji and 
Tonga Islands to Samoa, spreading south to New Zealand, and 
north to the Ellice, Gilbert, Marshal, Caroline, and Pelew Islands. 
This plateau is split into two portions by a deep narrow channel, 
which runs between New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands, 
and between New Caledonia and the New Hebrides until it 
almost reaches Torres Straits. Another submarine plateau, 
also never more than 2000 fathoms below the sea-level, extends 
from Chili in a north-west direction to the Society Islands and 
Cook's Islands, including Juan Fernandez, Easter Island, the 
Paumotus, and the Marquesas Islands. Between Cook's Islands 
and the Samoa Islands there is a deep channel, but whether 
this is continued into the deep sea north of Samoa, or whether 
the two plateaux are continuous, is uncertain. Mr Wild, of the 
Challenger expedition, says — " It seems as if an almost uninter- 
rupted area of elevation crossed the whole basin of the Pacific 
in a north-westerly direction from Patagonia to Japan,"* pro- 
bably about 1500 fathoms from the surface. North of this 
plateau the ocean averages 3000 fathoms in depth. To the 
south it ranges from 2900 to 2600 fathoms, getting gradually 
shallower towards the south-east. The shallowest part of the 



* Thalassa, p. 22. 



8 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

plateau is the ridge, already mentioned, between New Zealand 
and North Austratia, which is nowhere more than iooo fathoms 
below the surface. 

Here we have probably the remains of an ancient continen- 
tal area, which bridged the South Pacific, and allowed the pas- 
sage of frogs, land shells, insects, and plants between New 
Guinea and South America, but which became submerged before 
the present groups of birds had come into existence. The date 
of this South Pacific continent must have been anterior to the 
marine Indo-Pacific fauna, because hardly any of the fishes, 
Crustacea, and shells of Polynesia have crossed over to America ; 
and it must have been posterior to the appearance of dicotyle- 
donous plants. Now of the genera of marine shells character- 
istic of the Indo-Pacific fauna and not found on the American 
coast, Turbinella, Ricinula, Jridacna, and Aspcrgilhim are 
miocene ; Rimclla, Rostellaria, Seraphs, Doliuvi, Ancillaria, 
Cordilia, PytJiina. and Glaucomya are eocene ; while Vulsella is 
found in the upper cretaceous rocks. A few others, such as 
Nautilus, Stomatia, and Neritopsis are old forms apparently 
dying out. The genus Monoceros is also found in the eocene 
rocks of Chili, but is not known in the Indo-Pacific province. 
We cannot therefore put the South Pacific continent later than 
the cretaceous period. On the other hand, though fossil plants be- 
longing to the Jurassic period are known from many parts of the 
world, not a single dicotyledon has as yet been found among 
them, the oldest known form being a Poplar from the lower cre- 
taceous beds of Greenland. In the upper cretaceous epoch dico- 
tyledonous plants were abundant in Europe, North America, 
and in tropical Africa, and each of the three classes, MonocJi- 
lamydece, Polypetalce, and Gamopetalce were represented. The 
South Pacific continent must therefore have existed after the 
Jurassic, and must have been submerged before the eocene 
period. 

Let us now see what light the geology of the surrounding 
countries throws on the subject. To commence with Chili. 
From Mr. Darwin's " Observations on the Geology of South 
America " we learn that the fundamental rock system of Chili 
and Western Tierra del Fuego consists of an irregular plateau 
of mica-schist and gneiss. On this floor immense masses of 
volcanic rocks, chiefly andesites and diorites, have been poured 
out from submarine volcanoes, forming the ranges of mountains 
called the Andes. These mountains are highest in the north, 
and get lower and lower southwards, but portions of volcanic 
rocks are found all through to Tierra del Fuego. High up 
among the volcanic rocks of the Andes in Chili a sedimentary 
gypseous system occurs, containing fossils of the lower cretaceous 
or perhaps upper Jurassic period. Fossils of the same age are 
also found in a clay-slate system forming the eastern side of 
Tierra del Fuego, and stretching far up the eastern flanks of the 
Andes. These lower cretaceous rocks go to a length of 14,000ft. 
or 15,000ft. above the sea. On the Atlantic side, enormous 



FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 9 

plains of gravel and silt slope from the sea to an elevation of 
8oooft. or more at the base of the mountains. On the Pacific 
side, horizontal strata, of probably eocene age, lie on the older 
rocks, and these are covered in places by gravel-beds, which go 
to a height of 1 300ft. 

From these facts Mr. Darwin infers that during the Jurassic 
period this part of South America was a deep sea, on the bed of 
which volcanic eruptions took place. In the lower cretaceous it 
was shallow sea, with land in the neighbourhood, but the bottom 
was sinking and it was further depressed for 7000 or 800 o feet, 
although the volcanic ejections continued to maintain land above 
the surface of the ocean. In the upper cretaceous period up- 
heaval commenced and, although interrupted by many oscillations, 
this upheaval has been going on ever since, until the elevation has 
been as much as 14,000 or 15,000 feet, that is 2500 fathoms. 
Now it is fair to suppose that when the immense mass of Chili, 
part of Peru, La Plata, and Patagonia, was depressed 2500 
fathoms below its present level, a compensating elevation may 
have occurred in the South Pacific Ocean ; and that as South 
America rose, the bed of the Pacific sank. If this were the case, 
the South Pacific continent must have been in existence in the 
Jurassic and lower cretaceous periods and commenced to subside 
in the upper cretaceous. The lowest portion, that between Samoa 
and the Society Islands, would have been submerged first, and 
the connection between New Guinea and South America may 
have been severed before the close of the cretaceous period. 
This conclusion agrees very well with that drawn, quite inde- 
pendently, from a study of the Australian fauna and flora. 

On the western side of the South Pacific the oscillations of 
the land appear to have been much less. Of the geology of New 
Guinea it is known that Jurassic rocks are largely developed both 
in the north and in the south, which indicates that the land then 
stood at a lower level. No cretaceous rocks are known from 
any part, and at this period therefore it may have been upheaved. 
Tertiary clays and limestones occur at Hall's Sound and at Yule 
Island, but as, according to Mr. Tenison-Woods, the fossils have 
nothing in common with those of Australia, their age remains at 
present doubtful.* 

New Caledonia consists principally of two rock systems, one 
of older paleozoic, the other of older mesozoic age. According 
to M. Gamier lower cretaceous rocks are also found there, but 
the evidence appears to consist of a single fossil {Pinna) only. 

In Eastern Australia and Tasmania the main range of moun- 
tains is formed of contorted schists and slates of lower palaeozoic 
age. In New South Wales the denuded surface of these rocks 
is covered by enormous masses of shales and sandstones of upper 
palaeozoic and lower mesozoic age, lying in a nearly horizontal 

* Mr. C. S. Wilkinson believes them to be of lower miocene age (Pro. Lin. Soc. 
of N. S. Wales, vol. i., p. 114). For Mr. Tenison-Woods' opinion see the same 
publication, vol. vii., p. 382. Formerly he considered them as probably older 
pliocene (I.e. vol. ii., p. 127). 



10 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

position and forming the upper portions of the Blue Mountains. 
Further to the north, in Queensland, this system is overlaid in 
places by rocks of Jurassic and cretaceous age. Jurassic rocks 
are also found in Tasmania, Victoria, and in Western Australia ; 
consequently we must suppose that during this period Australia 
was more depressed than at present, although not altogether 
submerged. During the whole of the cretaceous period all cen- 
tral Australia and the whole of Queensland appear to have been 
under the ocean, the Rev. J. Tenison-Woods having found upper 
cretaceous rocks on the very summit of the dividing range inland 
from Brisbane. But Western Australia, New South Wales, 
Eastern Victoria and Tasmania remained above water. There 
are no tertiary marine rocks on the east coast of Australia, and 
we must therefore assume that in the eocene period Queensland 
was elevated, and from that time neither it nor New South Wales 
have ever stood much lower than at present. It also appears 
probable that the centre of the continent remained submerged 
until the close of the miocene period, or even later. But the 
geological evidence on this point is at present uncertain, for the 
" Desert Sandstone," so largely developed in the interior, and 
which lies unconformably on the cretaceous system, is thought 
by Daintree and Clarke to be marine, by Etheridge to be lacus- 
trine, and by Tenison-Woods to be of seolian origin and of 
different ages. Marine miocene rocks are found at an elevation 
of 800 feet above the sea,* but as the central plateau of Australia 
rises to more than 1000 feet in the north, it would not necessarily 
be altogether submerged ; especially as the northern parts of 
Australia appear to have been subsiding for a long time. On the 
other hand Professor Duncan is of opinion that the miocene sea 
of South Australia and Tasmania was of so high a temperature 
that it must have been open to the influx of warm currents from 
the north. Be this as it may, it is evident (1) that during the 
Jurassic and cretaceous periods Australia stood at a lower level 
than at present, and (2) that it could not have been joined to 
New Guinea during the cretaceous period as supposed by Mr. 
Wallace, although this may very probably have occurred during 
the eocene period. 

Western Australia appears to have been more stable than 
any other part of the continent. The Darling range consists of 
granite, capped by sedimentary rocks of upper palaeozoic age. 
On the cast these ranges end abruptly in cliffs from 200 to 500 
feet high, overlooking plains and salt marshes composed of the 
" desert sandstone." Towards the sea, on the west, the granite 
disappears and its place is taken by upper palaeozoic rocks, which 
are overlaid in places by another system of undoubtedly Jurassic 
age ; and these are again overlaid near the coast by aeolian rocks 
of a recent date. Western Australia, therefore, appears to have 
been a land surface during the whole of the tertiary and 
cretaceous periods, and perhaps it may date back to triassic times. 



C. S. Wilkinson. " Notes on the Geology of New South Wales," 1882, p. 57. 



FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. II 

The oscillations of land were on a much smaller scale in 
stralia than in South America, but they were somewhat 
b> liar. During the Jurassic and lower cretaceous periods both 
seem to have undergone subsidence, but while in South America 
elevation commenced in the upper cretaceous, in Australia it did 
not commence until the eocene. This therefore agrees with, or 
at any rate in no way contradicts, the conclusion already arrived 
at, that the South Pacific Continent existed in the Jurassic and 
cretaceous periods ; but New Guinea, perhaps, was not connected 
until the lower cretaceous. 

In the Pacific area itself all we know is that a sedimentary 
rock containing fossils occurs in the centre of Levuka, one of the 
Fiji Islands ; and, according to Mr. Tenison-Woods, the fossils 
are of tertiary, possibly early tertiary, age, and show a tropical 
climate.* This is interesting to us as indicating that the South 
Pacific continent was broken up in early tertiary times. 

Having thus got some idea of what has probably been going 
on in the South Pacific, we will now turn our attention to our 
own country, New Zealand. Sir Joseph Hooker, in the well- 
known introduction to his " Flora Novae Zealandiae," published 
in 1853, divides our flora into five elements: (1) Australian; 
(2) S. American ; (3) North Temperate ; (4) Antarctic ; and 
(5) Polynesian ; and he thinks that a land communication, not 
necessarily continuous, is required to account for the presence of 
each of these elements, although the different communications 
may not have been at the same epoch. I do not mean on the 
present occasion to touch the North Temperate and Antarctic 
elements further than to show that, on the whole, they are of 
later origin than the other three, all of which, with few excep- 
tions, are more or less sub-tropical in character. In my remarks 
I shall take all my data from Hooker's " Handbook to the 
Flora of New Zealand" (1867), because, although many new 
species have been added since its publication, almost all are en- 
demic and belong to genera already known from New Zealand ; 
and as they are divided in nearly equal proportions between the 
Australian, South American, and North Temperate elements, 
with a few Antarctic forms, their omission will not change in 
any appreciable degree the relative proportions of the flora of 
the " Handbook." Indeed, as Mr. G. M. Thomson has pointed 
out in his interesting address to the Otago Institute last year, 
" the general conclusions arrived at in the ' Flora Novse Zea- 
landiaa ' have not been materially altered by recent discoveries."*f 
For the local distribution of Australian plants, I have Baron 
von Muller's valuable " Systematic Census" (1882). 

There are in New Zealand 35 sub-tropical, or warm tem- 
perate genera of flowering plants, which are also found in South 
America, and which probably did not pass from one country to 

* Pro. Linn. Soc. of N. S. Wales, vol. iv., p. 358. 
t Trans. N. Z. Institute, vol. xiv., p. 486. 



12 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

the other by an Antarctic route,* and of these 31 occur also in 
Australia. These 35 genera contain 74 species, of which 89 per 
cent, arc peculiar to New Zealand. If now we take the sub- 
tropical, or warm temperate, genera, which do not occur in 
South America, we find that there arc 33 of them,-(* of which 31 
are also found in Australia. These genera contain 96 species, 
of which 93 per cent, are endemic. There are thus 68 genera 
which appear to have been introduced from the north, and to 
these we must add the greater part, at any rate, of the 41 genera 
which are confined to Australia and New Zealand, for 90 per 
cent, of the New Zealand species belonging to these genera are 
endemic. Mr. Wallace gives a list of sixteen of these genera 
which, not occurring in tropical Australia, he supposes must have 
migrated to or from New Zealand across the sea ; and he says 
that nearly all these genera have in their seeds special facilities 
for transmission. But just as good reasons could be found for 
showing that many of his tropical genera have equal facilities 
for transmission, and as 87 per cent, of the New Zealand species 
belonging to these 16 genera are endemic, while of the 33 genera 
named by Mr. Wallace as having come from the north, only 72 
per cent, of the species are endemic, we must conclude that the 
16 temperate genera have been in New Zealand as long as the 
33 sub-tropical genera. As a matter of fact, 15 out of the 16 
are found in Queensland, and it is more reasonable to suppose 
that some of the tropical species have died out in Australia than 
that all the 16 genera have crossed the sea, an opinion not 
shared in by Sir J. Hooker, nor by Mr. T. Kirk.j 

Passing on now to the probably antarctic genera, that is 
southern genera which have spread east and west in south temper- 
ate latitudes, we find that they number 20,§ containing 76 species, 
of which only 60 per cent are endemic. Nineteen of the species 
are also found in Australia or Tasmania, and 11 or 12 in South 
America. There are also 56 genera of north temperate plants, 
which probably spread with the Antarctic forms, containing 199 
species, of which 67 per cent, are peculiar to New Zealand. The 
remaining 87 genera I am unable to place. Most of them be- 
long to two or more geographical elements, but others — such as 
Fagus — are doubtful. 

* They are Drimys, Aristotelia, Discaria, Dodoncea, Sophora, Weinmannia, 
Gunnera, Eugenia, Fuchsia, Passijlora, Sicyos, Eryngium, Oreomyrrhis, Griselinia, 
Loranthii*, Viscum, Lagenophora, Pratia, Myrsine, Sapota, Sebcea, Calceolaria, 
Gratiola, Vitex, Pisonia, Gassytha, Athetosperma, Peperomia, Piper, Libocedrus, 
Podocarpus, Libertia, Astelia, Cordyline, and Cyperus. brasses omitted. 

t They arc Pittospnrum, Melicope, Leptospermum, Metrosideros, Jl/eryla, Cop- 
rosma, titylidium, Gyathodes, Parsonsia, Mitrasacme, Geniostoma, Mazus, Tetran- 
thera Knightia, Exocarpus, Santalum, Epicarpurus, Elatostemma, Ascarina, 
Dammara, Dacrydium, Dendrobium, Bolbophyllum, ftarcochilus, Gastrodia, Cory- 
sanlhes, Microtis, Lypcranthus, Thclymitra, Freycinetia, Dianella, Areca, and 
Gahnia. 

X See Trans. N. Z. Institute, vol. xi., p. 546. 

I take the following as typical : — Colobanthus, Oxalis, Accena, Donatia, 
TilUva, Drosera, Apium, Nertera, Abrotanella, (Jotula, Forstera, Pernettya, 
Ourisia, Drapetes, Callixene, Rostkovia, Gaimardia, Carpha, Oreubolus, and 
Uncinia. 



FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 1 3 

Statistical results like these are always open to the objection 
that the data on which they rest are incomplete and more or 
less erroneous (for example Coriaria and Gunner a may belong 
to the Antarctic element, and Drosera to the South American). 
They also assume that the rate of variation is equable, which of 
course cannot be strictly accurate. But this method of investiga- 
tion has been used with great success in geology, and it can, I 
think, be trusted here for establishing the two following con- 
clusions : — First, that the northern immigration, taken as a whole, 
was anterior to the southern immigration, also taken as a whole ; 
and second, that the immigration of the sub-tropical South 
American genera belongs to the first period, and not to the last. 
The first conclusion is similar to that of Mr. Wallace, but arrived 
at in a different way. The second is opposed to Mr. Wallace's 
idea that the South American plants passed through New Zea- 
land and Antarctic lands during a warm miocene period, which 
is also opposed by the fact that a number of Australian genera, 
are found in South America, but not in New Zealand. The 
fact that very few of our South American genera are absent 
from Australia, while a large number of our Australian genera 
are absent from South America, makes it probable that there 
have been at least two migrations into New Zealand from the 
north, and that the South American element belongs to the 
first of these only. This is borne out by the distribution of some 
the groups. The best example perhaps is the Orchids, of which 
1 8 genera occur in New Zealand. Of these two are endemic, 
and the other 16 are all found in Australia. Two occur also in 
New Caledonia, three in Polynesia, four in the Indian Archipelago, 
and three in India, while one consists of a single species widely 
spread over Asia and Australia. None of them are found in 
South America. The path of the Orchids into New Zealand, by 
the Indian Archipelago and New Caledonia, is thus plainly 
mapped out, and as none have passed into South America the 
migration probably took place after the South Pacific continent 
had disappeared. The number of New Zealand species of this 
order is 38, of which 32 — or 84 per cent. — are endemic, so that 
the immigration must have been an early one. Other examples 
are found in Pittosporece, Rutacece, and Santalacece. Examples 
of the earlier South American migration are seen in the Moni- 
miacece and Chloranthacece, while examples of the Antarctic 
migration are the CaryopJiyllcce, the Geraniacece and the Rutaccce. 
It may be objected that the percentage of endemic species is 
greater in the Australian than in the South American element, 
and therefore that the first must be the older. But the objec- 
tion is not fatal, because, in the first place, we must remember 
that the American genera would continue to live in Polynesia, 
and would migrate into New Zealand again with the Australian 
forms, thus making the percentage nearly the same in each case ; 
and in the second place, one or two genera may be included in 
the South American element which are really Antarctic, and 
this would at once bring down the percentage of endemic species. 



14 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

This is a mistake which could not be made with the Australian 
genera. 

The Kermadec Islands occupy a very important position for 
furnishing evidence of migrations into New Zealand from the 
north, but unfortunately very little is known of their flora. 
What is known shows a remarkable affinity to the flora of New 
Zealand. Of the 21 species of flowering plants collected by 
Dr. Macgillivray, only three (14 per cent.) are endemic ; 17 are 
found in New Zealand (one of which is supposed to have been 
introduced into both places), and the other — Metrosideros poly- 
morpha — inhabits Polynesia and New Caledonia. From this we 
must infer that at a comparatively late period New Zealand ex- 
tended further to the north-east than at present, for if it had not 
done so the Kermadec plants would have been far more differen- 
tiated from those of New Zealand than they are. At the same 
time as but few sub-tropical species are common to New Zea- 
land and Australia, this land could not have extended far to the 
north-west ; but we may perhaps refer to this period the intro- 
duction of several of those tropical species, such as Avicennia 
officinalis and Sicyos angular is, which are also found in Aus- 
tralia. 

It would thus appear that there have been three migrations 
of plants from the north into New Zealand. Two of very 
ancient date ; the third comparatively recent, and comparatively 
unimportant. The supposition that New Zealand was at one 
time connected with a South Pacific continent, from which plant? 
spread into South America, and into New Guinea ; and that, at 
a subsequent period, Eastern Australia was attached to New 
Guinea, and received from thence fragments of this Polynesian 
flora, together with plants of the Indian Archipelago, will ex- 
plain, I think, why some Polynesian and South American genera 
are found in New Zealand but not in Australia, and why some 
occur in Australia but not in New Zealand. 

Passing on now to a consideration of our fauna, we find it 
composed of the same elements that we recognised in the flora, 
viz. — (1) Australian; (2) Polynesian; (3) S. American; (4) 
Antarctic ; and (5) North Temperate. The South American 
element seems to be the weakest, but until the distribution of our 
insects, land-mollusca, and land-worms is better known we 
cannot speak with any confidence on this point. One of our two 
kits was formerly thought to belong to an American family, 
but this has been shown to be a mistake, and it now seems that 
both arc of Old World extraction. This removes a difficulty, 
for bats are certainly not more ancient a group than birds, and 
it would have been very puzzling if their distribution had coin- 
cided with that of the frogs instead of with that of the birds. 

Our birds show only three elements : — (1) An Antarctic, 
which comprises the Penguins, the Petrels, three out of five gulls, 
and four out of nine cormorants ; (2) a Polynesian, consisting of 
the Paroquets, Aplonis, and the long-tailed Cuckoo ; and (3) 
an Australian, which includes all the rest, except a few which 



FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 1 5 

are cosmopolitan. Of a South American element we see no 
trace except it be in Nestor, which may be distantly related to 
the Macaws although still more nearly to the Brush-tongued 
Parrots of Australia and Polynesia. The Merganser of the 
Auckland Islands may represent the North Temperate element. 
The affinities of Tumagra are still doubtful. I pointed out in 
1872* that our land birds had been derived from the north, and 
Mr. Wallace has subsequently, but quite independently, arrived 
at the same conclusion. While, however, Mr. Wallace thinks 
that the birds migrated along a land communication with 
Northern Australia in the cretaceous period, I was, and still am, 
of opinion that the fragmentary nature of our avifauna shews 
that the land was not continuous but was interrupted by an arm 
of the sea between New Caledonia and the main land, and further 
that this communication took place in the eocene and not in the 
cretaceous period. The remarkable fact that both our cuckoos 
migrate annually to New Zealand from Australia or Polynesia 
indicates, as I explained in my former paper, a much more 
recent northern extension of New Zealand, and this agrees with 
the evidence given by the flora of the Kermadec Islands. Mr. 
Wallace refuses to believe that these birds migrate, and thinks 
that they retire to some unexplored parts of the islands in the 
winter, but unfortunately he gives no hint as to where these un- 
explored parts are situated. 

Our lizards show an Australian element in Mocoa and Hinulia, 
but the genus Naultinus is endemic and belongs to a group of 
geckos found in Abyssinia, India, the Indian Archipelago, Aus- 
tralia and Chili. Sphenodon belongs to New Zealand only. Our 
single species of frog has decided South American affinities. 

Of the fresh- water fishes Eleotris is an Indian Archipelago 
and Australian genus, but as it is also found in Mexico and the 
West Indies it may possibly indicate a South American element, 
Galaxias, Cheimarrichthys (an endemic genus allied to Aphrites) 
Prototroctes, and the Lampreys are Antarctic ; while the Eels are 
Australian or Polynesian. The marine fishes are a southward 
extension of the Indo-Pacific fauna, with a strong Antarctic 
element in Bovichthys, Notothenia, Thersites, GonorhyncJius, 
CallorhynchuSy and perhaps in Genypterus and others. 

The land molluscan fauna appears to consist of Australian, 
Polynesian, and South American elements ; the latter being 
marked by Tornatelliua, Amphidoxa, Cyclotus, and perhaps 
Strobila. There is no Antarctic element. In my paper on the 
"Geographical Relations of the New Zealand Fauna" I stated 
that our fresh-water shells shewed a Polynesian affinity distinct 
from the Australian ; but in this I was mistaken, owing to my 
want of knowledge of the Australian fauna. It now appears 
that most of the genera are also Australian, but Melanopsis is 
Polynesian, and Potamopyrgtis is said to occur in South America^ 
The affinities of our fresh-water limpet (Latia) are not known' 

* Trans. N, Z. Institute, Vol. V., pp. 251 and 252, 



16 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

The marine mollusca are, like the marine fishes, a southward 
extension of the Indo-Pacific fauna with a well-marked Antarctic 
element ; the South American element being but slightly de- 
veloped. The main point of interest is the difference exhibite d 
between them and the marine mollusca of temperate Australia 
and Tasmania, shewn chiefly in the absence from our seas of 
many common sub-tropical forms. Tasmania, for example, pos- 
sesses several species ot Conns, Cyprcva, Fasciolaria, and Oliva, 
of which we have no representatives. We have but one species 
each of the genera Mitra, Columbella, and Nassa ; while Tas- 
mania has respectively fourteen, ten and five species. We have 
only three species of Voluta and two of Marginclla, while Tas- 
mania has seven of the former and eight of the latter. This 
great difference is probably accounted for by the warm north- 
cast current that flows down the coast of Australia, and the cold 
south-west current that sweeps the shores of New Zealand. If, 
however, New Zealand was joined to Northern Australia or New 
Guinea all this would be changed, the warm current would pass 
down its east coast, while the cold current would be deflected 
from the west coast of New Zealand to the east coast coast of 
Australia. But the difference in the shells was as well marked 
in tertiary times as now ; consequently we must suppose that 
New Zealand has been isolated, and that the warm current has 
passed down the east coast of Australia ever since these genera 
inhabited the districts. Now Voluta, Mitra, Conns, Fasciolaria, 
and Cyprcea date from the upper cretaceous, the others from the 
eocene, and the conclusion seems plain that New Zealand has 
not been connected with Australia since the cretaceous period, 
which agrees well with the inference derived from the fragmentary 
nature of our avifauna. 

The geographical relations of our insects and spiders are not 
yet known, but as the families of insects in many cases date 
back to the Jurassic, and several genera to the cretaceous period, 
we may expect to find a marked South American element 
among them ; indeed Mr. Meyrick has, in papers read to our 
society, already pointed out that in the Crambidcti the New Zea- 
land species of Diptychophora are more closely related to South 
American than to the single Australian species ; and that among 
the Gcomctrina, the genera Azelina, Drcpauodcs and Siculoides 
arc South American, while Tatosoma is found in Europe, Ceylon, 
Borneo, Australia and South America ; the New Zealand species 
being nearest to those of South America. Pcripattis is no doubt 
a very old form. It is found in S. Africa, Chili, Central America 
and the W. Indies, and consequently cannot be considered as 
representing an Antarctic element, but must be referred to the 
South American migration. 

It is very remarkable that our crayfishes should belong to the 
same genus as the species found in Fiji, while those of Austra- 
lia and South America are generically distinct, although all be- 
long to the same sub-family. This, I think, proves incontest- 
ably that Fiji and New Zealand have had direct land communi- 



FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. I J 

cation ; for Professor Huxley has pointed out that fresh-water 
crayfishes are very ill-adapted for crossing even a narrow arm of 
the sea. Mr. Wallace thinks that this connection with Fiji " is 
hardly probable, or we should find more community between the 
productions " of the two countries ; but when we remember the 
difference of climate we cannot expect a greater community 
than actually exists. The marine Crustacea agree with the ma- 
rine fishes and shells, in having well-marked Australian and 
Antarctic elements, but perhaps it is not yet possible to distin- 
guish South American from Antarctic forms. It will not be 
necessary to pass in review the lower classes of animals. But 
little is as yet known of them, and at present they throw no new 
light on the origin of our fauna. 

I will now recapitulate the results we have arrived at about 
the New Zealand flora and fauna. The South American ele- 
ment in the fauna and flora, as shewn by the plants, frog, land 
mollusca, and insects, proves that New Zealand was clearly con- 
nected with the South Pacific continent which probably existed 
in Jurassic and lower cretaceous times, while the distribution of 
the fresh-water crayfishes proves that Fiji and New Zealand 
have had a continuous land communication. The distribution 
of the marine mollusca shews that New Zealand has been sepa- 
rated from all northern lands ever since the cretaceous period, 
and this explains the fragmentary nature of the avi-fauna. At 
the same time the fact that many birds, land-shells, and plants, 
shewing no South American relations, have passed to New Zea- 
land from the north-west, proves that these islands, although not 
actually connected, must have extended much farther north and 
approached much more nearly to Queensland and New Guinea 
at some period in the tertiary era than they do now, and that 
that period w T as an early One is shewn by the amount of change 
that has since taken place both in plants and animals. The 
flora of the Kermadec Islands, and the remarkable phenomenon 
of our migratory cuckoos, give evidence of a third north-easterly 
extension of New Zealand at a much later date ; but the absence 
of many common types of Australian birds, and the small num- 
ber of northern plants and animals specifically identical with 
those of Australia, proves that this extension was much less 
than the other two, and perhaps it did not last long. It is now 
necessary to examine the geology of New Zealand, and see how 
it bears on the subject. 

New Zealand is a mountainous country, partly covered with 
forest, and difficult to explore geologically, and the fossils, al- 
though largely collected, have as yet been little studied. It is 
not, therefore, surprising that many points in its geology remain 
uncertain, especially as to the ages to be assigned to the several 
rock systems of which it is composed ; and which, being com- 
monly discontinuous, require the aid of palaeontology for their 
elucidation more than in most countries. Nevertheless, thanks 
to the energy and skill with which the Geological Survey de- 
partment has during the last twenty-two years attacked the 



18 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

problem, I think I am safe in saying that the main structure of 
the country is tolerably well known, especially in those points 
which alone concern us here, and which I will briefly mention. 

The main range forming the New Zealand Alps in the South 
Island, and the mountains stretching from Wellington towards 
the East Cape in the North Island is composed of highly- 
inclined sedimentary rocks belonging to four, and perhaps five, 
distinct systems. The first is probably Archaean or Cambrian. 
According to Dr. Hector the second is Ordovician, the third 
Silurian and Lower Devonian, the fourth Upper Devonian and 
Lower Carboniferous, while the fifth ranges from Permian to 
Jurassic. This last system contains fossils related to those from 
the Gondwana system of India and the newer Carbonaceous sys- 
tem of Eastern Australia. According to Mr. S. H. Cox, it is 
about 21,000 feet in thickness, and is entirely a littoral forma- 
tion, plant remains being found all through it ; thus implying a 
subsidence of 3500 fathoms in early mesozoic times. The axis 
of the geanticlinal, however, is not in the centre of the range, 
but lies along its western base, the whole western portion of the 
elevated mass having been removed by denudation, except in 
the west part of Nelson and the north part of Auckland. Of 
the rest all that remains is the submarine plateau which stretches 
out towards Australia. 

The next system of rocks is of cretaceous, probably upper 
cretaceous, age.* Along the eastern base of the main range it 
lies quite uncomformably on the Jurassic and older rocks, and 
according to Dr. Hector and Dr. von Haast it is also found in a 
similar position on the west coast of the South Island : thus 
lying at a low level on the geanticlinal axis. In the North Island 
the geanticlinal axis is covered by thick masses of tertiary sedi- 
mentary and volcanic rocks, which hide the cretaceous system 
if it exists there. Evidently a great upheaval, followed by enor- 
mous denudation, must have taken place immediately before 
the deposition of this last rock system, that is at the close of the 
Jurassic and commencement of the cretaceous periods. There 
may be some doubt as to the exact time of this upheaval, 
but that the New Zealand Alps were principally formed during 
the periods mentioned is unquestionable. 

The cretaceous, or according to Dr. Hector the cretaceo-ter- 
tiary system has also been much disturbed in places, and is 
everywhere denuded, and generally overlaid uncomformably by 
beds of oligocene and miocene age. This proves that a second 
elevation, probably of less extent than the first, took place in the 
eocene period, and was followed by a second depression in the 
oligocene The oligocene and miocene marine rocks are largely 
developed, and extend to a height of 2500 feet above the sea,f 
proving conclusively that during this period New Zealand was 

* Dr. Hector considers the oldest beds to be the equivalent of the Lower Green- 
sand of England. 

+ Acccording'to Dr. von Haast they ascend to 5000 feet above the sea, but no 
.OCalities arc given. — " QeoL of Canterbury and Westland " (1879), p. 305. 



FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. IQ 

represented by a cluster of twenty or more islands, on which, as 
I pointed out in 1872, the various species of moa were probably 
developed.* Since that time a third elevation has taken place, 
the proofs of which I must defer to another opportunity. These 
three elevations agree quite with the conclusions already arrived 
at by a study of the fauna and flora ; and we must suppose that 
it was during the upper Jurassic or lower cretaceous period that 
New Zealand was joined to the South Pacific continent, while 
during part of the eocene it extended towards New Caledonia, 
and again in the pliocene towards the Kermadec Islands. 

Our general results then are that in early mesozoic times 
New Zealand, Eastern Australia, and India formed one biological 
region, land probably extending continuously from New Zea- 
land to New South Wales and Tasmania. At the close of the 
Jurassic period the New Zealand Alps were upheaved, and the 
geosynclinal trough between New Zealand and Australia was 
formed. During the lower cretaceous period a large Pacific con- 
tinent extended from New Guinea to Chili, sending south from 
the neighbourhood of Fiji a peninsula that included New Zea- 
land. Nearly all the southern part of America was submerged. 
Western Australia and Eastern Australia formed two large 
islands lying at some distance from the contineut. This conti- 
nent supported dicotyledonous and other plants, insects, land- 
shells, frogs, a few lizards, and perhaps snakes and a few birds, 
but no mammals. In the upper cretaceous period New Zealand 
became separated and reduced to two small islands ; the South 
Pacific continent divided in the middle between Samoa and the 
Society Islands, and — the eastern portion being elevated while 
the centre sank — it ultimately became what we know now as 
Chili, La Plata, and Patagonia. In the eocene period elevation 
commenced in our district ; Eastern Australia was joined to 
New Guinea, which stretched through New Britain to the Solo- 
mon Islands. New Zealand was also upheaved and extended 
towards New Caledonia, but the two lands were divided by an 
arm of the sea. The mainland of New Guinea had by this time 
been invaded from the north by a large number of plants, birds, 
lizards, snakes, etc., which migrated south into Eastern Australia, 
and a few passed over the New Caledonia channel and reached 
New Zealand. But still no mammals. In the oligocene period 
New Zealand again gradually sank, carrying with it the sparse 
flora and fauna it had received, and in miocene times was re- 
duced to a cluster of islands ; Eastern Australia all this time 
receiving constant additions to its fauna and flora through New 
Guinea. In the pliocene period elevation once more took place ; 
New Zealand extended towards the Kermadec Islands, and the 
continent of Australia was formed ; after which subsidence 
again occurred in the New Zealand area. 

* Mr. Wallace agrees with this opinion, but in his " Island Life " says that it 
is a pure hypothesis, of which we have no independent proof ; he not, as I suppose, 
being aware of the distribution of our miocene rocks, although I mentioned it in my 
paper. See Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. V., p. 253. 



20 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

These conclusions are more precise, but are much the same 
as those at which I arrived in 1 872, with the exception that I 
now substitute a South Pacific continent from which Australia 
was isolated, for the lower cretaceous Antarctic continent of my 
former paper. Mr. Wallace's hypothesis of an isolated West 
Australian continent on which the characteristic Australian flora 
and mammalian fauna were developed is fairly satisfactory, but 
I presume that the Australian birds are not supposed to belong 
to the West Australian fauna. A few, such as the ancestors of 
the honey-suckers and the brush-tongued parrots, may have 
crossed over the sea from New Guinea to Western Australia, but 
the mass of the birds are supposed to be East Australian, to have 
passed into West Australia by the north while the continent was 
being upheaved and its climate still humid, and to have become 
differentiated since the entire drying up of the interior sea so 
dessicated the country as once more to isolate West Australia 
almost as effectually as if it were surrounded by water. But Mr. 
Wallace does not make this sufficiently clear. When, however, 
we come to that part of Mr. Wallace's hypothesis which deals 
with the connection between Australia and New Zealand we find 
it to be not so satisfactory. In the first place the facts of geology 
are against any connection having taken place between the two 
countries at the time supposed. In the second place the South 
American element in the fauna and flora is not separated from 
the Antarctic element. In the third place the hypothesis fails to 
explain the South American element, except on the supposition 
of large extensions of land during the warm miocene period, for 
which there is no sufficient evidence, and which if it had occurred 
would have allowed birds as well as frogs and land-shells to pass. 
And in the fourth place it ignores altogether the special relation 
which exists between New Zealand and some of the islands in 
the Pacific. The hypothesis here proposed, is no doubt incom- 
plete, and will be much improved when the palaeontology of New 
Zealand is better known ; but it does, I think, give a fairly satis- 
factory account of the origin of the South American, Australian, 
and Polynesian elements in our fauna and flora. The Antarctic 
and North Temperate elements still remain for consideration, but 
so wide a subject cannot be entered upon at the end of an ad- 
dress, and I must postpone all discussions to some future oc- 
casion. 



ON THE HYBRIDISM OF NEW ZEALAND PLANTS. 



BY i;ARON FERD. VON MUELLER, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 



In dealing descriptively in the first instance with the ele- 
ments of a new flora, the workers on material, avowedly often 
incomplete, must encounter great difficulties in assigning specific 
limits to the forms brought before them, particularly as the ideas 
as to what constitutes a real species are still so vague, and as even 



HYBRIDISM OF NEW ZEALAND PLANTS. 21 

the existence of truly specific unalterable forms is denied by 
many a naturalist in these latter days. That vegetable as well 
as animal organisms are more or less subject to variation and to 
hybridisation is a fact recognised by all workers in natural his- 
tory ; but to what extent and to within what limits, is a problem 
which in all its details can only be solved by the assiduous and 
united labours of naturalists in generations to come. In touch- 
ing on this subject the writer wishes to draw the attention 
of New Zealand observers particularly to the fact that hybridisa- 
tion plays a more important role in the origination of new and 
also frequently fertile forms of plants than formerly was sup- 
posed. Although nearly fifty years ago the Hon. and Rev. Dean 
Herbert among British scientific authors had shown that fertile 
hybrids could in many instances be produced, his observations, 
and those of Koelreuter, Gaertner, and some earlier workers in 
this direction, did not receive the attention generally which the 
importance of the subject deserved. To those occupied in New 
Zealand with botanic studies it must be of particular interest to 
ascertain for instance to what extent the numerous but closely- 
allied forms occurring within such genera as Epilobium, Vero- 
nica, Coprosma, Carmichaelia, and Pittosporum, can be traced to 
natural hybridisation. Some spontaneous crosses between Eu- 
ropean Veronicas are well known. Sir Joseph Hooker also 
refers pointedly to a hybrid between V. elliptica and V. 
speciosa, raised by Mr. J. A. Henry, of Edinburgh ; and he men- 
tions also that interbreeding takes place between V. salicifolia, 
and V. speciosa, V. macrocarpa, and other congeners under cul- 
tivation. Thus arose V. Andersoni, which is not only fertile, but 
remains also true to its characteristics when raised from seeds. 
The genus Epilobrium would be of particular importance for re- 
searches on natural hybridisation in New Zealand. In a special 
volume on " Pflanzen-Mischlinge,'' all known information on 
hybridisation up to 1881 is ably brought together by Dr. W. 
O. Focke, of Bremen. The early observations by the elder 
Reichenbach and by Lasch on Epilobium hybrids are also re- 
ferred to in this work ; as well as the recent special researches, 
carried out in reference to this genus by Dr. Haussknech, proving 
that a very large number of hybrid forms occur among the Euro- 
pean Epilobiumsfrom the Lowlands to the Alps. In such enquiries 
it should be borne in mind that crosses occur as well among mere 
varieties as among assumed species. The large extent of Alpine 
tracts, as well as the considerable area of warm lowland country 
within the geographic limits of New Zealand, would give condi- 
tions as favourable as occur in Europe for the production of 
numerous hybrid forms of Epilobium. Sir Joseph Hooker 
does not put forward the seventeen defined Epilobiums of New 
Zealand as all specific, but suggests that hybridism has had 
something to do with their arising and further development. 
Such hybrid forms may have been doubly misleading ; for 
while they obliterated true specific differences, the/ may have 
led to an undue reduction of species. And again, while the 



22 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

difficulty of discriminating between genuine specific forms and 
fertile cross productions would be almost insurmountable by 
mere museum work, the results would be an unduly augmented 
descriptive enumeration of species. 

The question is a weighty one, as not only affecting safe sys- 
tcmatising, but also as bearing to some extent on the much 
discussed question of transmutation. Thus some additional 
light might be shed by local efforts of New Zealand naturalists 
on these important subjects. 



ESSAYS FROM THE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY OF THE 
SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE AT LINCOLN, UNDER 
THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF ROBERT VON LENDEN- 
FELD, Ph.D. 



I.— On the Movement of Centres of Depression or High Pressure 
through the air.— By R, v. Lendenfeld, Ph.D. 

During my expedition to the central part of the New Zealand Alps a great 
many meteorological observations were made. On comparing the barometer 
readings with those of Lincoln and Hokitika, it appeared that the barometrical 
curves of these places could not be brought into harmony with those which I 
constructed for March, 1882, as observed on the Tasman Glacier, at an average 
height of 4000 feet. 

The barometrical curves of these three places were similar in shape, but not 
at such intervals one from the other as was to be expected. 

Hokitika lies about 30 west, and Lincoln about 125 miles to the east of the Tas- 
man Glacier. As the average rate at which these atmospheric centres travel is 300 
miles per 24 hours, the same pressure ought to be felt first on the Tasman Glacier, 
two hours and a-half later at Hokitika, and ten hours later at Lincoln, if, as is 
generally the case, the centre is travelling in an easterly direction. When drawing 
the three curves together, it appeared that the distance between the Lincoln and 
Hokitika curves averaged seven hours and a-half, as was to be expected, but that 
the curve for the Tasman Glacier was much further away from the other curves 
than the distance that would correspond to 30 and 125 miles, that is two and 
a-half hours and ten hours respectively. 

The actual distance of the similar curves from each other showed that there 
was an interval of eight and a-half hours and sixteen hours respectively. In other 
words this means, that any peculiarity of pressure travelling from west to east 
appears on the Tasman Glacier six hours too soon. The reason for this is simply 
that my observations on the Tasman Glacier were taken at a height of 4000 feet, 
whilst Hokitika lies at the level of the sea, and Lincoln only 81 feet above it. 

From the fact that barometrical changes appear sooner in great elevations 
than at the level of the sea, it follows that the line of corresponding pressure, 
that is that line ascending from any point of the surface of the earth in which all 
barometer readings at the same moment reduced to the sea level are the same (a 
line in the centre of high or low pressure, or a straight line in a cylindrical sur- 
face of corresponding pressure in every other case) is not vertical, but that it is 
very slanting, forming an angle open in the direction in which the centre of 
depression or high pressure is moving. This angle is small, and averages in New 
Zealand from 5 to 10 degrees. 

This slanting position of the lines of corresponding pressure is caused by the 
friction of the air on the surface of the earth. If, say, a centre of low pressure 
is formed over Australia, the lines of corresponding pressure will be vertical. This 
disturbance of the atmospheric equilibrium moves towards the east, and causes a 
whirlwind around it This whirlwind together with the low pressure centre move 
quickly in the uppi c layers of the air, where there is no friction, and are of course 
retarded near the surface of the earth. In consequence of this, the line of cor- 
responding pressure slants forward, so that often the western part of a passing 
whirlwind, say a south-wester, is blowing on high, whilst we are still in the east- 
ern part of the same whirlwind, a nor'-wester on the surface of the earth, 



Grains 
germinating 


Smut 

killed on 

grains 


Percentage of 

germinating wheat 

free from smut, 


1-25% 


10 


10 


100 


50% 


9 


10 


90 


7'5% 


7 


10 


70 


1-25% 


10 


5 


50 


5-0% 


4 


10 


40 


0-625% 


10 


3 


30 


2-5% 


2 


10 


20 


375% 


1 


10 


10 


2'5% 


10 










10 








10'0% 





10 





5-0% 





9 





1*875% 


8 








2-5% 


2 


1 


2 



ESSAYS. 23 

It is an old custom of sailors and others to foretell the weather by the direc- 
tion in which the clouds move, and this has a scientific basis, as the clouds move 
in the same direction in which the wind will blow on the surface in a few hours. 

Dr. von Haast informs me that the barometrical observations on the Bealey 
prove, in a like manner as those made by myself on the Tasman Glacier, that 
barometrical changes set in at the Bealey a few hours " before time." 

II. — Tests of Dressing-materials for Wheat. — By Donald Murray. 

The influence of thirteen different solutions has been tested on wheat and 
smut spores adhering thereto. The result is contained in the following table : 

Solution used. 

No. 2 Bluestone, loz. to 2qrts. 
,, 6 Iron Sulph., 4oz. to 2qrts, 
,, 7 Iron Sulph., 6oz. to 2qrts. 
,, 9 Calvert's Carbolic Acid, ;No. 5 

loz. to 2qrts. 
,, 4 Bluestone, 4oz. to 2qrts. 
, , 8 Calvert, No. 5, £oz. to 2qrts. 
,, 3 Bluestone, 2oz. to 2qrts. 
,, 12 Calvert, No. 5, 3oz. to 2qrts. 
„ 5 Iron Sulph., 2oz. to 2qrts. 
,, 1 Undressed 

,, 14 Calvert, No. 5, 8oz. to 2qrts. 
,, 13 Calvert, No. 5, 4oz. to 2qrts. 
,, 10 Calvert, No. 5, l^oz. to2qrts. 
„ 11 Calvert, No. 5, 2oz. to 2 qrts. 

The experiments were carried on with the solutions which were mostly used 
on the college farm. Smutty wheat was dressed in the above solutions by turning 
it over and over whilst the dressing material was poured over it. It was kept 
like this in a damp chamber on damp blotting paper for two days. Then it was 
washed by using the blotting paper as a filter and pouring water over it to imitate 
the natural condition of the wheat in the ground being washed with the water 
that circulates in the soil. The fourteen samples were then again put in the 
damp chamber in the same blotting paper, which, like the soil, retained the 
spores that might have been washed off. 

Five days later every one of the 140 grains was examined under the micros- 
cope. Where the smut spores had not been killed by the dressing every grain of 
wheat was covered by a thick felt of mycelial threads which could be observed 
under the microscope to spring from the smut spores. 

The results contained in the table show that strong Carbolic acid kills the 
wheat, and that weaker Carbolic, Nos. 8 and 9, does not kill the smut spores. 
Very good results, and better results than appear attainable by Carbolic, have 
been arrived at by Copper and Iron Sulphate. Of the Carbolic solutions used, 
No. 9 (50 per cent, of germinating non-smutty wheat) appears the best. 

Of all the selections tested, No. 2, bluestone (CuS04), 1 oz. to 2 quarts, 
1.25 per cent, appears to be the best dressing material, none of the wheat being 
affected, and all the smut spores killed therewith. The best possible result of 
100 per cent, has been attained with this solution. 

A hundred grains of the samples dressed as above were sown in the open 
to test the germinating power under natural circumstances, with the following 
result : — 

No. 5, FeS04, 2.5 per cent. ... ... ... 94 

No. 8, Carbolic acid, 0.625 per cent. ... ... 94 

No. 1, Undressed ... .. ... .. 90 

No. 9, Carbolic Acid, 1.25 per cent. ,.. ... 90 

No. 2, CuS04, 1.25 per cent. ... ... ... 89 

No. 6, FeS04, 5.0 per cent. ... ... ... 77 

No. 10, Carbolic, 1.875 per cent. ... ... .. 73 

No. 7, FeS04, 7.5 per cent. ... ... ... 66 

No. 3, CuS04, 2.5 per cent. ... ... ... 58 

No. 11, Carbolic, 2.5 per cent. ... ... ... 47 

No. 4, CuOS4, 5.0 per cent. ... ... ... 41 

No. 12, Carbolic, 3.75 per cent. ... ... .. 11 

No. 73, Carbolic, 5.0 per cent. ... ... ... 

No. 14, Carbolic, 10.0 per cent. ... ... .,, 



24 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

The wheat dressed with Milestone, C11SO4, was later in coming up than 
the rest. There Mas hardly any perceptible difference in height between the 
lots when counted sis weeks later. 

As it was thought that the weaker dressings, such as C11SO4, 1.25 per cent. 
might kill grains with a damaged husk only, experiments were undertaken to 
see what effect solutions would have on sound and damaged grain. Two lots 
were taken, 25 seeds in each. In one lot every grain of wheat was pricked with 
a needle (the needle being driven right through the endosperm, in many cases 
splitting the grain). The other lot was examined to see if the grains were all 
sound. Both lots were then dressed with C11SO4. 1.25 per cent., put in watch 
-lasses in a damp chamber, and allowed to germinate, with the following re- 
sult :— Pricked, 75 per cent, germinated ; unpricked, 95 per cent, germinated. 
From this it will be seen that Milestone, CuS04, does kill cracked grains in 
preference to sound ones, as corresponding experiments on pricked and on un- 
pricked grains which were left undressed show that the pricking itself does not 
in the least affect the germinating power. 

III.— Note on Dressing Grain. — By R. von Lendenfeld, Ph. D., and W. 

Gardner. 

The experiments of several biologists, and lately, in particular, those of 
Tyndall, show that germs, that is spores of Schizomycetce and other fungi, are not 
killed by heat a little over boiling point, or by intense cold, or by the influence 
of poison, as long as they are dry. But these spores lose their germinating 
power if treated as above in a damp state, or rather after having been damp for 
some time. The reason for this appears to be that these obnoxious influences 
kill the spores only when the latter have commenced germinating, and have split 
the husk and imbibed water. 

Following up this, we made experiments with bluestone, shown to be the 
most effective dressing material by D. Murray, and found that a better result 
could be attained in killing smut if the wheat was left in a damp state for five or 
six hours before being dressed, 

Two lots of wheat, 100 grains of each, were well rubbed up with smut balls 
and then.moistened. One lot was dressed with a very weak solution of blue- 
stone immediately, and the other kept in a damp chamber for six hours and 
then dressed with the same solution. The result was as follows :— Wheat 
dressed dry — smut killed on 60 per cent. ; wheat dressed after six hours 
in damp chamber— smut killed on 100 per cent. It appears, therefore, 
that in dressing with bluestone, and probably also in dressing with other sub- 
stances, it is advantageous to moisten the grain from six to twelve hours before 
dressing. On the other hand, a weaker solution, which will not affect the wheat 
so much, can be used on moistened wheat with the same effect as a stronger 
solution on dry wheat. 

IV — The Injured Husk in Wheat. — By A. Birdling. 

Other experiments have shown that wheat, the husk of which has been in- 
jured, is more liable to be affected by the dressing material than such as has a 
sound and water-tight husk. To ascertain whether the husk of any wheat was 
injured iodine solution was used. It is very difficult, and by no means con- 
clusive, to examine the grain under the microscope, whilst the iodine test is as 
easy as it is sure. The wheat was soaked in water for 30 minutes, and then in 
a solution of iodine in alcohol for two or three hours. Washed again and dried, 
this wheat was sufficiently affected by iodine. Through cracks, hardly percep- 
tible even with the microscope, the iodine had penetrated, and the starch in 
those places w as dark blue. The iodine also penetrated through the thin parts 
of the husk where the embryo lies. It appears clear that the cracks in the husk 
are formed in the threshing, different wheats of course being differently affected 
by the machine. 

Three samples of wheat threshed with a "Clayton and Shuttleworth " have 
been tested with iodine, with the following result: — White Tuscan, 6 per cent. 
racked ; Russian wheat, 18 per cent, seeds cracked; rough chaff, 10 per 
'■.•lit. bc< '!.- cracked. 

V. — Notes on the Microscopical Structure of Wheat, Barley, &c— 

By — Elus. 

The grain Avas left in absolute alcohol for a week, to extract any moisture 
that might have been contained therein, and was then placed in turpentine. In 
two days the turpentine had replaced the alcohol, which had extracted the water 
and Idled the places formerly occupied by air, 



ESSAYS. 25 

Paraffin was melted and poured into a cast, the grain placed in the liquid 
paraffin, and the whole, after it had got thoroughly cool and hard, fitted into the 
section-cutter. Transverse and longitudinal sections, of a thickness varying 
from 0.01 to 0.06 millimeters, were made and placed in turpentine, the latter 
dissolving the paraffin in a short time. From thence the sections were mounted 
in Canada balsam. 

Wheat has a thin regular coating, consisting of the hard epidermis and a 
layer of albuminous cells on the inner side, containing oil-drops. The mounted 
specimens do not show the oil, it having been dissolved by the alcohol and tur- 
pentine. These outer cells are of a brown colour. The endosperm, the only 
part of the grain which contains starch, consists of large polyhedral cells, filled 
with minute starch grains. 

In examining the barleys, Cape barley is found to have a coarser skin and 
more oil, and the albuminous cells are very much larger. In the Golden Melon, 
the starch granules are spherical ; in the Cape barley, on the other hand, they 
appear oblong. 

In oats the epidermis is very thin, the albuminous cells are of a peculiar 
shape, and the starch granules are larger. 

In rye the epidermis is still thinner, there is no oil in the outer layer of 
cells, and the starch grains are larger than those of wheat and barley. 

VI. — Notes on Rust {Puccinia graminis).— By T. W. Bing. 

The rust which occurs on wheat in Europe is produced from a fungus found 
on the leaf of the Barberry tree, which is known by the 'name of Puccinia 
graminis. This fungus passes through different stages. 

On the Barberry leaf it forms the so-called cluster cups, which give off an 
immense number of spores. These spores cannot develop again on the leaf of the 
Barberry ; but if carried by the wind on to wheat-plants, or other cereals, they 
commence germinating by giving off a germ tube, which enters the leaf or stem as 
the case may be, and in the course of 6 or 8 days develop into an elongate red 
mass in the parenchyma of the leaf. As this increases in size, the epidermis of 
the leaf at last bursts, and reddish looking spores are exposed, forming rust. 

This forms the second stage of Puccinia graminis. These spores are blown on 
to other cereal plants and develop rust again, and this process goes on till the 
autumn. At that time of the year the fungus begins to produce spores of a 
different kind, each spore being protected by a wax-like secretion on the outside. 
In this condition the spores are preserved through the winter on the stems of 
Gramineae. This forms mildew, the third stage of .Puccinia graminis. 

In spring each cell of the mildew spore develops a short tube, which gives off 
from 2 to 4 slender branches, at the end of which spores are produced. These 
spores do not, in Europe, reproduce mildew, but develop— if carried by the wind 
on to the Barberry tree — into a fungus on the leaves of that tree. These form 
the cluster cups, or first stage of Puccinia graminis; thus completing the life cycle 
of the fungus. 

Rust on New Zealand wheats cannot be produced in this manner, as there are 
such a very small number of Barberry trees in the country, and rust is known in 
Australia to occur 500 miles from the nearest Barberry bush. 

It follows from this that in Australia and New Zealand the Barberry must 
be either substituted by another plant, or the rust continues to propagate without 
a change of generation, always remaining in the stage of rust. 

Of the rusts met with in New Zealand nothing is known, so that we cannot 
say which cluster-cup belongs to which rust. A fungus was found on a rush, 
Juncus fusus, and investigated, but it appears hardly likely that it is the cluster- 
cup stage of Puccinia graminis. On the other hand, a rust, resembling Puccinia 
graminis in every respect, was found in the Juncus, producing spores in the 
winter (August, September) on the dead and half dry stems. 

If the growth of this rust is not impeded by the winter, it appears likely 
that the ordinary rust will also grow in New Zealand during the whole year. As 
the alternation of generation in Puccinia graminis has doubtless been caused by 
the severe winter of Europe, it teems quite possible that when this cause is re- 
moved, the effect — the change of generations in the Puccinia graminis — may also 
alter, and by atavism return to the old style of direct propagation. Some species 
of rust do not show any alternation of generation. 

If we merely have, as does not appear unlikely, in the colonial Puccinia 
graminis a case of atavism, it will be of the greatest interest, and I hope that I 
may be able to prove this at some future time. 



26 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

VII.— Notks on Wool.— Bi G. W. Tiffbn and E. Whitecomb. 

Spirally growing hair is termed wool. 

It much resembles ordinary hair in its habit of growth, and possesses 
numerous imbricating scale-like protruberauces on its surface. These, when 
viewed under the microscope, present the appearance of serrations at its margin, 
and of a network on the surface. 

These serrations are very important, as it is chiefly due to them that wool is 
capable of being felted ; those wools possessing serrations of greater height, and 
a greater number of serrations to a given length, being more valuable for this 
purpose than others. 

But this is not the only point which affects the value, for its fineness, wave, 
and length of staple, are of importance. The object, therefore, of wool growers 
is to produce the finest wool of good staple, which at the same time contains the 
maximum number of serrations per inch, and which has also the greatest 
waviness. 

Taking these things into consideration, together with the fact that such fine 
work cannot be done with the naked eye, we have started a series of examina- 
tions of wools under the microscope. The results of our investigations are 
contained in the following lines : — 

In examining wool under the microscope it is necessary to observe the 
following points, more especially if it is intended to make drawings of the wool 
examined, in order to find their relative thickness. 

1. — The same microscope fitted with the same power must be used for every 
examination. 

2. — The camera lucida must always be at the same angle and distance from 
the paper. 

We next come to the mounting — 

First of all it was necessary to find out what part of the wool to mount in 
order to get a good average thickness, as the wool has not the same thickness 
throughout. Youatt states that the wool produced in winter is thinner than 
that produced in summer, which may be accounted for by assuming that, as is 
generally the case, the sheep during that season had not sufficient food, which by 
affecting them would also affect the wool, causing it to become thin. 

Youatt states that the tip of the wool is thicker than the rest. This may 
also be accounted for in somewhat the same way, if we assume that after shearing 
the food was more plentiful than usual. It may also be accounted for by as- 
suming that the sheep being cold after shearing, nature exerted herself by 
increasing the rapidity of the wool growth in order to cover the shvjep quickly. 

After repeated examinations of different parts, namely, near the base, middle, 
and tip, we came to the conclusion that near the middle would give the best 
results, not only on account of its giving a fair average thickness of the whole 
staple, but also because portions taken from near the tip showed fewer and less- 
distinct serrations, probably through their having become worn off by the con- 
stant friction of the wool. 

We tried mounting in Canada balsam, chloroform, and in carbol-glycerine. 

The glycerine gave the best results, as the serrations were more pronounced ; 
the reason being that the refractive power of the Canada balsam is more like 
that of the wool than that of the glycerine. Canada balsam not mixing with 
water or alcohol, wool cannot be mounted direct from either of these, or it will 
be hidden by a cloud of opaque Canada balsam. Oil of cloves or chloroform will 
mix with Canada balsam, but not with water. Therefore, the water has to be 
<^ot rid of by washing in alcohol, and then the alcohol by washing in oil of cloves 
or chloroform, then from this the wool can be putjin Canada balsam. Glycerine 
mixing freely with water, the wool can be mounted in glycerine direct, after 
having been washed in water. For washing, alcohol, potash solution, or other 
substances can be used. 

We found alcohol the best, as potash is very liable to dissolve the serrations 
if used hot or at all too strong. We also tried to form a deposit of gold or silver 
in serrations, so that they might show more clearly. The solutions used were 
Ag. NO?, 1 per cent, solution, and also Au. CI3, 1 per cent, solution. We 
obtained the best results from the silver, leaving the wool in it about 15 seconds, 
and then washing. With the gold the results are not, as yet, satisfactory. 

In taking samples for examination they should be taken from the same part 
or parts of the sheep, as it will be found that at different parts of the animal the 
quality varies ; that from the shoulder differing widely from that found on the 
belly. In a few cases great irregularities were found in the thickness of a single 
fibre. 



GENERAL NOTES. 2? 

The thickness of the wool varies very much, the best Merino being about 
half as thick as Leicester. We hope to be able to work out tables showing the 
correlation of thickness, roughness, breed, and price. 



GENERAL NOTES 



Silphim:. — In No. n, page 516, I noticed a friendly little 
critique by a Mr. R. Helms. I daresay he thought I had written 
the condensed report to which he alludes. In my paper I stated 
that the group Silphidi© consisted for the most part of necrophagous 
beetles, but that remark applied to those found beyond New 
Zealand. The Silphidse is usually divided into Silphidae and 
Choleridae ; the latter section comprises chiefly small vegetable- 
feeding insects. I then stated that I could not give any accurate 
information as to the habits of the only New Zealand species 
( Necrophilus prolongatus ) that I did not possess. 

Thos. Broun. 
Howick, Auckland, 15th October, 1883. 



Breeding habits of the Torpedo.— I enclose herewith 
an extract from the " London Tablet," which may be of suffi- 
cient interest to find a place in your Journal. If one statement 
contained therein be true, namely, that the Mediteranean Torpedo 
Ray " drops its eggs when matured into the depths of the sea," 
then it must differ greatly from our variety, Torpedo Fairchildi, 
Hutton. Just two years ago I found on the beach at this place, 
and only just dead, a fine specimen of the last-named fish with 
a young one lying near it ; the larger fish was a female. I took 
her home to skin, and when doing so took from her five more 
young ones of the same size as the one found with her on the 
beach ; so it would appear that either the Roman Professor is 
in error about the dropping of the eggs by the European Torpedo, 
or our variety has a different method of reproducing the species. 
The young Torpedos mentioned above are now in the museums 
at Christchurch and Wellington, and the skin of the mother is 
still in my possession, but will be forwarded to Dr. Von Haast 

C. H. ROBSON. 

Portland Island, 21st Nov., 1883. 

" A zoological curiosity was not long since brought to light 
from the depths of a kettle in the renowned Trattoria della 
Rosetta. A scullion, washing dishes in the aforesaid kettle, felt 
between his hands a somewhat soft substance, which on drawing 
forth he found to be an oblong, roundish body, gelatinous, and 
yellowish in color, having at either extremity two slender white 
filaments furnished with scarcely perceptible radications. In 
the centre of this transparent body was a bluish mass of an 
utterly undefinable nature. The secretary of the establishment 



28 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

strongly recommending that the curious object should be con- 
signed to the Zoological Cabinet of the Roman University, it was 
wrapped in paper and forthwith despatched to the Director of 
the Cabinet, Professor Jasco, who upon first sight thereof nearly 
smothered the messenger in a frantic embrace, explaining his 
enthusiasm by the information that the object presented him 
was a true rarity yet wanting to the Cabinet, namely, an egg of 
the Torpedo or Electric Ray, vulgo Crampfish, of the Linnean 
genus raive. It seems that the Torpedo, once the egg is 
matured, drops it into the depths of the sea, where it is trans- 
formed into a fish ; however, it occasionally happens that in its 
fall it is swallowed by some large fish — in fact, an immense 
palomoho or dogfish, a great Roman delicacy, had been washed 
in that very kettle, which must have ejected the egg now pre- 
served in alcohol as a rare treasure for the zoological students 
of the Sapienza, and for the dilettanti in that science." — From 
Letter of Roman Correspondent of the London Tablet, dated 
August 4th, 1883. [The Torpedo is well known to be vivipar- 
ous. — Ed.] 

On Glossogyne (?) Hennedyi, R. Brown, Canterbury. 
— Mr. Brown's account of this plant in the last volume of the 
Trans. N. Z. I.* induced me to visit the locality in which he dis- 
covered it at the close of June last, when, notwithstanding its 
being midwinter, I had no great difficulty in finding flowering 
specimens between Taylor's Mistake and Godley Head. I was 
informed that it occurred in other places in the vicinity, but heavy 
rain and the approach of evening prevented me from making 
further search. Mr. Brown states that the plant differs from 
Glossogy7ic in the short peduncles, and the structure of the fruit. 
The first of these characters is of no importance. His descrip- 
tion of the fruit, however, shows that the plant is not a Glosso- 
gyne, but a Calotis, and examination of recent speciments proves 
it to be Colatis lappulacea, Benth. At Godley Head the plant is 
rather less than a foot in height, excessively branched, the 
branches interlacing so as to form a somewhat compact mass ; 
the flower-heads terminating the branches are produced in great 
profusion, and as they stand clear of the foliage present a showy 
appearance, which to some extent neutralises the effect of the 
inelegant habit. The achenes are arranged in spherical heads. 
There is, however, not the slightest ground for supposing the 
plant to be indigenous ; in fact, the occurrence of either Glosso- 
gyne or Colatis in any part of NewZealand is extremely improbable. 
At Godley Head our Colatis is directly associated with two other 
Australian plants, Plantago oaria Br. and Lagenoplwra emphy- 
sopus Hook. f. Within half-a-milc of the spot I found dead 
culms with imperfect flowers of a third species, probably Stipa 
setacea Br., but the material is insufficient to allow of positive 
identification, although quite sufficient to show that it does not 
belong to any indigenous plant. Further search under more 



* Trans. N. Z. I. vol. x., p. 259, 



GENERAL NOTES. 20, 

favourable conditions than those which marked my visit might 
result in the discovery of other introduced plants ; but, however 
that may be, at present Godley Head appears to be the only 
locality in the Colony in which four naturalised Australian plants 
occur within a limited area. Colatis lappulacea was observed in 
a naturalised condition in the Auckland provincial district as far 
back as 1 87 1, although the habitat has not been recorded. Lageno- 
phora emphysopus was observed in the Wellington district a few 
years back, when I supposed it to be indigenous. Its occur- 
rence on Banks' Peninsula under the conditions stated above 
proves this view to be erroneous. Plantago vecria is found in 
considerable quantity in several localities near Wellington. 
Stipa setacea has been observed by Mr. Petrie in two localities 
in the Otago district. T. KlRK. 

Wellington 24th October, 1883. 



New Introduced Plants. — In the report of the Canter- 
bury School of Agriculture for 1882-3 Mr. T. Kirk draws atten- 
tion to several foreign plants which have made their apperance. 
The most interesting introduction appears to be Cuscuta has- 
siaca, the Lucerne dodder, which made its appearance on the 
Californian Alfalfa in the early part of March, shortly after the 
crops had been mown. All the species of the genus Cuscuta 
are parasites belonging to the Convolvulaceae, and all undergo 
a remarkable degeneration in their growth. On germination 
the seed produces a terrestrial root and a leafless twining stem. 
This grows only for a short time till it comes into contact with lu- 
cerne or some other plant suitable as a host, when the slender stem 
speedily twines round it. By means of remarkable suckers de- 
veloped on the stem, the parasite now begins to suck the nourish- 
ment from the host, and it gives off branches in all directions, so 
that the adjacent stems of lucerne appear at first sight to spring 
from a tangled mass of yellow shreds lying on the surface of the 
soil. At the same time the terrestrial root perishes, while the 
parasite extracts the whole of its nourishment from the unfor- 
tunate host, which suffers a process of gradual exhaustion. An 
interesting point in connection with the plant at Lincoln is that 
on the whole it evidently prefers the nutritive juices of the wire- 
weed or knotgrass (Polygonum ariculare) to those of lucerne, 
many plants of this species being killed by it. The sorrel 
(Rumex acetosella) was also sparingly attacked, but the parasite 
could scarcely be said to flourish, as it rarely branched, and 
never developed flowers. Cuscuta kassiaca is a native of Central 
and Southern Europe, but is naturalised in California, from 
whence the seed sown at Lincoln was obtained. Very few of 
the seeds on the plants examined were found to be perfect, 
which Mr. Kirk thinks is due to the absence of insects capable 
of fertilising this specie's, which, further, is protandrous, the 
pollen being ripe before the stigmas of the same flowers were 
fully developed. Cuscuta epithymum var. trifolii y the clover 
dodder, has been partially naturalised in the Colony for some 



30 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

years past ; and in the Waikato has on several occasions 
seriously affected the yield of clover. The occurrence of C. 
Jiassiaca on sorrel and wire-weed is remarkable, as in Europe it 
has not been recorded as occurring on either of these plants, 
though it sometimes occurs on a sow-thistle (Sonchus asper) 
and on stinking May-weed {AntJiemis cotula) 

Datura Stramonium, or common Thorn-apple made its 
appearance among carrots and ripened a few seeds, but is not 
expected to become an established weed. 

Centaurea Calcitrapa, or Star thistle, has made its ap- 
pearance in one or two places in the vicinity of the school, 
chiefly by road sides. It occurs in great abundance at Akaroa, 
where it was probably introduced by the early French settlers. 
Though a handsome it is an obnoxious plant, the recurved 
pungent species of the flower-heads becoming readily en- 
tangled in the wool of passing sheep. 

Erigeron Canadensis, the American flea-bane, is becom- 
ing naturalised about Lincoln and Springston. Though often 
eaten by stock it is a coarse weed, and will probably be widely 
wind-spread over the Canterbury Plains. In neglected Maori 
cultivations in the vicinity of Hokianga it often attains the height 
of 5 or 6 feet, but in Canterbury rarely exceeds 18 inches. 



New Vegetable Fossils of the (Australian) Auri- 
ferous Drifts. — The second decade of this publication of the 
Geological Survey of Victoria has been forwarded to us by the 
author, Baron F. von Mueller. The ten coloured lithographs 
are accompanied by descriptions of the genera and species de- 
scribed. Among the interesting specimens described are fruit of 
RJiytidocaryou VVilkinsonii y found at Beneree at a depth of I io 
feet under basalt, and also between Carcoar and Orange, and re- 
ferred with certainty to the order Menispermaceae. The genus 
Illicites is founded for a fruit apparently very near that of the 
living star-anise (Illicium), and the occurence of this magnolia- 
ceous plant, allied as it is to the living Drimys of Australia, New 
Zealand, &c, is of particular interest. Conchocaryon smit/iii, 
from the pliocene drifts of Gulgong, would appear to belong to 
the Proteaceie. having an unsymmetrical fruit somewhat similar 
in external form to those of some Grevillias, but with the peri- 
carp thickened as in Hakea. Baron von Mueller is conspicuously 
careful in the determination of the relationships of these interest- 
ing fossil remains not to hurriedly jump at any conclusions. 
The specimens described are those chiefly of fruits, and carpolo- 
gical characters are usually of far more value for purposes of 
identification than those of leaves only, which, however, are the 
most abundant. No subjects exercise a more fascinating influ- 
ence over the biologist than the distribution of plants and ani- 
mals in present and past times, and the attempt to reconstruct 
the former land and water surfaces of our globe, and observa- 
tions such as those we have referred to, are of particular value 
in establishing these questions on a firm basis. G.M.T. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. $t 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES 



LINNEAN SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Sydney, 31st October, 1883.— C. S.Wilkinson, Esq., President* 
in the chair. 

New members — Messrs. K. R. Stuart and F. W. Hawkins. 

Papers — (1.) "Occasional Notes on Plants indigenous in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Sydney, No. 5," by Edward Haviland, 
Esq. In this paper the author treats of the peculiar construction 
of the flowers of Myrsine variabilis, a tree belonging to the order 
Myrsinece. He considers the plant to be self- fertilised, and to par- 
take largely of the nature of cleistogamic plants, which are closely 
fertilised — their flowers being so closed as to prevent the approach 
of any insect bearing pollen from other plants. 

(2) " Notes on the Temperature of the body of the Echidna 
hystvix^ by N. de Miklouho-Maclay. This is a detailed account 
of some experiments made by the writer at Brisbane in July, 
1879. He found, after observations carefully made on two 
occasions, that the average temperature of the body of the Echidna 
is 25deg. C, equal to 78deg. F., or very little more than thai of 
Fish, and about 25deg. F., under that of Mammals generally. 

(3.) " On the Plagiostomata of the Pacific, Part ii.," by N. de 
Miklouho-Maclay and William Macleay, F.L.S. The continuation 
of a paper by the same authors, written some years back on the 
genus Heterodontus. The present paper gives descriptions and illus- 
trations of a new species from Japan named Iietevodontus Japonicus. 

(4.) " Notes on some Reptiles from the Herbert River, Queens- 
land," by William Macleay, F.L.S. , &c. In this paper, after 
enumerating all the Reptilia contained in the collection sent to 
him by Mr. Boyd from the Herbert River, Mr. Macleay describes 
as new a Lizard, Tiaris boydii, and three snakes, Twpidonotus an- 
gtisticeps, Dendrophis bilorealis, and Herbertophis plumbeus, the latter a 
new genus allied to Coronella. 

(5.) " Notes on some customs of the Aboriginal tribes of the 
Albert District, New South Wales," by C S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., 
F.L.S., President. The President read some notes furnished him 
by Mr. W. H. J. Slee, the Government Inspector of Mines, regard- 
ing a singular ceremony which the aboriginal tribes of the Mount 
Poole district perform, when, as is often the case in that arid 
region, they need rain. Occasionally pieces of the fibrous variety 
of gypsum, Satinspar, are found by the natives, who highly value 
them and call them " rain-stones," for they believe that the Great 
Spirit uses them in producing rain. The President exhibited one 
of the " rain-stones " which had been secured by Mr. Slee, who 
witnessed the ceremony when performed two years ago by the 
Mount Poole and Mokley tribes. 

(6.) " On the Brain of Grey's Whale (Kogia Gveyi)" by William 
A. Haswell, M. A , B.Sc. The obtaining by the Australian Museum 



32 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

of a fresh specimen of Grey's Whale, in which the jaws had become 
too much splintered to allow of a complete skeleton being pre- 
pared, afforded the writer the opportunity of examining the brain, 
of which he gave a very full description with measurements. For 
comparison he had the brain of only one other species, viz., that 
oi the species of Delpkinus, common on the New South Wales 
coast. 

(7.) " On a New Genus of Fishes from Port Jackson," by Wm. 
Macleay, F.L.S., &c. This paper consists of the description ot a 
large fish taken a few days ago in a Seine net at Watson's Bay. 
It is of the family Cirrhitidce, and somewhat allied to the genus 
Chilodactylus. The generic name given to it is Psilocvaninm, from 
its naked head, and the specific name coxii, in honor of the Presi- 
dent of the Commissioners tor Fisheries of New South Wales. 
This fish was exhibited by Mr. Morton, Assistant Curator Aus- 
tralian Museum. 



Sydney, 28th November, 1883.— C. S. Wilkinson, Esq., F.G.S., 
F.L.S., President, in the chair. 

Papers — (1.) " Some fishes of New Britain and the adjoining 
islands," by Charles W. De Vis, B.A. The names of the new 
specimens described are : — Serramis perguttatus and cruentus, Meso- 
prion flavircsea, Tetaroge vestita, Acanthurus zebra, Rhynchichthys, nova 
britannicc, Harpage rosea (a new genus of the Berycidae), Salarias 
cequipinnis, Amphiprion Avion, Pomaccntvus onyx and iwtatus, Nesiotes 
puvpuvascens .(a new genus of the Labridre), Rxoccetus longibarba, A.rius 
armiger, Herpetichthys cobra (a new genus ot the Murenidae), Tetrodon 
insularium and Icevis. 

(2.) " Some results of Trawl fishing outside Port Jackson," by 
William Macleay, F.L.S., &c. In this paper are given — 1, an 
account of two trials of a large beam trawl in 40 to 50 fathoms 
water, by the order of the Commissioner of Fisheries ; 2, a list ot 
the fishes captured ; and 3rd, descriptions of two new species — a 
skate — Raia australis, and a Gurnard — Lepidotrigla mulhalli. Mr. 
Macleay considers the result promising on the whole. 

Baron Maclay read a note on the " Barometro Araucano " from 
the Chiloe Islands. He stated that this remarkable instrument 
had been shown to him among a number of other curiosities by 
C'aptain C. de Amezaga, of the Italian corvette " Caraciolo," who 
informed him that it was used by the natives of the Chiloe Islands 
as a kind of barometer to foretell the approach of either dry or 
wet weather. This " Barometro Aruacano," which consisted 
merely of the shell of a crab — pronounced by Mr. Haswell to be 
oue of the Anomura, probably of the genus Lithodes—is most 
peculiarly sensitive to atmospheric changes. In dry weather it 
remains nearly white, but, with the approach of moisture, small red 
spots appear on the shell, increasing in number and size with the 
increase oi humidity, until during the wet season it becomes com- 
pletely red. 

Mr. Macleay stated that he had been informed by Professor 
McCoy, that the large shark captured at Portland, Victoria, and 
which had been spoken of at last month's meeting of the Society, 
was the Selachc maxima, or Basking Shark of the Arctic Seas, 
and that the dimensions had been correctly reported. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 33 

ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Sydney, 7th November, 1883. — Mr. H. Russell in the chair. 

New Member. — Dr. W. S. Byrne. 

Paper. — (1.) " Irrigation in Upper India," by H. G. M'Kin- 
ney, M.E. 

The author describes the modes and results of irrigation as 
carried on in Bengal, the North-West Provinces, and the Punjab, 
with the object of drawing attention to the importance of the 
subject to the Australian Colonies. 



Sydney, 14th November. — Hon. J. Smith, C.M.G., president, 
in the chair. 

Paper. — (1.) " Tanks and Wells of New South "Wales, Water 
Supply, and Irrigation," by A. Pepys Wood. 



Sydney, 5th December, 1883. — Prof. Smith, C.M.G., president, 
in the chair. 

New Members— Messrs. W. H. Lane, J. Ridley, M.D., and 
W. Shellshear. 

Papers — (1) " Additions to the census of the genera of plants 
hitherto known as indigenous to Australia," by Baron F. von 
Mueller. 

Professor Liversidge exhibited a number of chalk flints, which 
had been brought by Dr. Guppy, of H.M.S. Lark, from the Solo- 
mon Islands. Some years ago Mr. Brown, the Wesleyan Mis- 
sionary, had brought irom New Britain a soft white limestone, 
which was quite undistinguishable from chalk, not only physically 
but chemically. It resembles the grey rather than the white chalk 
of England. These flints, in connection with the chalk, were very 
interesting. Some of them had apparently been chipped into im- 
plements. He also showed some fruits which had been taken from 
the crops of pigeons shot by Lieutenants Heming and Leefer on a 
small island off the south coast of St. Christoval. 

The president announced that that meeting concluded the 
business of the year. It was the intention of the Council to hold 
a conversazione in the month of May. Two years had now been 
permitted to pass without the annual gathering, but it was deter- 
mined not to allow this year to pass without it. 



PHILOSOPHICAL INSTITUTE OF CANTERBURY. 

ANNUAL MEETING. 

Christchurch, 1st November, 1883. — Prof. Hutton, president, 
in the chair. 

The Hon. Secretary read the annual report, of which the fol- 
lowing is an abstract : — 

" During the year (ending 31st October, 1883) nine ordinary 
meetings have been held, at which 30 papers have been read, viz., 
15 on zoology, 5 on botany, 1 on chemistry, 1 on geology, and 8 
on miscellaneous subjects. 

" During the year the Council has made a somewhat new de- 
parture in endeavouring to secure for each meeting a paper which, 
while making no pretensions to be an original contribution to 



34 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

science, introduces some subject admitting of discussion by the 
members generally. 

" Thirteen new members joined during the year, and the total 
number of members is now 161. Numerous additions have been 
made to the library. 

" The Council regret that during the year Mr. George Gray has 
been obliged to resign has position as HonorarySecretary, and 
while congratulating him on his promotion, desire to thank him 
for the energetic and efficient manner in which he has promoted 
the interests of the society during his term of office. The Hon. 
W. Rolleston has been chosen by the Council to vote at the elec- 
tion of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute. 
The balance-sheet shows total receipts for the year ^"190 17s 4d ; 
expenditure ^153 12s ; actual balance ^37 5s 4d ; balance in 
Savings Bank (life subscriptions) ^33 is ; total balance ^70 6s 

4 d." 

The following gentlemen were elected officers for the ensuing 
year : — President, Mr. R. W. Fereday ; Vice-presidents, Professor 
Hutton and Mr. John Inglis ; Treasurer, Mr. W. M. Maskell ; 
Secretary, Mr. C. Chilton ; Auditor, Mr. C. R. Blackiston ; Coun- 
cil : Messrs. H. R. Webb, G. Gray, G. Hogben, E. Dobson, T. 
Crook, and Dr. von Lendenfeld. 

The retiring President reviewed briefly the work of the past 
year, pointing out that the Council had thought it wise to depart 
trom the rule observed by similar societies in England, that no 
paper should be read unless it professed to add to present scien- 
tific knowledge, and to allow papers of wider interest to the public 
to be brought before the Institute ; and it was hoped that the 
continuation of this practice would tend to widen the usefulness 
of the Institute. He also mentioned that Mr. Nottidge had written 
from England to the Acclimatisation Society that he would send 
out some Humble bees in the cool chambers of the direct steam 
liners, and the bees might be expected to arrive in December. He 
then delivered an address on " The Origin of the Fauna and Flora 
of New Zealand." (See page 1). 



Christchurch, 15th November, 1883.— Mr. R. W. Fereday, 
President, in the chair. 

New member — Mr. R. Wilkin, jun. 

Papers — (1.) " On the Lower Gorge of the Waimakarin," by 
Professor F. W. Hutton. A low slate hill rises out of the Can- 
terbury Plains, between the Malvern Hills and Oxford ; the River 
Waimakariri flows through this hill, cutting it into two portions 
and forming a deep rocky gorge. It does not appear possible that 
the river could by itself have cut through the hill. The most 
probable explanation is that at some former period the shingle 
brought down by the rivers accumulated to a thickness of some 
50 or 70 feet higher than at present, and almost covered the hill. 
The river then running along its north-east base cut down through 
the shingle and into the solid rock. A period of depression follow- 
ing, the sea advanced over the Canterbury Plains, sweeping away 
the upper 50 or 70 feet, and reducing them to their present level ; 
the cut through the hill remaining as the estuary of the river. On 
the land being re-elevated, the river again cut down the present 
gorge. The movements of both subsidence and elevation must 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 35 

have been continuous and tolerably rapid, for there are no signs 
of any sea shingle to be found in the neighbourhood. 

Dr. von Lendenfbld asked if there was any evidence of old sea 
beaches in the neighbourhood. 

Mr. J. Inglis said that Starvation Hill was probably shingle. 
The Moeraki Downs were 900 feet high, and composed of beds of 
shingle and lignite, covered with vegetable soil. He could not un- 
derstand why they should remain if the sea had flowed over them. 

Professor von Haast did not wish to discuss the question, but 
could give some information. The Canterbury Plains had not 
been all formed at the same period, but the glaciers had advanced 
and retreated several times. The gravels on the Malvern Hills 
were brought from the Rakaia during the glacier period. The 
Waimakariri had at one time run much further north — by the 
Ashley. Before arriving at any conclusions it was necessary to 
study the whole course of the river at different times. The rocks 
of the Moeraki Downs belonged to the Pareora formation. 

Professor Hutton said he was not aware of any old sea beaches 
in the neighbourhood, but on the coast between Metanau and the 
Conway they could be traced to a height of about 300 feet. 

(2.) " Additions to the Sessile-eyed Crustacea of New Zealand," 
by Charles Chilton, M.A. This paper contained the descriptions 
of new species, notes, &c, as follows: — 

1. Apseudes latus, sp. no v. — A single specimen from Lyttelton 
Harbour. 

2. Jf antra longicauda, sp. nov, — Lyttelton Habour. 

3. Stenetrium fractuw, sp. nov. — A single (mutilated) specimen 
of this Australian genus was taken in Lyttelton Harbour. 

4. Cyamus ceti. — Three specimens found on whale (Euphysetes 
pottsii=Viagia breviceps of Northern hemisphere), and were kindly 
handed over to the author by Professor von Haast. They cannot 
be distinguished in any way from the species found in Europe. 

5. Podocevus longimanus, Wyvillea longimanus (Haswell), Podocevus 
cylindvicus, Kirk (not Say). — Specimens taken in Lyttelton un- 
doubtedly belong to the species Wyvillea longimanus, Haswell, but 
must be placed in the genus Podocevus, for Mr. Haswell's genus ap- 
pears to be founded on a misinterpretation of the homologies of 
the terminal pleopoda, and on the fact that he has seen males 
only — the very large second gnathopoda are characteristic of the 
males only, in the female they are quite small. These specimens 
from Lyttelton have been compared with specimens taken at Worser 
Bay by Mr. Kirk, and by him identified with Podocevus cylindricus, 
Say, which were kindly sent to the author by Mr. Kirk for com- 
parison. Though differing slightly, they are considered to belong 
to the same species, and to be distinct from Podocevus cylindricus, 
Say, though very near to that species. 

6. Tevaticum typicum, nov. gen. et sp. — First gnathopoda large 
subchelate, second long chelate, Lyttelton Harbour. 

7. Podocevus latipes, sp. nov. — Very near to P. fvequens, but having 
the fourth pair of pereiopoda much expanded. Lyttelton Harbour. 

8. Pavancenia, gen. nov. — Near to Ncenia, Spence Bate, but with 
secondary appendage to the upper antennce, and having the telson 
not divided, but ending posteriorily in conical projections. The 
following three species are described, differing chiefly in the form 
of the second gnathopoda — P. typica, sp. nor. P. dentifeva^Moera 



36 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

dentifcra Has well, and P. longimanus sp. nov., all from Lyttelton 
Harbour. 

9. Covophium Icndcnfcldi sp. nov. — Has short secondary appen- 
dage to upper antennae and the first gnathopoda simple, not sub- 
chelate. Lyttelton Harbour. 

10. Panoplcea translucens sp. nov. — Near to P. debilis, but differing 
in size, colour, form of the gnathopoda, and terminal pleopoda. 
Lyttelton Harbour. 

11. Bircenna fulvus nov. gen. et sp. — A small yellow amphipod, 
with broad body, coxce very shallow, gnathopoda alike, simple ; 
sixth segment ol pleon and its appendages rudimentary.' A tew 
specimens from Lyttelton Harbour. 

(3.) " On the occurrance of the Red Phalarope (Phalaropus 
fulicarius Pennant,) in New Zealand," by Professor J. von Haast. 
A single bird was shot out of a flock last July at Waimate, in 
South Canterbury, by Mr. Studholme. The specimen, which has 
been presented to the Museum, is in full summer plumage. 



OTAGO INSTITUTE. 

Dunedin, 13th November, 1883. — A Montgomery, Esq., Presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

New Members. — Drs. Bulau and de Zouche, Messrs G. P. 
Farquhar, L. V. Woods, and M. Watson, M.A. 

Papers— (1.) "On the Brown Trout," by W. Arthur, C.E. 

This paper gives the results of the last five years continued ob- 
servations on the growth habits and structure of trout, S. fario 
ansonii, in Otago waters. It goes into their distribution as affected 
by the geological formation of the country through which the 
rivers flow in which trout have been put, and also by the meteoro- 
logical conditions of these waters, and by the food supply ; while the 
latter part of the paper gives the colours and external markings, 
the form and the structure ot the fish as affected by our antipo- 
dean waters. One or two quotations may suffice as illustrations 
of interest to anglers or to naturalists. 

" The Kakanui River has for years been unprofitable so far as 
angling goes, but Br. de Latour, of Oamaru, and Mr. Statham 
Lowe, during last summer, had some wonderful sport in it with 
minnow, both natural and artificial. The former, fishing 'at night 
with natural minnow, had the following luck — December 3rd, 
1882, two trout, weights, I2jlbs. and 3lbs. ; and on the following 
night five trout, weights, I3lbs., 81bs., 7^1bs., 3lbs , and 3lbs., being 
seven trout altogether, weighing 50IDS., or the very extraordinary 
average of fully 7lbs. each ! The night of the 4th December was 
very dark when the Dr. was fishing, and the locality a mile and a- 
half above Maheno. He informed me that the trout were rising 
in all directions, and when he hooked his fish it took him from 
twenty minutes to an hour and a-half to land them, hooking his 
first at 9.15 p.m. and landing his last at 1.30 a.m. Of course 
anglers imagine the time very long when holding on to a big trout, 
the excitement and anxiety causing one's mind to measure the 
minutes by the intensity of their feelings, a thing which is, I fear, 
rather misleading. The fish weie all very fat and handsome, 
looking, but the Doctor found very little in their stomachs, only a 
lew bullies and shrimps, and he thinks they must have disgorged 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 37 

considerably from the length of time he had to play them with a 
very light rod. I have frequently observed, however, that the 
fattest trout when caught have very little or nothing in their 
stomachs, and it is a circumstance hard to explain. I have like- 
wise pretty often found a trout's mouth full on landing it, and its 
stomach also. When a trout is, further, hooked by the tongue or 
any fleshy part of the mouth it seems to close its jaws firmly as if 
in a vice, for I have seen them almost locked on landing them. 
On the other hand, when the hook gets among the branchial 
arches, or made fast to the gullet, I should expect vomiting to 
result, and I have seen this repeatedly in such circumstances. As 
to deducing an average per day from the number of trout and 
and of the weight from these two nights' fishing in the Kakanui, I 
feel convinced it is unnecessary, as the take was evidently very 
exceptional. 

" Ichthyologists teach that as regards the structure of fish, 
fresh water forms are distinguished by the absence of caeca, or, 
when present, the small number of these organs — while marine 
and migratory fish as a rule have numerous caeca. Now what evi- 
dence do our fario; give, or rather I should say, applying to our trout 
for such contribution as their limited circumstances can afford to 
our knowledge on this point, I cannot find that the theory is sup- 
ported as yet, our brown trout having as many caeca as sea trout. 
Neither is there evidence that the superabundance of food here 
has resulted in the rise of caeca during the past five years or pre- 
viously. By referring to my first paper of 1878, it will be seen 
that the mean number for all the trout examined was 48*3, while 
now the number is for females 47*3, and for males 487. Thus it is 
plain the normal average number of caeca is neither on the in- 
crease or the decrease m our waters — whatever may be said of 

their range varying Among eight female trout from 

various rivers, in weight from lib. to 2|lbs., the caeca ranged from 
33 to 55> with a mean of 42*5 in number ; and among fourteen 
females from 3lbs. to iolbs. in weight, the caeca ranged from 44 
to 61, with a mean number of 50*5. Now, Dr. Giinther's largest 
trout was 15 inches, which at Home means a trout of about the 
same age at any 2|-lb. trout, while the approximate mean number 
(42*5) of the caeca given by him, 38 to 47, is exactly the same as 
the mean number here for trout of the corresponding age. . . . 
And there is another principle which seems to have something 
to do with the number of these organs. The ca^ca of the trout 
which had 61 were unusually small, not over one inch in length, 
while those of trout having 40 to 46 were large — in the latter from 
half an inch to two and a-half inches long. If subsequent re- 
searches bear me out in these facts, then it will be tolerably evi- 
dent that while their number and size are exceedingly variable, 
there probably is a fixed relation between the extent of the ab- 
sorbing surface of the pyloncs and the weight or age of the trout 
itself." 

(2.) " Notes on Oleavia hectori" by D. Petrie, M.A. 

The author described the species in some detail, and gave a 
list of localities where it occurs in Otago. The plant forms an 
elegant shrub, suitable for hedges, and produces numerous clusters 
of small yellowish flower-heads, which are deliciously scented like 
ripe peaches. 



38 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

(3.) " Notes on genus Coprosma" by D. Petrie, M.A. 

(4.) " New species of Pycnogonidae," by G. M. Thomson, 
F.L.S. 

The paper describes two new species, Ammothea magniceps and 
Phoxichilidium obliquum, obtained in Lyttelton Harbour, and sent 
down to the author by Mr. C. Chilton and Dr. R. von Lendenfeld. 

The Secretary read the annual report, of which the following is 
an abstract : — 

Annual Report, 1883. 

At the commencement of the session the Council resolved to 
return to the practice of holding meetings regularly once a month 
instead of at irregular intervals, and in order to make the meetings 
more generally interesting to the public it was further resolved to 
confine the reading of original papers to alternate meetings, and 
to provide refreshments at the close of each meeting. 

In accordance with this resolution, meetings have been held on 
the second Tuesday of each month from May to November ; an 
additional meeting was held during the month of August, making 
altogether eight general meetings held during the session, includ- 
ing the present annual meeting. 

At three of these meetings seven original papers have been 
read, and four others are down for reading at the present meeting ; 
of these seven are on zoological subjects, three on botanical, while 
the eleventh treats on the proposed works for the Otago Harbour. 
Of the remaiinngfour meetings one was devoted to a conversazione, 
two to a discussion of the nationalization of land, and one to 
a discussion on techinical education. 

The Council has been glad to notice that the attendance at the 
meetings has been decidedly above the average. 

Arrangements were made at the beginning of the session for 
the delivery of two courses of popular Saturday evening lectures, 
but owing to various unforseen circumstances the arrangements 
broke down, and- the Council has been reluctantly compelled to 
abandon the lecture scheme for the present session. 

Fourteen new members have joined the Institute during the 
session, making the total number on the roll 190. 

The receipts of the session, including a balance from last year 
of ^27 6s., amount to ^"179 ns. ; the total expenditure has been 
^"178 3s. 5d, leaving a balance in hand of £1 7s. 7d. The 
Reserve Fund in the Post Office Savings Bank is now about 

The following gentlemen were elected office-bearers for the 
ensuing session : — 

President, D. Petrie, Esq., M.A. ; Vice-Presidents, A. Mont- 
gomery, Esq , and Prof. J. H. Scott ; Hon. Sec, Prof. T. J. Parker ; 
Hon. Treas. Jas. C. Thomson, Esq.; Auditor, D. Brent, Esq., 
M.A. ; Council — Profs. J. Mainwaring Brown and Ulrich, Dr. 
Hocken, Messrs. W. Arthur, F. Chapman, R. Gillies, and G. M. 
Thomson. 

The retiring president then read his annual address, from which 
we extract the following : — 

11 I. First, then, as to the difference between common and 
scientific observation. Knowledge in its first beginnings is of 
spontaneous growth ; it is forced on the mind rather than sought 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 39 

for by it. As Professor Huxley says : — ' In its earliest develop- 
ment knowledge is self-sown. Impressions force themselves upon 
men's senses whether they will or not, and often against their 
will. The amount of interest which these impressions awaken 
is detemrined by the coarser pains and pleasures which they carry in 
their train, or by mere curiosity ; and reason deals with the mate- 
rials supplied to it as far as that interest carries it, and no further. 
Such knowledge is rather brought than sought ; and such ratioci- 
nation is little more than the working of a blind intellectual 
instinct.' There can be no doubt that a large proportion of the 
ordinary man's knowledge is of this self-imposed and unsough t 
character ; and, so far as it is so, it cannot be regarded as the 
result of observation in the true sense of that term. But even 
when the knowledge advances to a higher stage, when the mind is 
consciously engaged in acquiring it, and puts forth some degree of 
effort in that direction, such effort is generally without any guiding 
principle, and the knowledge acquired is of the vaguest and most 
unsatisfactory description. This aimlessness is a marked character- 
istic of ordinary observation, and leads to a loose, fragmentary 
and disconnected knowledge of many things, but to no exact know- 
ledge of anything in particular. Moreover the observations so 
made are not only fragmentary, they are also comparatively with- 
out significance and value. In order that observed facts may have 
their proper meaning and importance, they must be] seen in their 
relations to each other, and to some general notion which com- 
bines and gives unity to the whole. In the light of this central 
idea every tact becomes full of meaning, whereas without such an 
idea facts are of little or no scientific value. Hence the compara- 
tive worthlessness, from a scientific point of view, of the numerous 
facts of all kinds which are accumulated by common observation. 
Such facts may, no doubt, be of great value in many ways ; they 
may be even taken by the scientist and turned to a scientific use, 
but as regards the observer himself, they are in no sense scientific 
facts. So also children may be taught to use their eyes and other 
senses in observing the qualities and properties of objects, and 
this is a most important part of education, tending to the forma- 
tion and strengthening of a most valuable habit, but to call such 
observation scientific, displays, to my mind, a gross misconception 
of what scientific observation means. No observation that deals 
merely with isolated facts can be properly called scientific. It 
matters not how numerous and minute the observed phenomena 
may be, so long as they are seen only as disconnected facts having 
no necessary relation to each other. The observer must, in my 
opinion, have some object in view, and all his observations must 
be directed towards that end. There must be some general idea, 
some law, or at least some hypothesis, which stands out asaguiding 
principle, and gives direction and significance to every observation 
made. 

" But, further, common observation is generally hasty and in- 
discriminating. Sufficient care is not taken to analyse and test 
apparent facts, and hence hasty and erroneous inferences are often 
accepted as undoubted facts of observation. For thousands of 
years men believed that the earth was the centre of the universe ; 
and that, while all the heavenly bodies revolved round it in twenty- 
four hours, it remained fixed on solid and immovable foundations. 



40 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

That the earth was so fixed and steadfast, and that the sun, moon, 
and stars ran their daily course round it, were regarded as facts 
clearly established by the testimony of every man's senses, and 
therefore beyond the possibility of doubt or cavil. At the present 
time, however, it is mere common-place to say that the alleged 
facts are not facts at all, that they never were facts attested by 
the senses, but false inferences hastily drawn from sense impres- 
sions in themselves perfectly trustworthy. This shows the great 
danger of taking appearances for facts, which is one of the com- 
monest vices of ordinary observation. 

" Let me now contrast with this the observation of the men of 
science. And first, the scientific observer has a definite object in 
view, and every observation he makes has some relation to the 
proposed end. In this way his facts are full of meaning, being 
seen in their relation to one another and to the whole system of 
which they form a part. They are no longer regarded as isolated 
and unconnected phenomena, but as being naturally related and 
forming necessary parts of one organic whole. The observer is 
penetrated by a firm conviction of the supremacy of law and order, 
and every new fact is to him peculiarly significant, tending as it 
does to confirm his anticipation, or suggesting some necessary 
limitation or modification. He has tully grasped the important 
idea of variety in unity ; and this idea, ever present with him, 
gives a meaning and value to observed facts, of which the unscien- 
tific mind can form no adequate conception. 

11 But again, the man ot science is very careful as to what he 
admits as tacts. He, therefore, submits apparent facts to the most 
rigorous scrutiny, and for this purpose employs aids and appli- 
ances, which the ordinary observer never dreams of. All complex 
facts must undergo caretui analysis in order to separate what is 
original and necessary from all that is adventitious and acquired 
Judgments regarding the eternal world and all the objects of sense 
are peculiarly liable to be of a mixed and complex character ; and 
it is an important function of analysis to separate the pure, simple, 
sense impressions from the associations and inferences which 
gradually gather round them, and with which they are too apt to 
be confounded. The ordinary man believes that he sees the sun 
moving round from east to west, that what he feels as heat is in 
the sun or the fire, that colour is in the flowers, and that the 
pleasant taste aud odour are undoubtedly in the apple. The man 
of science, on the other hand, submits the so-called facts to a 
rigorous examination ; he analysis, discriminates, and distinguishes, 
and thus arrives at the conclusion that the popular belief is not 
in accordance with existing facts. 

"II. In the next place I would ask your attention to the dif- 
ference between ordinary and scientific knowledge in regard to the 
classification of objects. This process is original and fundamental, 
and is therefore common to all knowledge. Things in order to be 
known at all must be distinguished from those that differ from 
them, and must be assimilated to those of a like kind. The ex- 
tent to which the grouping or classifying of objects and giving 
them proper names has been carried out in the ordinary knowledge 
of mankind is very striking. As evidence of this we have only to 
look at a few of the general or common names used in our every- 
day speech. Each of these names as you are aware is the distin- 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 4 1 

guishing mark, not of an individual, but ot all objects of the same 
kind. The flowers of the field and of the garden were arranged 
into groups or kinds long before there was a science of Botany — 
a tact which is sufficiently attested by the existence in our lan- 
guage of such names as daisy, buttercup, rose, lily, and so forth. 
In like manner the name oak, ash, fir, palm, &c, bear witness 
that the trees also were grouped and classified according to their 
kind, and if we turn to the animal kingdom we find that the same 
process has been going on there anterior to, and altogether inde- 
pendent oi, any notion of a science of Zoology. Take for example 
such names as ox, sheep, horse, dog, lion, each a general name 
for all animals of the same species. Nor was this instinctive 
grouping confined to the arranging of things into species or lowest 
kinds ; the process, though loosely and unsystematically, was car- 
ried upward by combining species into larger groups, and then 
again into still larger, till the widest possible was reached. This 
will be sufficiently evident if we compare the meaning of the 
words — palm, tree, vegetable, thing, or of these — tiger, beast-of- 
prey, animal, living-creature, being. Enough has been said, how- 
ever, to show that the process of classification, which is one of the 
main functions of science, is also the most essential feature of 
ordinary knowledge, and that its results have been embodied in the 
language of every-day life. But though this is true and well 
worthy of being noted, there is a wide difference between such 
classification and that which is effected by the man of science. In 
the first place the classification of natural objects by ordinary men 
is for the most part spontaneous and instinctive — a natural growth 
rather than the result of a conscious purpose. 

<J Hence men generally have classified objects in a loose, super- 
ficial way, and by means of the most obvious and striking resem- 
blances. On this point Professor Hentrey in his course of Botany 
sa y S ; — < But there is a great difference practically between the 
kinds of things accepted in the ordinary affairs ot life and the 
kinds admitted in science, more especially in Biological science . . 
The notion of a genus like that of a species, is not only common 
to all departments of human knowledge, but is also existent in the 
language of common life in its special natural history sense, only 
requiring for scientific purposes to be more strictly defined. In 
every language we find generic names applied to plants, such as 
willow, rose, violet, and a hundred others, each of which terms is 
indicative of a group or kinds or species, more or less extensive 
in different cases, corresponding exactly in its logical value to the 
genus of the botanist. Some of these groups are characterised by 
very striking peculiarities, so that even the genera of vulgar lan- 
guage corresponded very nearly with those of the botanist ; but 
in the generality of cases the popular collective names are applied 
on superficial grounds of resemblance, and include widely diverse 
species. For example, the term violet is made to bind together 
not merely the common scented and other true violets, but the 
Dane's violet (Hesperis), a plant of the cabbage family, the Cala- 
thian violet (Gentiana Pneumonanthe), a true and characteristic Gen- 
tian, the dog's tooth violet (Erythronium Dens-Canis), a plant of the 
lily iamily, &c. ; while the term rose is extended from true roses to 
Cisti, or rock-roses, rhododendrons, Alpine roses, &c. It is ob- 
vious here that there can be no near ' blood relationship,' if we 



42 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

may so term it, between these so-called roses, &c. The classifica- 
tion of all these forms having only superficial resemblance to each 
other is a purely artificial classification.' I have quoted this passage 
as affording very good examplesof the superficial character of popu- 
lar classification in regard to plants ; the following will serve the 
same purpose in regard to animais. Professor Nicholson in his 
Manual of Zoology writes : — ' The excellence of any given classi- 
fication will depend upon the nature of the points which are taken 
as determining the resemblance. Systems of classification, in 
which the groups are founded upon mere external and superficial 
points of similarity, though often useful in the earlier stages of 
science, are always found in the long run to be inaccurate. It is 
needless, in fact, to point out that many living beings, the structure 
ot which is fundamentally different, may nevertheless present such 
an amount of adaptive external resemblance to one another, that 
they would be grouped together in any ' artificial ' classification. 
Thus, to take a single example, the whale, by its external charac- 
teristics, would certainly begrouped among the fishes, though widely 
removed from them in all the essential points of its structure.' 
Look now at the classification of the strictly scientific kind : — 
' Natural ' systems ot classification, on the other hand, endeavour 
to arrange animals into divisions founded upon a due considera- 
tion of all the essential and fundamental points of structure, wholly 
irrespective of external similarity of form and habits. Philoso- 
phical classification depends upon a due appreciation of what con- 
stitutes the true points of difference and likeness among animals ; 
and we have already seen that there are morphological type and 
specialisation of function. Philosophical classification, therefore, 
is a formal expression of the facts and laws of Morphology and 
Physiology.' The above extract, although specially applicable to 
the classification of animals, may be taken as a fair expression of 
the principles of scientific classification generally. 

" In the second place there is a great difference between popu- 
lar and scientific classification, in that the former is, at best, only 
partial and incomplete, while the latter is thorough, exhaustive, 
and complete. Under the promptings of a natural tendency, men 
grouped objects into larger or smaller classes in a sort of rough-and- 
ready way, according to superficial resemblance, and it is found 
that a very large proportion of the lower, and a few of the higher 
groups, correspond in value to the species and genera of Biology. 
But such correspondence is rather accidental than intentional. 
No one will imagine that in forming things into groups, there was 
in the minds of ordinary men any clear idea of method and system, 
anydistinctnotion of a gradation of groups, or of a definite scheme of 
co-ordination and subordination systematically carried out through 
the whole field of inquiry. Things were fairly arranged so far as 
regards the lowest groups or species, but above this all was loose, 
vague, and ill-defined. Scientific classification, on the other hand, 
proceeds on a well-defined plan, and is exhaustive and complete. 
In Biology, for example, individuals are arranged into species, 
species into genera, genera into families or orders, orders into 
classes, and these into sub-kingdoms and kingdoms, thus affording 
an exhaustive and systematic scheme of the entire life of our 
planet. 

"III. In the third place, let me contrast the procedure of 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 43 

ordinary men with that of men of science in regard to the tracing of 
events to their causes. The endeavour to find out the causes of 
things, and of the countless changes which are occuring around 
us, is not peculiar to the men of science, but is common to man 
as man. Men cannot be satisfied with the mere knowledge that 
what they perceive is now so and so ; a further question forces 
itself upon the mind, and imperatively demands an answer — viz., 
whence have they arisen — how have they come to be what they 
are ? This is not a question first raised by men of science, it 
springs spontaneously in the breast of every man, even the child 
often putting questions regarding the causes and origin of things, 
which are very hard to answer. But while ordinary minds are 
eager enough in demanding an answer to such questions, they 
have in all ages been too prone to form hasty conclusions, as well 
as to accept too readily whatever answer might be given them, 
In this connection it would be interesting to glance at the various 
accounts given of the origin of things in different ages, and by the 
different races of mankind, and to note the extreme readiness with 
which the unscientific mind will invent explanations and accept 
with implicit confidence the agency of beings that never existed. 
Such a subject, however, is manifestly too wide to be taken up on 
the present occasion. I shall, therefore, confine myself to a few 
instances serving to illustrate the fact that ordinary minds are both 
too hasty in assigning the causes of observed phenomena, and too 
ready to accept as causes things that have no connection with 
the event. Thus, eclipses of the sun and moon were long regarded 
as portents of evil, and sure signs of the displeasure of the gods. 
When winds blew loud and fierce, it was believed that ^Eolus, the 
god of storms, had released from their rocky prison-house Eurus 
andNotus, Africus and Boreas to spread ruin and desolation oversea 
and land. The motions of the heavenly bodies were explained in a 
similar way. Sun, moon, and stars were gods or goddesses, or 
the souls of departed heroes raised to the rank of demigods and 
admitted to a place among the immortal inhabitants of the skies. 
But there is no need to go to Mythology for instances of causes 
hastily and irrationally assumed. Two centuries have not yet 
elapsed since the belief in witchcraft was almost universal in 
Britain. Violent storms, shipwrecks, deaths, sudden illness among 
men or cattle, and misfortunes of every kind, were attributed to 
the agency of some unfortunate individual who was believed to 
have mysterious dealings with the prince of darkness. In Britain 
and New England hundreds of innocent, helpless victims were 
burned at the stake through this pernicious and senseless delu- 
sion. The last case of the kind in Britain occurred as late as 
1722. And, have we not at the present day in the so-called phe- 
nomena of spiritualism a notable example both of the undiscrimi- 
nating manner in which appearances are accepted as facts, and of 
the hasty, unreasoning way in which causes^ are assumed by the 
multitude ? Tylor, in his ' Primitive Culture,' says : — ' The re- 
ceived Spiritualistic theory belongs to the philosophy of savages. 
As to such matters as apparitions or possessions, this is obvious ; 
and it holds in more extreme cases. Suppose a wild North Ameri- 
can Indian looking on at a spirit-seance in London. As to the 
presence of disembodied spirits, manifesting themselves by raps, 
noises, voices, and other physical actions, the savage would be 



44 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

perfectly at home in the proceedings ; for such things are part and 
parcel of his recognised system of Nature.' 

11 Once more, it is only in cases when the connection between the 
event and its cause is obvious and immediate that true causes can 
be detected by unassisted common sense. Wherever causes are 
numerous and complicated, or where they are remote from the 
observed event, it is clearly beyond the power of ordinary, un- 
aided intelligence to discover them. For example, the true causes 
of eclipses of the sun or moon, of the tides and ocean currents, 
of the seasons, of the fact that water cannot be raised by the 
common suction pump more than about 32 feet above the level of 
its surface, lay quite beyond the reach of ordinary minds, and 
could only be brought to light after long and earnest scientific 
research. 

11 Now in no other point does the procedure of science stand 
out in more marked and decided contrast to that of ordinary 
knowledge than in this matter of the search of causes. Instead 
of the hasty assumption of causes, we have the patient, laborious, 
and persevering researches of the scientific student ; instead of 
accounting for natural phenomena by assuming the existence of 
purely imaginary beings, the bcientific investigator patiently inter- 
rogates nature, and will have nothing to do with any agencies ex- 
cept such as are known to have a real existence. They must be 
what Newton called vera caused, actual existences, not fictions of 
the imagination. Hence, as the light of science advances the 
hosts of gods and goddesses, n\mphs and naiads, nereids and 
dryads, which were supposed to preside over and regulate all 
movements and changes in heaven or on earth, pass away into 
oblivion, just as ghosts were said to vanish at the first dawn of 
day. Finally on this point, instead of knowing such causes only as 
are obviously and immediately connected with the event, science 
persists in tracing them out, even where they are most intricate 
and remote. The man of science gradually rises from more imme- 
diate causes to those that are more remote and general, and never 
rests until he has reached the widest possible generalisation. ' A 
general law,' says Dr. Alex. Bain, ' places us at a commanding 
height, where, by one glance, we can survey a wide array of facts. 
The law of Gravity, the law of the Persistence of Force, the law 
of Definite Proportions in Chemistry, the law of Relativity in 
Mind, — severally comprehend thousands of individual affirma- 
tions.' The discovery ol such laws — laws that will account for an 
immense number of particular facts, is one of the main objects of 
scientific research, and the success already achieved not only does 
honour to the genius and perseverance ot scientific workers, but 
also bears ample testimony to the dignity and greatness of the 
human intellect. 

" IV. The last point in which I would ask you to contrast 
science with ordinary knowledge, is their respective power of pre- 
dicting future events. As the power of prevision must depend on 
an exact knowledge of natural laws and sequences, it will be 
readily seen from what has just been said that science must possess 
this power in a much higher degree than ordinary knowledge.. 
First, the predictions of science are distinguished by much greater 
definitiveness and precision. The chemist, for example, can tell 
not only the kind of effect which will necessarily follow from the 



NEW ZEALAND LARENTIM. 45 

combination of certain elements, but also, in many cases, the exact 
amount. So also the mathematical physicist having before him 
certain movements, can tell the precise direction and amount of 
the moving forces, and conversely having given the direction and 
the amount of the forces acting upon a body, he can predict with 
certainty the direction and amount of the resulting motion. 

" Second, science can detect and tell beforehand many results, 
which, being of a remote and abstruse character, are entirely be- 
yond the reach of ordinary knowledge. Even savages could fore- 
tell that sufficiently rapid friction in certain circumstances would 
produce fire ; but very delicate scientific instruments and experi- 
ments were necessary before it could be predicted that the me- 
chanical force exerted by a body weighing 772lbs., in falling 
through a foot of space, would raise the temperature of a pound of 
water exactly one degree Fahrenheit . 

" Third, the superiority of scientific prevision appears also in 
this, that its predictions extend to events that are to be realised 
only in the far distant future. One has only to think of the transit 
of Venus, or of the eclipses of the sun calculated to the precise 
moment for hundreds of years to come, in order to realise the vast 
difference between the predictions of Astronomy and those of un- 
aided common sense. It is true that few of the sciences can as 
yet rival Astronomy in their power of prevision ; but as this power 
increases in proportion as they attain scientific perfection, we 
have reason to expect that some of the sciences, at present in a 
comparatively backward state, may yet be able to give forth their 
predictions with a definiteness and certainty not far inferior to the 
predictions of Astronomy." 



NEW ZEALAND LARENTID^E. 



BY ALEX. PURDIE, B.A. 



Part II. 

As it is some time since the first part of this paper appeared, 
it may be well to repeat here that this is not an attempt to 
classify the Larentidae, but is a compilation of the descriptions 
of the various species. 

Larentia infantaria, Guen. — The smallest of the Larentiae, 
and does not exceed a Eupithecia in size. All the wings are 
silky, grey, very slightly greenish, the fringes concolorous ; 
superior traversed by many fine sinuated and toothed lines, the 
two most evident of which border the median space, which in- 
cludes two others and a dot ; behind this space the nervures are 
dotted with black and pale ; inferior a little paler, unicolorous 
above with traces of lines beneath. Body grey, without mark- 
ings. Palpi sensibly produced beyond the head and forming a 
blunt triangular beak. Antennae filiform, but I think the speci- 
men before me is a female. 

This seems to come very near Larentia invexata, Walk. 

Larentia diffusaria, Walk. — Female dark cinereous, somewhat 



4$ JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 

stout. Palpi rather stout and pilose, extending somewhat be- 
yond the head. Forewings with four black dentate somewhat 
diffuse bands, which are more or less bordered with pale cinere- 
ous ; first and second bands incomplete between the base and 
the exterior band ; exterior band parallel to the interior one 
sub-marginal line zig-zag, pale cinereous. Hind-wings without 
markings. Body 3 lines ; wings 9 lines. 

Larentia punctilineata, Walk. — Cinereous brown. Antennas 
of the male pectinated. Forewings with several alternate cine- 
reous and blackish denticulated lines ; veins with white points, 
which form four lines, the fourth sub- marginal ; discal mark 
transverse, elongated, black, cinereous bordered ; discal point 
and marginal lunules black. Hind-wings paler and with some 
indistinct cinereous denticulated lines. Body 3-4 lines ; wings 
10-12 lines. 

Larentia quadristrigata, Ws\k.=:(Larentia inter clnsa. Walk). 
— Female cinereous. Palpi porrect. obtuse, extending much be- 
yond the head and as long as its breadth. Wings with blackish 
marginal lunules. Fore-wings slightly rounded at the tips, with 
several brown denticulated lines, and with two whitish bands, 
each of which is bordered and interlined by three blackish lines ; 
first band dentate, second denticulate ; submarginal line whitish 
zigzag ; costa and exterior border convex. Hind-wings with 
the second band and the submarginal line indistinctly marked. 
Body 2>}4, lines ; wings 10 lines. 

Larentia lucidata, Walk. — Female cinereous-brown. Palpi 
extending somewhat beyond the head. Wings with black mar- 
ginal lunules. Fore-wings with many oblique, nearly straight, 
but slightly denticulated brown lines, some of which are mostly 
blackish and form two bands ; second band with a yellowish 
tinge on most of its fore-half ; submarginal line whitish, denticu- 
lated ; costa and exterior border almost straight. Hind-wings 
paler, with indistinct lines. Body 3j^ lines ; wings 11 lines. 

Larentia infusata y Walk. — Female cinereous-brown. Palpi 
short. Fore^wings acute, with several cinereous denticulated 
lines, which are most distinguishable on the veins ; submarginal 
line cinereous, zigzag ; costa slightly convex ; exterior border 
slightly excavated in front. Hind-wings cinereous, without 
lines. Body 3 lines ; wings 9 lines. 

Larentia ? heliacaria, Guenee. — The fore-wings are of a some- 
what uniform wood brown, crossed by four yellowish white 
bands, of which the two middle are scarcely larger but are more 
strongly angulated. The hind-wings are of a dull yellowish 
colour, clouded with brown at the edges, with two bands shew- 
ing up on the latter colour. The undersides of both wings have 
a dot, a band, and a subterminal cloud all blackish. The female 
is similar but somewhat lighter. 

Larentia subductata. Walk. — Female, dull olive-green. Palpi 
extending a little beyond the head. Thorax with a few black 
speckles. Fore-wings with several denticulated black lines, some 
of which are shaded by black speckles and form two bands ; the 



NEW ZEALAND LARENTID^. 47 

first band near the base, less than half the breadth of the second 
which is in the middle, and is dilated and angular on the outer 
side, and contains a small transverse black discal mark ; mar- 
ginal space speckled with black, containing the cinereous zigzag 
submarginal line ; marginal points black, minute ; costa and 
exterior border straight, the latter rather oblique. Hind-wings 
cinereous without lines. Body 3 lines ; wings 10 lines. 

Coremia rosearia, Doubl. — Exp. alar. 1 unc. Anterior wings 
pale brown, tinged with rosy purple, fuscescent at the base ; this 
portion bounded by a waved fuscous striga. Before the middle 
is a waved transverse fuscous band, and a similar but broader 
one beyond the middle ; both less defined near the margins of 
the wing, appearing composed of three coalescing strigae. Be- 
yond these are a few scattered blackish dots, chiefly on the ner- 
vures and outer margin, and in some individuals there is a slight 
fuscous cloud near the apex. Disc with a small black crescent. 
Posterior wings pale, with an indistinct transverse striga across 
the disc. 

Coremia pastinaria is set down by Mr. Butler as a synonym, 
but the above description does not at all apply to the insect I 
identify as C. pastinaria. Coremia rosearia seems nearer to Cor. 
ypsilonaria and ardnlaria. 

Coremia plnrimata, Walk. — Female cinereous fawn-colour. 
Palpi short, broad, rostriform. — Wings with numerous slightly 
undulating and denticulated brownish lines ; submarginal line 
pale cinereous, indistinct, nearly straight ; marginal line black, 
composed of lunules. Forewings acute ; middle band blackish 
cinereous, rather narrow, with black nearly parallel and slightly 
undulating borders, including a minute, black, discal streak ; 
costa slightly convex ; exterior border straight, rather oblique. 
Body 4 lines ; wings 12 lines, 

Coremia casta, Butl. — Allied to Cor. squalida, but in the 
primaries reminding one of Larentia {L. parallelaria) ; wings 
above white, slightly yellowish on the veins ; primaries with 
three narrow basal bands, a broad central belt, and two narrow 
external bands, all with more or less undulated margins, dark 
brown traversed by pale undulated lines ; a slender brown line 
on each side of the central belt ; a black disco-cellular stigma ; 
a marginal series of linear black dots in pairs ; secondaries grey, 
crossed in the middle by four externally white bordered lines in 
pairs, the third line dentate-sinuate and dotted with black ; a 
submarginal dentate-sinuate white line ; body greyish-brown, 
banded with white ; under surface white-brown, with slightly 
yellowish veins ; the markings of the upper surface dimly visible 
and uniform on all the wings, so that the whole basal area to the 
centre of the disk is grayish, and a band of the same colour 
crosses the wings half-way between the latter and the outer mar- 
gin ; discocellular and marginal dots black. Expanse of wings 
1 inch 1 line. 

Coremia robustaria, Walk. — Male cinereous. Body brownish. 
Palpi short, broad, pilose, slightly rostriform. Antennas short 



48 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

rather broadly pectinated. Wings with indistinct, brownish, 
denticulated lines ; submarginal line pale cinereous, zigzag ; mar- 
ginal space brownish ; marginal line slight, blackish, festooned, 
Forewings with a dark brown oblique middle band, which is 
slightly denticulated along the outer side and contains two or 
three blackish lines. Body 4 lines ; wings 1 1 lines. 

Qorcmia ? indicctata, Walk. — Female dull fawn-colour, slen- 
der. Palpi obtuse, slightly ascending, extending somewhat be- 
yond the head. Antennas rather stout. Wings rather small. 
Forewings somewhat obtuse at the tips ; interior line black, 
slender, oblique, nearly straight, hardly denticulated ; a black 
exterior discal streak ; costa and veins slightly marked with 
black ; submarginal line pale cinereous, zigzag ; marginal line 
black ; exterior border slightly convex, very oblique. Hind- 
wings cinereous, with traces of lines along the interior border ; 
exterior border slightly truncated in front and hindward. Body 
41^ lines ; wings 10 lines. 

It hardly belongs to Coremia. 

Cidaria bulbnlata, Guen. — I have seen only the female, which 
is one of the smallest of the genus, but the male is no doubt 
larger. Superior wings wood-brown, varied with pale and dark ; 
the fringe concolorous, preceded by small geminated black dots; 
there are four white lines, the two first parallel and somewhat 
angulated, the third forming a band divided by an interrupted 
white thread and followed by another very slender brownish line, 
the fourth simple, continuous, and slightly shaky ; no sub-apical 
line ; inferior wings dark ochreous yellow without any line, and 
simply with black terminal markings ; underside of all the wings 
ochreous yellow, without any markings except that on the in- 
ferior there is a little cellular dot, and a series of very small and 
distant black dots. Abdomen grey, with several black atoms. 
Hardly 26 mm. 

Cidaria plagifurcata, Walk. — Male, brown. Palpi broad, 
short, rostriform. Antennas hardly pubescent. Wings with a 
black marginal line. Fore-wings subfalcate, much produced, 
very acute, with a few blackish slightly denticulated lines ; costa 
with indications of several other lines ; middle space whitish, in- 
cluding in front a brown black-lined patch, which is very deeply 
indented on the outer side ; submarginal line whitish, slightly 
zigzag, partly obliterated ; exterior border straight, very oblique. 
Hind-wings pale yellowish fawn colour, with indications of 
brownish lines along the interior border. Body 6 lines ; wings 
18 lines. 

( To be continued.) 



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MARCH, 1881] 



THE 

NEW ZEALAND 



[No. 2, Vol. II. 



Ml 01 II 




DEVOTF D TO THE FURTHERANCE OF 
PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE THROUGHOUT THE COLONY. 



Judicio perpende : et si fibi vera videntur 

Dede manus : aut si falsum est, adcingere contra. 



CONTENTS : 

Bacteria. By Prof. T. Jeffery Parker 

The Decrease of the Maori Race. By Dr. Buller, C. M. G. , F. R. S. 

The New Zealand Institute. By Geo. M. Thomson, F.L.S. 

New Zealand Larenticbe. By Alex. Purdie, B.A. 

A List of the Hymenoptera of New Zealand. By W. F. Kirby ... 

General Notes — 

Endowment of Scientific Research— Plants Suitable for Cultivation in N.Z.- — College of Agri- 
culture, Lincoln. — -The Rabbit Pest. — New Zealand University,— Degrees in Science. — ■ 
Bicentenary of Bacteria. — International Forestry Exhibition. — Notes from Lake Te Anau — 
Hieracidea Novae-zealandiaa aid H. brunnea, — Dr. R. von Lendenfeld. — Royal Society of 
New South Wales. — Sceloglaux albifacies (Laughing Owl). — Synonymy of N. Z. Geomet- 
rina. — Subterranean Crustacea. 

Meetings of Societies— 

Linnean Society of New South Wales — Wellington Philosophical Institute — Philosophical In- 
stitute of Canterbury. 

Phylogeny of the Higher Crustacea. By W. K. Brooks 



PAGE 

49 
55 
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65 

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Vol. II., No. 2, MARCH, 1884.] 



BACTERIA* 



A handful of hay infused in hot water produces a brown 
fluid closely resembling tea, and, if strained through muslin or 
blotting paper, perfectly clear and limpid. If a drop of this hay 
infusion be examined under the microscope, it is found to be free 
from life — indistinguishable indeed from a drop of pure water. 
But if a glassful of the fluid be set aside, it is found speedily to 
alter its character. In a few days — two or three in summer, 
longer in winter — it becomes slightly turbid ; soon the turbidity 
increases and a scum forms on the surface ; the scum thickens, 
breaks up, and fall in shreds to the bottom, and the fluid gradu- 
ally becomes clear once more. 

Any other infusion of either animal or vegetable matter — tea, 
cabbage-water, mutton-broth, the water in which fish has been 
boiled — will be found to undergo similar changes ; turbidity al- 
ways ensues in a short time, then a scum forms on the surface, 
and finally, after a longer or shorter interval, the fluid clears again. 
But for purposes of study, hay-infusion has one great advan- 
tage, — during the whole series of changes, the smell arising 
from it is very slight, whereas in the case of all animal and many 
vegetable infusions, the whole period of turbidity is distinguished 
by a horrible odour of putrefaction. The appearances I have 
described in the hay-water are, in fact, the normal optical effects 
of putrefaction in an organic fluid. 

Suppose now that a drop of turbid hay-infusion is examined 
under the microscope — one magnifying 400 or 500 diameters is 
necessary. The sight is enough to form an epoch in the life of 
anyone seeing it for the first time, and indeed even a hardened 
microscopist can scarcely behold it without renewed wonder. 

In the small space — a circle of about one-fiftieth of an inch 
in diameter — forming the " field " of the microscope, one sees 
thousands of tiny specks rushing about in all directions, knock- 
ing against one another, tumbling over and over, and altogether 
performing the maddest dance imaginable. These specks are 
Bacteria. 

Let us now concentrate our attention on a single Bacterium, 
and find out something of its characters. Each consists of a 
simple spindle-shaped body, or of two spindles placed end to end, 
and is formed of a tolerably firm semi-transparent substance. It 
has been found by careful measurement that the entire length of 
one of these little double spindles is one ten-thousandth of an 
inch, and its breadth one twenty-thousandth of an inch, which 

*A lecture delivered at the Oamaru Athenaeum and Mechanics Institute, on 
30th January, 1884, by Prof. T. Jeff'ery Parker. 



50 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 

means ol course that an army of twenty thousand strong could 
stand side by side in a single row within the space of one linear 
inch. In this diagram I have half a Bacterium magnified 300,000 
diameters, the length of the body being made 18 inches, its 
breadth 15 inches, or thereabouts. 300,000 Bacteria — about 500 
times the population of Oamaru — would lie side by side along 
the diameter of the figure, 43,260 millions would lie closely 
packed in one layer on its surface, and if instead of a flat dia- 
gram we had a hollow model, it would contain no less than 8823 
millions of millions * I mention these figures in order to give 
you some slight idea of the almost infinite minuteness of these 
little beings. 

There is one other point which can only be made out by the 
very highest powers of the microscope, and even then only with 
very skilful management : — To each end of the spindle-shaped 
body is attached an extremely delicate transparent thread, rather 
longer than the body, and so fine that its diameter at the thickest 
part does not exceed the one two-hundred-thousandth of an inch. 
While the Bacterium is alive this cilium is in constant lashing 
motion, and it is by its means that the creature is propelled 
through the water. 

During the earlier stages of putrefaction these little spindle- 
shaped bodies — which are distinguished by the name Bacterium 
termo — are the only organisms found, but later on we always find 
much larger Bacteria having a rod-like form with a cilium at each 
end, and distinguished by the name Bacillus. There are also 
found curved rods called Vibrio, and in many putrefying in- 
fusions occur larger rods coiled into a perfect spiral and called 
Spirillum : these last are the giants among Bacteria, some of 
them being fully one-thousandth of an inch in length. All these 
are grouped under the common name Bacteria. 

Chemical examination, the details of which I cannot go into, 
shows that bacteria are composed of a complex substance called 
Protoplasm, made up of bodies known to chemists as Protcids, a 
group of organic substances which includes albumen or white of 
egg, the casein of cheese, the gluten of wheat, etc. One property 
of protoplasm is that it stains rapidly with certain colouring 
matters such as ordinary aniline dyes, so that Bacteria treated 
with a dye like magenta, aniline-violet, etc., become very con- 
spicuous objects under the microscope. Of course such treatment 
immediately kills them. Probably — almost certainly — the pro- 
toplasm is surrounded by an extremely thin layer of a substance 
called cellulose — the elementary form of woody tissue — but under 
ordinary circumstances the presence of this covering is only sur- 
mised from analogy and cannot be actually demonstrated. 

Now if a bit of one of the higher plants — say of a leaf — is 
examined microscopically, it is found to consist of small masses 
of protoplasm each enclosed in a wall of cellulose and called a 
cell; and a bit of one of the higher animals — say of our own skin 

* Professor Shand was good enough to make these calculations for me. 



BACTERIA. 5 1 

— is found also to be made up of cells of protoplasm but without the 
coating of cellulose. So that a Bacterium is to be looked upon 
as a single isolated cell, and may therefore be considered to be 
an organism or living being reduced to its simplest expression. 

It may be asked whether Bacteria are animals or plants. 
Strictly speaking this is one of the cases in which "you pay your 
money and take your choice :" they agree in some respects with 
animals, in others with plants, so that no absolute definition of 
the Animal and Vegetable kingdoms can be framed which shall 
include Bacteria in the one and exclude them from the other. 
It is rather as a matter of convenience that, being allied in many 
ways to the moulds and fungi, they are usually looked upon as the 
lowest kind of plants. 

Then as to the mode of life of Bacteria. Hay-infusion con- 
sists of a solution of the soluble constituents of hay; some proteids 
or albuminous substances, sugar, various mineral salts, etc. ; in 
animal infusions there is a larger proportion of proteids. These 
substances as it were soak into the bodies of the Bacteria and are 
there ^converted into fresh living protoplasm, which serves to 
make good the waste of substance occasioned by the active move- 
ments of the creature, for in Bacteria as in everything else, work 
is accompanied by waste, and for every movement a small 
portion of substance is used up — oxidized or burnt in fact 
— and has to be replaced if life is to go on. 

Thus a Bacterium may be said to live in a nutritive atmosphere: 
feeding to it is no more exertion than breathing to us, and goes 
on as constantly. In fact one may say that a Bacterium eats, 
drinks, breathes and excretes at the same moment and con- 
tinuously. 

Bacteria do not need free oxygen ; they live and thrive best 
at a temperature of about 85 F. ; a temperature of 140 usually 
kills them ; freezing produces a sort of numbing effect, all vital 
actions being suspended, but with the raising of the temperature 
they regain their vitality unimpaired. They grow quite as well 
in darkness as in light, in fact strong sunlight kills them : this is 
the reason why sunlight is such a sweetener of rooms and ought 
to be let in as much as possible (especially in bedrooms) even at 
the risk of fading the carpet. 

So far I have said nothing about the multiplication of Bacteria 
which it is evident must go on very rapidly, since microscopical 
examination shows that the gradually increasing cloudiness of a 
putrifying fluid is due to increase in the number of Bacteria. 
Accurate observation has shown how this increase is effected — 
it is best observed in Bacillus. A Bacterium elongates to about 
double its original length, and then divides into two across the 
middle. The two Bacteria thus formed wriggle away from one 
another, and as they do so draw out into a fine thread a little 
bridge of protoplasm which still connects them. When this 
thread is double the length of a cilium it snaps in the middle and 
thus each of the Bacteria comes to be provided with the ordinary 
two cilia. 



52 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

The family relations of Bacteria are thus a little peculiar : 
each individual is half of its parent and moves itself by two cilia, 
one of which is a new structure, while the other is the identical 
instrument with which its immediate progenitor propelled itself 
through the ambient medium. Each one, again, in becoming a 
parent produces twins, and in so doing ceases to exist as a 
separate individual — losing itself ^wholly and literally in its off- 
spring. It will be seen from this that Bacteria multiply in 
geometrical progression, I -2-4-8-1 6, etc., as long as no check is 
put upon this increase. 

Let us now consider the actual relation existing between the 
presence of Bacteria in an organic liquid and its putrefaction. 
The subject will be made clearer if we consider first a simpler 
case in which the presence of a rapidly multiplying organism 
produces a change in the composition of a fluid — I mean the 
case of alcoholic fermentation which is brought about by the 
microscopic y cast-plant or Saccharomyccs ccrevisice. 

Each yeast-plant may be compared to an inactive globular 
Bacterium of great size, since it is no less than one two-thousand 
five-hundredth to one-three-thousandth of an inch in diameter. 
Like Bacterium it consists of protoplasm surrounded by a wall 
of cellulose. It multiplies very rapidly by sending off little buds 
which become detatched and grow to the size of the parent cell. 

In Alcoholic fermentation yeast is added to some saccharine 
fluid — such as the " sweetwort " or infusion of malt used in the 
preparation of beer. Sugar consists of a certain number of atoms 
of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen combined in certain definite 
proportions ; through the agency of the yeast-plant oxygen is 
withdrawn from it and it thereupon becomes split up into 
substances entirely different from sugar, one of which — alcohol 
— remains in the fluid, while the other — carbonic acid — is given 
off as a heavy suffocating gas. We may picture to ourselves the 
atoms of sugar piled up like a house of cards, and then imagine 
the yeast pulling away the bottom card, when of course the whole 
pile will fall down. 

A very similar process takes place in organic infusions under 
the influence of Bacteria : the latter withdraw certain constituents 
from the substances contained in the infusion ; the substances 
are then decomposed, being split up into new compounds, 
amongst which are the various evil-smelling gases to which the 
odour of putrefaction is due. 

In order that Bacteria should live and multiply, they must 
be provided with a constant supply of these decomposable 
substances. But a vessel of hay-infusion or other suitable fluid 
contains only a limited supply, therefore as soon as this is ex- 
hausted, the Bacteria must come to an end. This is in fact what 
happens when the fluid clears after putrefaction is properly over : 
the Bacteria have completed the process of splitting up the con- 
tituents of the fluid, the evolution of stinking gases ceases, and 
the Bacteria having no more food left die and disappear. 



BACTERIA. 53 

We have next to consider the meaning of the scum which as 
we saw forms on the surface of the decomposing fluid at a certain 
stage. The examination of a bit of this shows that it consists of 
Bacteria which have come to rest, lost their cilia, and lie imbedded 
in a gelatinous substance which they have probably thrown out 
around themselves in something the same way as a slug throws 
out its slime. 

Some of these quiescent Bacteria — the process is best seen 
in Bacilli — become greatly elongated, forming long intertwined 
threads. The protoplasm in these collects itself into little 
rounded masses, which surround themselves each with a thick 
coat of cellulose. Finally the filament breaks up, and the 
rounded masses or spores are left. When the scum falls to the 
bottom, the spores remain in it unaltered, being protected by 
their thick coat, and may remain alive, though inactive, for an 
indefinite period. These spores are much more difficult to kill 
than the adult Bacteria ; treatment which invariably destroys the 
latter has no effect on the former. If the fluid is allowed to dry 
up — as such fluids are constantly doing — the dried scum is left 
as a papery mass, which is blown into dust at every puff of wind. 
If these spores are placed in a proper nutrient fluid, they send 
out a sort of bud, and are soon transformed into ordinary resting 
Bacteria. 

Now comes the question— how do the Bacteria find their way 
into these fluids ? It may be said either that they or their spores 
exist in the hay, or that the spores existed in the air as fine 
dust and were carried by currents into the fluid, or that they 
were created anew in the fluid. This last is the theory of Spon- 
taneous Generation. 

The first of these answers is undoubtedly true, for very careful 
microscopical examination has revealed the presence of spores on 
hay, but that it will not account for the whole of the facts is 
proved by boiling hay-infusion for a considerable time — so as to 
kill any Bacteria which may be contained in it — and then placing 
it aside either completely exposed to the air or lightly covered. 
Sooner or later it will be turbid and swarming with Bacteria. 
And what is true of hay-water is equally true of all other organic 
infusions : boil them for any length of time and set them aside 
either completely exposed or in ordinary corked or even stop- 
pered bottles, and before long they will be found to be a mass of 
corruption, teeming with Bacteria. 

, Thus in fluids in which the Bacteria have been destroyed by 
boiling it may be taken for granted that subsequent decompo- 
sition is due (a) either to Bacteria being carried to them from the 
air, or (&) to their having been spontaneously generated therein. 

That germs of various sorts do exist in the air has been proved 
by collecting floating dust from the air. This, examined micro- 
scopically, is found to contain spores of various kinds, and when it 
is added with proper precautions to a boiled organic infusion, 
putrefaction always ensues. 



54 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Numerous experiments have been devised to find out whether 
putrefaction is invariably due to these floating germs contained 
in the air, or whether Bacteria may not sometimes be formed by 
spontaneous generation. The aim of all the experiments is the 
same — to destroy all living matter present in the fluid, by expos- 
ing it to sufficient heat, and then to fasten it up in such a way 
that no germs can possibly enter it from without. If these two 
conditions are properly fulfilled, any developement of life which 
may occur must be due to spontaneous generation. Unfortu- 
nately it is not always easy to carry out these conditions with ab- 
solute certainty. I will now describe some of the chief methods 
which have been devised with a view of meeting the case. 

i. The fluid is placed in a glass tube or small flask with a 
long drawn-out neck ; heat is applied and the fluid boiled 
thoroughly ; then while steam is freely issuing from the neck, a 
second flame is brought in contact with the latter so as to melt 
the glass and thoroughly close the aperture. By this method 
the space above the fluid is a vacuum. 

2. The fluid is placed in a flask connected by a metal stop- 
cock with a metal tube placed in a small furnace. The fluid is 
boiled and at the same time the tube is heated to redness ; then 
the liquid is allowed to cool, the tube being still red-hot. As the 
steam in the flask condenses its place is taken by air which has 
all passed through the red-hot tube and may therefore be sup- 
posed to have had all its germs destroyed. When the flask is 
cold, the stopcock is turned, and the flask detached from the 
tube. 

3. The fluid is boiled in a flask and while ebullition is going 
on the neck of the flask is thoroughly plugged with cotton wool. 
In this case all the air entering the flask is filtered in passing the 
cotton wool, and so freed from germs. 

4. A very ingenious method was devised by Prof. Tyndall in 
which the fluid could be freely exposed to the air and yet the 
entrance of germs prevented. 

The apparatus* by which this is effected consists of a wooden 
box, with a glass front, and with a small glass window in each 
of two opposite sides. Into the bottom are fixed, air-tight, a 
number of test-tubes ; into the top are similarly fixed two glass 
tubes bent into zig-zags, and forming a free communication 
between the interior of the box and the outside air ; a long glass 
funnel passes through a stuffing box at the top of the case, and is 
so arranged that its lower end can be brought over all the test- 
tubes in succession. The apparatus is supported on strong legs, 
and the whole of its interior — including that of the bent tubes — 
is smeared with glycerine. 

(To be cotitinued.) 



* Figures and full descriptions of this apparatus will be found in Tyndall's 
"Floating Matter of the Air," a book which everyone interested in these questions 
should read. 



THE DECREASE OF THE MAORI RACE. 55 



THE DECREASE OF THE MAORI RACE. 



BY DR. BULLER, C.M.G., F.R.S. 



Dr.Buller delivered an address at theannual meeting of the Wel- 
lington Philosophical Society on Wednesday evening, February 
13th, having special reference to the decrease of the Maori people. 
Dr. Buller commenced by thanking the Society for having, after a 
lapse of seven years, re-elected him to thehonourableposition of pre- 
sident. It was the custom of the retiring president to deliver an 
address at the annual meeting, but he had been asked byth^Council, 
in the absence of Mr. Randall Johnson, to offer some remarks on 
the progress and future prospects of the Society. He congratulated 
the meeting on the increased library accommodation now afforded, 
and the larger facilities offered to members for access to the 
museum. Every other large centre of population in the colony 
had an university, with its staff of professors, and all the necessary 
appliances for scientific research. In Wellington nothing of the 
kind at present existed, and active workers in the field of science 
were cast very much upon their own resources. He had, there- 
fore, great pleasure in announcing that under the new arrange- 
ments of the Director private tables would be placed in the 
lecture hall for students, who would have free access to the library 
of reference, and unrestricted use of the valuable collections in 
the Colonial Museum. Dr. Buller then referred to the practical 
work done by this society and other affiliated bodies as shown 
by the " Transactions of the New Zealand Institute." This 
publication had now reached its fifteenth volume. That for the 
past year was already well in progress, and, as he was assured by 
Dr. Hector, would fully equal, both in bulk and quality, any of 
its predecessors. Speaking for himself, as a governor of the In- 
stitute, he felt proud of this fine series of local volumes, which 
had received more universal praise at the hands of English and 
foreign reviewers than any other colonial publication. It seemed 
to him from a careful perusal that the articles year by year 
maintained their high character, keeping pace with the onward 
march of science and the progress of discovery. To the future 
historian of the colony this publication would be invaluable, and 
much credit was due to Dr. Hector for his untiring labours as 
editor during the whole period of its existence. He (Dr. Buller) 
wished, however, having said so much in praise of the work, to 
call attention to what appeared to him a very serious defect in it. 
He referred to the extreme paucity of articles relating to the 
Maori inhabitants of the country, their mythology, their manners 
and customs, their traditions, their habits of life, their treatment 
the sick, burial of the dead, and so forth. The ethnologist of the 



56 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

future will naturally look to the " Transactions " for reliable in- 
formation on all these points. Newspaper literature is ephemeral 
and not always reliable ; but the fact that every paper is vouched 
for by the name of the author is some sort of guarantee that none 
but well-authenticated facts will be found in the pages of the 
" Transactions." Looking to the fact that the Maori race was 
dying out very rapidly ; that, in all probability, five and twenty 
years hence there would only be a remnant left, it was of the 
first importance, from an ethnological or ethnographical point 
of view, to collect and preserve, while yet there was opportunity, 
a faithful history of so interesting a people. He (Dr. Buller) 
had often heard Maoris themselves speculate on their speedy 
extinction, saying in a melancholy way, that as the Norwegian 
had destroyed the native rat, and as the indigenous birds and 
shrubs were being supplanted by the introduced ones, so surely 
would the Maori disappear before the pakeha. And this was no 
mere fancy. The abnormal condition of the population — the 
females far outnumbering the males — was the surest indication 
of national decay. Every successive enumeration of the people 
told its sad tale, and the decrease must of necessity go on in a 
progressive ratio. In Cook's time the Maori population was 
estimated at a hundred thousand ; at the period of our first 
colonisation of the islands at seventy thousand ; and his own 
opinion was that at the present day they do not number, men, 
women and children, more than thirty thousand. He knew of 
districts swarming with Maoris in former years, now depopulated. 
He had known whole hapus disappear, and he had seen an entire 
family die out in the course of a year. Twenty years ago he was 
stationed as Native Resident Magistrate at Manawatu, and he had 
thenunderhisnominalcontrol andmanagement some 2500 Maoris. 
It would be difficult now within the same district to find as many 
hundred. In 1866 he was present at Rangitikei, when Dr. 
Featherston paid over the purchase money of the Manawatu 
Block, amounting to ^"25,000, and there were some 1500 natives 
present. It was proposed to pay over to the natives, in a month's 
time, double that amount, for the Otamakapua Block, and he 
doubted whether in the same district 300 will be brought to- 
gether for that purpose, even counting the Hawke's Bay con- 
tingent ! Last week he was at Otaki, and took some visitors to 
ihe Maori church. There, where formerly about 1000 natives 
assembled to the ministrations of Archdeacon Hadfield (our 
present Bishop), it seems now difficult to fill the front seats, 
In the settlement itself — veritably a "deserted village" — 
where formerly there were hundreds, it would be hard now to 
find scores ; and, in answer to enquiries on all hands, the re- 
sponse is " kua mate." And in this connection he mentioned a 
curious feature in the mortality of the race, namely, that the 
children and middle-aged people are the first to succumb; the old 
stock, who appear better able to resist the new order of things, 
generally holding out the longest. That the race was doomed 
he had no doubt whatever in his own mind. What had hap- 



THE DECREASE OF THE MAORI RACE. 57 

pened in other parts of the world must inevitably happen, and 
indeed is happening, here. The aboriginal race must in time 
give place to a more highly organised, or, at any rate, a more 
civilized one. This seemed to be one of the inscrutable laws of 
Nature. And, if true to our watchword of progress — social, in- 
tellectual, and physical — he could scarcely believe that even the 
most earnest Philo-Maori would deplore the change. He had 
often reflected on an observation of the late Dr. Featherston, on 
their first meeting, just twenty-eight years ago : " The Maoris 
(said he) are dying out, and nothing can save them. Our plain 
duty as good, compassionate colonists, is to smootJi down their 
dying pillow. Then history will have nothing to reproach us 
with." Accepting these facts, Dr. Buller insisted on its being the 
absolute duty of the Society to collect materials for the future 
historian of the race. He said he had gone ^carefully through 
the fifteen volumes of " Transactions," and out of more than a 
thousand articles on a variety ^of subjects, only three dozen had 
any reference whatever to this subject. He then gave the meet- 
ing a rapid review of the more interesting of these papers, and 
stated his own views as to their relative value. Of some of the 
contributions by Maori experts, he spoke in terms of disparage- 
ment, and gave his reasons. Mr. Colenso, he said, had been the 
most diligent contributor, and his papers were replete with in- 
formation. But to his mind the best written, most interesting, 
and most philosophical of the papers on this subject were 
those contributed by a former president, Mr. W. T. L. Travers. 
His " Life and Times of Te Rauparaha," he considered one of 
themostimportant contributions to Maori literature yet published. 
There were several papers among those noticed relating to the 
Maori language, but not a single line so far as he was aware, on 
the interesting subject of Maori poetry. Sir George Grey, when 
Governor of New Zealand, took advantage of his exceptional 
opportunities, and formed a very extensive collection of " Poems, 
traditions, and chants," which had been published without, as yet, 
any translation. Much of this poetry was highly figurative and 
beautiful ; and he quoted from the prefaca to that volume to 
show how difficult a task it was to catch and reduce to writing 
this oral poetry, the knowledge of which was confined chiefly to 
the old men and tohungas. Professor Max Miiller, whom he 
had met at Oxford, spoke in high praise of this work, and said 
that for years he had been looking out anxiously for the pro- 
mised translation. In addition to these historical records, it ap- 
peared to him of the utmost importance to form a complete eth- 
nological collection illustrative of the race, which was becoming 
every day more difficult and would be soon impossible. He had 
himself enjoyed very favourable opportunities for doing this, and 
during many years past, with the active co-operation of Captain 
Mair, he had diligently employed himself in forming such a col- 
lection. There was much yet to be done ; but, even now, he 
ventured to say, that his private museum was far rriore complete 
than any other of the kind in existence. Besides embroidered mats, 



58 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

carvings, and implements — domestic, warlike, and industrial — to 
illustrate the former habits of the people, the collection contained 
some objects of special historical interest ; for example the iden- 
tical human-bone flute on which Tutanekai played to his lover, 
Hincmoa, on the banks of the Rotorua Lake, three hundred 
years ago ; the curiously carved nose flute on which in ancient 
times the tohungas of the Ngatiraukawa practised their sacred 
music ; the genealogical stick by which '* King Tawhiao " traces 
back his ancestry to the earliest of tupunas ; and so forth. He 
had also employed the well-known Austrian artist, Lindauer, to 
paint life-size portraits of several of the more prominent chiefs ot 
the day, all in Maori costume, and typical faces of both sexes. 
The work had been admirably executed, and he felt sure that 
this series of pictures would possess great interest in after times. 
It must be remembered, however that individual effort laboured 
under many disadvantages, and it appeared to him that an ex- 
position of this kind, possessing a kind of national interest, 
should be undertaken by the Government and on a far more 
comprehensive scale. Dr. Buller concluded by saying that it was 
his intention, during his presidential year, to do his utmost to 
promote and encourage this particular branch of local research, 
and he then resumed his seat amid general applause. 

The Hon. Mr. Waterhouse said he had listened with great 
pleasure to the address, but he was surprised to hear so decided 
an opinion expressed as to the rapid decline of the Maori people. 
He thought this view was scarcely borne out by the official stat- 
istics ; but that, on the contrary, the Maoris throughout the 
colony were rather on the increase. The census returns might be 
accepted as relatively correct, and it appeared to him, from an 
examination of these returns, that there was a larger percentage 
of children among the Maoris than among the French. If true, 
this would go to prove that the Maoris were really on the increase. 
The subject was one of great interest, and he was glad to hear from 
Dr. Buller that he intended, during the coming year, to contribute 
some papers to the "Transactions," because there was probably no 
one more competent to deal with the matter. As to the value of 
the "Transactions," he entirely agreed with the president. He had 
long thought that it would be a wise thing to reprint the more in- 
teresting of the papers in a popular form for general circulation. 

The Hon. Mr. Hart said he took the same view as the last 
speaker. He believed that the general notion of rapid decrease 
among the Maoris was premature. It had yet to be proved that 
there was an actual diminution. So far, the statistics pointed to 
an opposite conclusion. 

Dr. Newman said he entirely agreed with the president. He 
had himself on a previous occasion expressed his belief, at a 
meeting of the Society, that the Maoris numbered only 35,000. 
He thought Dr. Buller was probably right in placing the number 
somewhat lower. On all hands were proofs of decrease, especi- 
ally in the Hawkes Bay district, with which he had been more 
intimately connected. He had no faith in census returns. Even 



THE DECREASE OF THE MAORI RACE. 59 

Mr. Bryce had told him that these enumerations could not be re- 
lied on, as every chief was anxious to make his following appear 
as large as possible. 

Dr. Hector said it could not be denied that this very impor- 
tant subject had hitherto been neglected. Although, however, 
comparatively few papers had appeared in the " Transactions," 
he was not aware that any had been rejected. He took the op- 
portunity of saying this, because a Hawkes Bay correspondent 
(Mr. Colenso) had lately complained of unfair treatment in this 
respect, whereas his papers (which were not on Maori subjects), 
had only been delayed, not refused ; and it seemed to him un- 
reasonable to make this a ground of complaint against the Insti- 
tute. He entirely concurred in the views put forward by Dr. 
Buller in regard to the Maori race. The census returns were 
quite delusive, as he had satisfied himself by careful inquiries in 
various parts of the country, and he gave the meeting several in- 
stances in point. As to the urgent necessity for collecting a his- 
tory of the Maori people, he was quite in accord with the presi- 
dent, and would suggest that the minutes of evidence in the 
Native Land Courts should be carefully preserved, on account of 
the historical information they contain. 

The Hon. Capt. Fraser said he thought the decay of the 
Maori people was byno means so rapid as was generally supposed. 
He also demurred to some of Dr. Newman's observations, and 
that gentleman immediately replied. 

Dr. Buller said in general reply, that his conclusions were not 
based on the evidence of any particular locality, but were drawn 
from a pretty extensive knowledge of the various native districts. 
He had instanced the Otaki district because it was at our very 
doors. But other districts with which he was equally familiar — 
Kaipara in the far North, Waikato, Rotorua, Taupo, Wanganui, 
&c. — all told the same melancholy tale. These districts were 
populous when he first knew them, and now the natives might 
be counted by dozens where formerly there were hundreds. As 
to Maori census returns, they were mere approximations and 
very often misleading, as he could state from personal experience. 
He was much struck with the rapid mortality as disclosed also 
by native titles ; and he mentioned several instances within his 
own professional knowledge, where, in a certificate of title con- 
taining originally from 50 to 100 names, from 10 to 15 per cent, 
had died off in an incredibly short space of time. Amalgamation 
ofraceshad been talked of, but this would not save the Maoris. The 
half-castes were undoubtedly a fine people physically, but he had 
noticed that when they married back into the Maori race the 
offspring had no stamina, and seldom reached maturity. He 
quite agreed with Dr. Hector about the value of the Land Court 
evidence if carefully arranged and collated. He had suc- 
ceeded once in interesting Judge Fenton on this point, and 
circulars were then addressed to the various Judges, asking 
them to hand over their note-books for public record, but he had 
never heard the result. For his own part, for twenty years past 
he had been carefully preserving everything of the kind. 



6o JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 



THE NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE. 



BY G. M. THOMSON, F.L.S. 



In its constitution and working the New Zealand Institute 
is probably unique among scientific societies. So little is known 
about it, however, by those even who, as members of the affiliated 
societies, are virtually members of the central body, that I pro- 
pose shortly to call attention to its constitution. I do so because 
the principle on which it is founded is incorrect, and there is a 
strong and growing feeling among working members of the in- 
corporated societies that the time has come for a reconstitution 
of the whole body on a more representative system. 

The Institute was founded by an Act of the General Assembly, 
dated ioth October, 1867, entitled "An Act to establish 
an Institute for the Advancement of Science and Art in New 
Zealand." The preamble states that it is expedient to make pro- 
vision for carrying out the geological survey of the Colony, and 
to establish and incorporate a public institution in the City of 
Wellington, to be called " the New Zealand Institute," which 
shall comprise a public museum and laboratory, and a public 
library. 

Clauses 2 and 3 give the Governor in Council power to 
appoint a person to superintend the carrying out of the duties 
pertaining to these offices, and also to appoint the necessary as- 
sistants. Clause 5 deals with the appointment of a Board of 
Governors, to consist in the first place of the Governor of the 
Colony, the Colonial Secretary, and the Superintendent of Wel- 
lington Province (all three ex officio), and six other persons to be 
appointed by the Governor. Clause 8 gives power to the incor- 
porated societies (as long as there are not more than three in 
existence) to elect three members to the Board ; but when there 
are more than three such societies, each is only to nominate a 
member, and from the names thus nominated the Board will 
elect three. 

The powers entrusted to the Board of Governors are specified 
under Clause 11. Three, out of a total of twelve, are to form a 
quorum, and they are empowered to receive and dispose of annual 
grants of money ; to obtain suitable premises for the formation 
and reception of a museum, laboratory and public library ; to 
make bye-laws for the regulation and disposal of the property of 
the Institute ; and to appoint and remove any public officers of 
the said Institute. 

Clause 14 provides that in addition to the salary paid to the 
Superintendent of the Geological Survey, there shall be placed- 
yearly upon the estimates the sum of not less than five hundred 
pounds for the purposes of the Institute. 



THE NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE. 6l 

Scientific bodies, perhaps above all others, are impatient of 
official control, and for their expansion and vigorous progress 
the most perfect freedom of action is necessary. But the consti- 
tution of the Institute as pourtrayed here is that essentially of 
a Government department, its Board being almost exclusively 
nominated, and the powers of the incorporated societies reduced 
to a minimum. It may be urged, of course, that at the date of 
its formation, in order to make a start and to foster the growth 
of a scientific society in our midst, it was necessary to secure a 
definite constitution and nominate a controlling body which 
would be composed of names well-known to the ruling powers 
as those of men of intelligence and ability. There may be some 
truth and force in this, but there should have been sufficient elas- 
ticity in the Act to allow of more representation of affiliated so- 
cieties when these were able to take their place as members of 
the central body. To-day the N.Z. Institute is an anomalous 
body in a community so imbued with democratic principles as 
this is ; and above all it is an anomaly among scientific societies. 
Science seldom thrives under too much official patronage, and 
the Institute is an exemplification of this principle. Evidently 
the first alteration required is that of its Board of Governors, 
which, from being chiefly nominated, should be made chiefly 
elective. An elected Board would probably attend much better 
to its duties than a nominated one. It would also be much 
more independent in its action, which is a point of great import- 
ance, as a Government, like a private individual, is often the 
better of being stirred up, which is not likely to be done for it by 
its nominees. 

If we now seek to find out how far the principles of the In- 
stitute are being fulfilled at the present time, we learn that while 
its officials are all busily employed, the Board itself is little more 
than a myth. On turning to the fourteenth annual report of the 
N.Z. Institute— that for 1881 (Trans. Vol. XV.), which is the last 
published — we read that the Board held meetings on the 28th 
July and nth November. How many of the twelve members 
were present is not said. It is, however, quite manifest that at 
these two meetings, the whole business of the Board — which in- 
cludes the management of the museum, of the geological survey, 
of three libraries (apparently), of meteorological stations, of the 
Wellington observatory, of the Colonial laboratory, and of the 
various publications of the Society — for the past twelve months, 
could not be satisfactorily disposed of. It may be that the Board 
appoints committees to look after each of these departments in 
detail ; but if such is the case, the fact is not stated in the re- 
ports. It would appear from this, that the Board has allowed 
its functions to lapse entirely, meeting probably as a matter of 
form on very rare occasions to hear what their manager has to 
tell them. That the work of the Institute has gone on at all, is 
due not to the energy of the Board, but to that of the manager 
and his assistants. 

When we look more into detail we find great room for im- 



62 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

provcment in the working of the Institute. The museum is 
crammed with material, much of it of great value, which cannot 
be properly shown to the public, nor studied by those desirous 
of doing so, simply for want of room and of cases. The collec- 
tions are chaotic. When one steps across Museum Street in 
Wellington, and sees the provision which our thankful represen- 
tatives make for their own use and comfort in the fine library of 
Parliament House, and which, by-the-bye, they consider too 
valuable for the good people of Wellington (so many of them the 
paid servants of the Government) to make use of, one feels 
ashamed that the Colonial scientific collections should be treated 
as they are. Evidently a great change is wanted here. A new 
and commodious building of some less inflammable material than 
the present ; a separate annual grant sufficient to keep the col- 
lection in good order and give space to the new materials con- 
stantly coming in, and the placing of the whole under the charge 
of a curator, who shall have nothing else to do, are the most pro- 
minent wants of this department. As it exists at present, the 
Colonial Museum is valueless for most of the purposes for which 
a museum should exist. 

The geological survey appears to be progressing satisfac- 
torily, and this is to be expected, as it is the special line of work 
to further which the Director was appointed. 

The meteorological statistics are, however, of somewhat ques- 
tionable value. Returns, we are told, are received from four 
second-class and thirty third-class stations in the Colony. The 
latter must always be accepted with a certain amount of hesita- 
tion, unless the stations are thoroughly inspected, a work which 
would be very expensive. But of what value are the returns 
from the second-class stations ? I could name one where the 
anemometer stands between two not widely-separated young 
trees, and so placed that it must receive only a share of every sou'- 
wester that blows ! I rather think that in another place the 
thermometer stand is on the roof of a brick building. Returns 
from instruments so placed would be dearly bought if they cost 
nothing, for they are worse than valueless, — they are misleading. 
Surely in the shipping interest alone, a good meteorological ser- 
vice is wanted, even were it conducted only on a small scale. 

In regard to thepublications of the Institute, thereis again room 
for considerable improvement. As to the papers published in the 
Transactions, a fairly judicious supervision appears to be made, 
for although — to take Vol. XV. as an example — there are a few 
papers which make no addition to our knowledge in any sense, 
yet it has to be remembered that in a young country, removed 
as tli is is from the old established intellectual centres of the world, 
we must seek a lower standard than that of a Royal or Linnean 
Society. The " Regulations regarding Publications " provide 
that "the Institute shall have power to reject any papers read 
before any of the incorporated societies ;" but seeing that the In- 
stitute is a soulless body, the power of rejection appears to lie 
practically in the hands of the manager. There can be no doubt 



THE NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE. 63 

that this duty, which must often be an objectionable one, should 
be undertaken by a committee, who should bear the brunt of any 
ill-feeling thereby generated. Again, authors should have the 
power of revising their own proofs. Once a paper is out of the 
writer's hands, he does not see it again for months ; whereas he 
should have an opportunity, while it is in type, of making any al- 
terations or corrections he might deem necessary. Of course, 
some authors might abuse such a privilege, either by interpolating 
a very large amount of new matter, or by detaining the proofs 
for an unreasonable length of time ; but the Board of the Insti- 
tute would have the ultimate remedy in their own hands. Then 
it is apparent that the work of printing and illustrating the an- 
nual volume of " Transactions " and other publications of the 
Institute is mixed up with a lot of departmental work of the 
Government, with which it ought to have nothing to do. A per- 
sonal grievance with many authors is the nature and quality of 
the illustrations adopted in the " Transactions." The subject is 
a difficult one, and resolves itself into one of pounds, shillings, 
and pence. Some papers can be illustrated by photo-lithography 
very well ; but there are others for which this style of work is 
quite unsuitable, and provision for such exceptions should be 
made more fully than it is at present. 

I shall make no comment on the Colonial Laboratory, Wel- 
lington Observatory, or the libraries in connection with the 
museum, as I know but little about them. But there is just one 
point further in regard to all these departments which an outside 
public interested in and anxious for their success would like to 
see amended. That is, that they be kept all separate in their 
working, so that while the manager exercises a general super- 
vision over them, yet each assistant should be directly respon- 
sible for the carrying out of his own special department. And 
along with this, the annual vote of three or four thousand pounds, 
which appears on the Estimates each session, should be carefully 
allotted, and the accounts of each department kept strictly 
separate. 

And all these are matters which, if the Board was properly 
constituted, and looked after its duties, it would have in proper 
working order under due supervision. At present the manager 
not only looks after all these departments, but apparently man- 
ages the Board also. 

In passing all these strictures I hope I shall be acquitted of 
personal feeling in the matter. It is the principle of the consti- 
tution of the Institute which appears to me wrong, and which I 
desire to see altered. And until it is radically altered, I do not 
hope to see any Board, constituted as this one is, acting differ- 
ently. 

As to how the change is to be brought about, I can only 
throw out a few suggestions. It is a question for the incorpo- 
rated societies to solve, and until they take the matter in hand, 
things will remain in statu quo. Concerted action is necessary 
in the matter, and there must be very substantial unanimity in 



64 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

the demands put forth, in order to ensure their receiving due at- 
tention. Probably the best way to bring the question to an issue, 
would be for some one or other of the affiliated societies to agree 
to a rough draft of a scheme which might be sent round to the 
other bodies for perusal, modification, and comment. Each 
might then appoint one or two delegates, to meet say at Welling- 
ton, with power to draw up a final scheme, which, coming from 
them as a recommendation of the scientific societies of the Colony 
would deserve the careful consideration of the ruling powers. 

I have pointed out many features in which there seems to me 
great room for improvement ; and were a Board of Governors 
appointed — thoroughly interested in their duties — they would 
find ample work to do in carrying out these improvements. 



NEW ZEALAND LARENTIDjE. 



BY ALEX. PURDIE. B.A. 



Part II. — Continued. 

Cidaria (?) rudisata, Walk. — Male, pale fawn-colour, pale 
testaceous beneath. Palpi broad, pilose, much shorter than the 
breadth of the head ; third joint very minute. Antennae mode- 
rately pectinated except towards the tips. Thorax and fore- 
wings with black speckles. Abdomen compressed, extending 
a little beyond the hind-wings. Wings with black marginal 
points. Fore-wings acute, with a blackish patch in the exterior 
part of the disk, and with two submarginal blackish patches in 
which the whitish zigzag submarginal line is distinct ; costa and 
exterior border slightly convex ; the latter rather oblique. 
Hind-wings testaceous white. Body 7 lines ; wings 16 lines. 

Cidaria callichlora, Butl. — Nearly allied to the European 
C miata, from which it differs as follows :— Primaries above more 
densely green ; basal patch smaller and darker, not so angular ; 
central belt wider, its inner edge not so sharply defined, its outer 
edge widely zigzag from above the second median branch ; the 
white sub-marginal spots replaced by a pale greenish festooned 
line ; the double marginal black dots replaced by <-shaped 
markings ; secondaries crossed by two widely separated indis- 
tinct dentate-sinuate grey discal lines ; no disco-cellular dot 
abdomen pale brown with white dorsal dots on each side of 
which are black dots ; below there are similar differences, but 
here all the wings exhibit black discocellular dots. Expanse of 
wings 1 inch 3 lines. In one example the primaries above and 
the whole under surface are more dusky, giving it a very different 
aspect. 



NEW ZEALAND LARENTID.E. 65 

The following are figured by Felder in the Reise der Novara, 
and I have seen only the uncoloured plates : — 

Cidaria ascotata, Feld. — Wings 1 in 3-ioth ; body about y 2 
an inch. The basal area of the fore-wings is shut off by a dark 
line. The median band is narrow, with nearly parallel dark 
borders. Submarginal line light, crenate, with a small dark 
patch inside it on the costa. The hind-wings have somewhat 
distinct markings, their basal area is light, having an indistinct 
dark line near the outer side. About the middle is a light trans- 
verse band interlined and bordered by three dark lines. This 
band forms one main curve across the wing, the centre of the 
curve being near the centre of the wing. There is also a light 
crenate submarginal line. Antennae pectinated. 

It seems from the figure a fine insect. 

Cidaria sphaeriata, Feld. — Given by Mr. Butler, with a query, 
as the synonym of C. muscosata. It is of similar size, but the 
wings are hardly as oblique as those of C. muscosata. It has the 
usual markings, the median space of the forewings being edged 
with a darker colour. There is also a discal dot and a crenate 
light submarginal line in a darker band. Hind-wings with some 
traces of lines near the middle. Antennae pectinated. Expanse 
of wings between 8 and 9-ioths of an inch. 

Cidaria adonata, Feld. — According to Mr. Butler this is 
possibly a synonym of Lar. invexata, which it resembles in size 
and outline. Its markings are indistinct. 

Cidaria semilincata, Feld. — About the same size as Lar. in- 
vexata. Costa nearly straight. Outer margin of anterior wings 
full. Median space having both the inner and outer band inter- 
lined with three parallel sinuous lines. Hind-wings with a dis- 
cal dot, and traces of lines on the abdominal margin. 

Cidaria rixata, Feld. — This is similar in size and markings 
to Cid. squalid a. 

Cidaria obarata, Feld. — About the size and contour of Cid. 
beata. It has not the submarginal line of C. beata, and its sub- 
apical cloud is more distinct. 

Cidaria aquosata, Feld. — Mr. Butler justly observes that this 
much resembles the female of Cid. muscosata. 



A LIST OF THE HYMENOPTERA OF NEW ZEALAND. 



BY W. F. KIRBY, ASSISTANT IN THE ZOOLOGICAL 
DEPARTMENT, BRITISH MUSEUM. 



From the " Transactions of the Entomological Society of London," 1881. 

A short time ago Mr. H. W. Marsden, of Gloucester, placed 
in my hands for examination a small collection of Hymenoptera, 
formed by Mr. W. J. Skelton, of Blenheim, New Zealand, and this 
has led to my compiling the present list. 



66 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

The only lists of New Zealand Hymcnoptcra which have 
hitherto appeared are those published in 1843 m DiefTenbach's 
work ; and in 1874, by Professor Hutton in the "Transactions 
of the New Zealand Institute," Vol. VI. In the former work 
only six species arc mentioned ; in the latter only twenty-three. 
The late Mr. F. Smith, who has described nearly all the Hymen- 
optcra known from New Zealand at present, alludes to sixty-eight 
species as known to him at the end of 1877, when he read his last 
paper on the subject ("Trans. Ent. Soc," 1878, p. 1-7). He 
does not, however, enumerate them, and I, therefore, thought it 
would be useful to publish as complete a list as I could prepare. 
It brings up the total number to eighty-one species (including 
the very doubtful OpJiion luteus\ an absurdly small total, when 
we consider that we have from 3000 to 4000 species of Hymen- 
optera in Britain alone ; the Hymenoptera being probably the 
most extensive of all the orders of insects, except, perhaps, the 
Diptera. As I can only regard this list as indicating the present 
extent of our ignorance of New Zealand Hymenoptera, I avoid 
entering into any generalisations whatever, and have confined 
myself to describing five conspicuous forms as new, and have 
refrained from describing any obscure species. I have added the 
descriptions of the tew species described from New Zealand by 
Fabricius and Walker, as their works are not so generally acces- 
sible as those of other writers on New Zealand Hymenoptera* 



ACULEATA 
Anthophila 

Andrenidce. 

1. Leioproctus imitatus. 

Leioproctus imitatus, Smith, Cat Hym. Ins. B.M., i., p. 9 (1853). 
New Zealand (Churton); Australia. — B.M. 

2. Lamprocolletes fulvescens. 
Lamprocolletes fulvescens, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 486. 
Canterbury (Wakefield).— B.M. 

3. Lamprocolletes obscurus. 
Lamprocolletes obscurus, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. B.M., i., p. 1 1 

(1853)- 

New Zealand (Hutton's list) ; Tasmania — B.M. 
[The New Zealand habitat is a mistake. — Ed.] 

4. Dasycolletes hirtipes. 

Dasycolletes hirtipes, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1878, p. 7. 
Otago (Hutton).— B.M. 

* Descriptions have been added of all those species not described in Professor 
Hutton's catalogue of New Zealand Hymenoptera, 1881, published by the Geological 
Survey Department, Wellington. — Ed. 



A LIST OF THE HYMENOPTERA OF NEW ZEALAND. 67 

C. Dasycolletes vestitus. 
Dasycolletes vestitus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 485. 
Wellington (Wakefield).— B.M. 

6. Dasycolletes purpureus. 

Dasycolletes purpicreus, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. B.M., i., p. i5 

(1853). 

New Zealand (Churton).— B.M. 

7. Dasycolletes metallicus. 

Dasycolletes metallicus, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. B.M., i., p. 15 

(1853)- 

Andrena tnchopus (White), Voy. Erebus and Terror, Ins. pL 
vii., fig. 12 (1874). 

8. Prosopis agilis. 
Prosopis agilis, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 484. 
Canterbury (Wakefield).— B.M. 

9. Prosopis relegatus. 

Prosopis relegatus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 485. 
Canterbury (Wakefield).— B.M. 

10. Prosopis capitorus. 

Prosopis capitorus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc 1876, p. 485. 
Canterbury (Wakefield).— B.M. 

11. Prosopis laevigata. 
Prosopis laevigata, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. B.M. ii., p. 420 (1854) 
Auckland (Bolton).— B.M. 

Female, length 3^ lines. — Black; head and thorax subopaque, 
very delicately punctured ; the head subovate, the face having 
on each side of the clypeus an angular yellow spot ; the anterior 
margin of the clypeus slightly emarginate. Thorax, the tubercles 
and an interrupted line on the collar, yellow ; the metathorax 
smooth and rounded , the wings subhyaline and beautifully 
iridescent ; the legs entirely black. Abdomen elongate, sublan- 
ceolate, very smooth and shining, having a few black hairs to- 
wards the apex. 

12. Prosopis vicina. 
Prosopis vicina, Sichel, Reise d. Novara, Hym., p. 143 (1867) 
Auckland (Voy. Novara); Tasmania (Sichel), 
Several species nearly allied to this have been described from 
Australia by Smith ; no other New Zealand species has a yellow 
scutellum and post scutellum. 

13. Halictus sordidus. 
Halictus sordidus, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. B.M. i.,p. 56 (1853) 
Auckland (Bolton).— B.M. 

14. Halictus familiaris. 
Halictus familiaris, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1876, p. 486. 
Canterbury (Wakefield).— B.M. 



68 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

FOSSORES. 

Pompilidcz. 

15. Priocnemis monachus. 

Pompilus monacJius, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. B.M., iii., p. 164 

(i855). 

Auckland (Bolton).— B.M. 

16. Priocnemis carbonarius. 

Pompilus carbonarius, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. B.M., iii., p. 162 

(1855). 

Auckland (Bolton).— B.M. 

Female, length 4 lines. — Black, smooth, and impunctate ; the 
abdomen glossy black, the face covered with short silvery pubesc- 
ence ; the legs and sides of the thorax thinly covered with hoary 
pile ; the metathorax rounded ; wings fusco-hyaline, the nervures 
black, the apical segment slightly roughened and sprinkled with 
long hairs, the extreme apex rufo-piceous. 

17. Priocnemis nitidiventris. 

Priocnemis nitidiventris, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1878, p. 6- 
Otago (Hutton).— B.M. 

18. Priocnemis diligens. 

Priocnemis diligens, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 485, pi. 
iv., fig. 3. 

Peel Forest (Wakefield).— B.M. 

19. Priocnemis Wakefieldii, n.sp. 

Dark shining mahogany ; legs rufous ; antennae more or less 
blackish, especially towards the extremity ; face within the eyes, 
metathorax (which is large, raised, and angulated outwards at 
the sides), collar (very narrowly) and more or less of the sides of 
the pectus covered with a bright golden pile ; wings golden yel- 
low, with ferruginous nervures, and slightly clouded towards the 
extremities. The male is smaller, with the golden pile much 
duller ; the metathorax round the scutellum, and the middle of 
the pectus are blackish. Exp. al. 9-15 1.; long. corp. 4^2-7 1. 

New Zealand (Wakefield).— B.M. 

A common species, mistaken by Mr. Smith for P. fugax, Fabr. 

20. Priocnemis fugax. 

Sphex fugax, Fabr. Syst. Ent., p. 350, n. 27 (1775). 
Priocnemis maculipcnnis \ Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 482. 
New Zealand (type)— B.M. 

21. Priocnemis marginatus. 

Priocnemis marginatus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 
483, pi. iv., fig. 2. 

South Island, West Coast (Wakefield).— B.M. 



A LIST OF THE HYMENOPTERA OF NEW ZEALAND. 69 

22. Priocnemis conformis. 

Priocnemis conformis, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 482. 
New Zealand (Wakefield).— B.M. 

Larridce. 

23. Tachytes nigerrimus. 

Tachytes nigerrimus, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. B.M., iv., p. 302, 
(1856). 

Astatanigerrima (White), Voy. Erebus and Terror, Ins.pl.vii., 
fig. 14, (1874). 

New Zealand (Churton).— B.M. 

24. Tachytes sericops. 

Tachytes sericops, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. B.M., iv„ p. 302 (18 56) 
New Zealand.— B.M. 

25. Tachytes depressus. 
Tachytes depressus, Saussure, Reise. d. Novara, Hym. p. 69. 
(1867). 

New Zealand (Saussure). 

26. Pison morosus. 

Pison morosus, Smith, Cat. Hym., Ins. B.Ml,iv., p. 317 (1856). 
New Zealand (Wakefield)— B.M. 

27. Pison tuberculatus. 

Pison tuberculatus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1869, p. 296. 
Auckland (Bolton).— B.M. 

Nyssonidce. 

28. Gorytes carbonarius. 

Gorytes carbonarius, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. B.M., iv., p. 366, 
(1856). 

New Zealand (Churton).— B.M. 

Crabronidce. 
29. Rhopalum carbonarium. 
* Crabro carbonarius, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. B.M., iv., p. 424, 

(1856). 

Rhopalum carbonaria, Smith, Trans. Ent, Soc, 1876, pi. iv., 

fig. 7- 

New Zealand (Churton).— B.M. 

30. Rhopalum perforator. 

Rhopalum perforator, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1876, p. 483. 
New Zealand (Wakefield).— B.M. 

31. Rhopalum albipes. 

Rhopalum albipes, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1878, p. 7. 
Otago (Hutton).— B.M. 



70 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Thynuidce. 
32. Rhagigaster novarse. 
RJiagigastcr twvarcu, Saussure, Reised. Novara, Hym., p. 112, 

(1867). 

New Zealand (Saussure). 

Heterogyna. 

Formicidce. 
33. Formica advena. 

Formica advcna, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. (3), i., p. 53 (1862). 

Port Lyttleton, (Smith). 

Female — Fuscous-yellow, shining, covered with a thin fine 
cinereous pubescent pile ; the flagellum slightly fuscous, with the 
tip pale ; the anterior portion of the head and the mandibles paler 
than the vertex ; the mandibles with fine acute teeth ; a central 
impressed line runs upward from the clypeus to the middle of the 
vertex, terminating at the anterior ocellus ; the ocelli minute. 
Thorax ovate. Abdomen fuscous, the scale of the peduncle in- 
crassate, its superior margin rounded. Length 2 lines. 

Worker, \]/ 2 lines. In general colouring like the female, but 
paler, the thorax being pale testaceous like the legs. 

34. Formica zealandica. 
Formica zealandica, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1878, p. 6. 
Otago (Hutton)— B.M. 

Poneridm. 
35. Ponera castanea. 

Poncra castanea. Mayr, Reise d. Novara, Form., p. 69, (1865) 
Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1879, p. 489. 

Auckland (Mayr) ; Tairua, near Mercury Bay, North Island 
(Broun).— B.M. 

36. Amblyopone cephalotes. 

Amblyopone ccpJialotes, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 490. 
Auckland (Lawson).— B.M. 



Myrmicidce. 

37. Orectognathus antennatus. 
Orectoguat/ucs antennatus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. (2), ii, p. 

228, pi. xxi, fig. 9, (1854). 
New Zealand.— B.M. 

38. Orectognathus perplexus. 
Orectognathus pcrplexus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1876, p. 491. ' 
Tairua, (Broun).— B.M. 






A LIST OF THE HYMENOPTERA OF NEW ZEALAND. 7 1 

Attidce. 
39. Aphsenogaster antarctica. 
Atta antarctica, Smith, Cat. Hym. Ins. B.M. vi. p. 167 (1858). 
Formicaantarctica, White, Voy. Erebus and Terror, Ins. pi. vii., 

fig- *3> (1874). 

Auckland (Sinclair).— B.M. 

40. Tetramorium nitidum. 

Tetramorinm nitidum, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 480. 
New Zealand (Wakefield).— B.M. 

41. Tetramorium striatum. 

Tetramorium striatum, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1876, p. 481* 
West Coast of South Island (Wakefield).— B.M. 

42. Monomorium fulvum. 

Monomorium fulvum, Mayr, Reise d. Novara, Form., p, 93, 
pi. ii., fig. 25 (1865). 

PUPIVORA. 

ICHNEUMONID^E. 

Ichneumonides. 
43. Ichneumon decoratorius. 

Ichneumon decoratorius, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 333, n. 32, 
(1775). Exp. al. 7 1. ; long. corp. 3 lines. 

New Zealand {type).— B.M. 

The type in the Banksian Collection is the only specimen in 
the British Museum cabinets at present. [Cryptus decoratorius 
of Hutton's Catalogue, 1881. Ed.] 

44. Ichneumon sollicitorius. 

Ichneumon sollicitorius,Fsbr. y Syst. Ent, p. 332, n. 30 (1775) 
Exp. al. ill.; long. corp. 6 lines. 
New Zealand {type).— B.M. 

45. Ichneumon lotatorius. 

Ichneumon lotatorius, Fabr., Syst. Ent, p. 330, n. 18 (1775). 
Exp. al. ill.; long. corp. 6 1. 
New Zealand {type).— B.M. 

46. Ichneumon deceptus. 

Ichneumon deceptus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1 876, p. 477. 
New Zealand (Wakefield).— B.M. 

47. Ichneumon exhilaratus. 

Ichneumon exhilaratus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 477. 
New Zealand (Wakefield).— B.M. 



72 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

48. Ichneumon consanguineus. 

Ichneumon consanguineus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc.,' 1876^.476. 
New Zealand (Wakefield).— B.M. 

49. Ichneumon insidiator. 

Ichneumon insidiator, Smith. fcTrans. Ent. Soc, 1 876, p. 476. 
New Zealand (Wakefield).— B.M. 

50. Ichneumon placidus. 

Ichneumon placidus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 476. 
New Zealand (Wakefield).— B.M. 

51. Ichneumon conspiratus. 

Ichneumon conspiratus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 475. 
New Zealand (Wakefield).— B.M. 

52. Ichneumon huttonii, n.s. 

Esp. al. 8 1. ; long. corp. 5^ lines. 

Female. — Dark chestnut, darkest on the head and mesothorax 
where it shades into deep mahogany. The following markings, 
are pale yellow : — A stripe within each eye, a large oval spot on 
the lower part of the cheeks, a spot below each antenna, a strip 
on each side of the collar, a large spot in the middle of the meta- 
thorax, the scutellum and post-scutellum, three large spots on 
the pleura, and one on the upper side of the hind coxae. An- 
tennae black, from the extremity of the basal joint. Wings yel- 
lowish hyaline, with piceous nervures ; stigma yellow. The 
male has the large yellow spot on the back of the thorax re- 
placed by two long spots ; the whole face, the cheeks, the basal 
joint of the antennas, the four front coxae and trochanters, and a 
spot on each side of the pectus between them, a spot on each 
side of the neck, and an additional spot between the front wings 
are all yellow ; the rest as in the female, except that the wings 
are clearer hyaline. 

Dunedin (Hutton).— B.M. 

53. Ichneumon invectus. 

Ichneumon invectus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 475. 
New Zealand (Wakefield).— B.M. 

54. Ichneumon perfidiosus. 

Ichneumon per fidiosus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 465, 
pi. iv., fig. 5. 

New Zealand (Wakefield).— B.M. 

Cryptides. 
55. Cryptus penetrator. 

Cryptus penetrator, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1878, p. 2. 
Otago (Hutton).— B.M. 



A LIST OF THE HYMENOPTERA OF NEW ZEALANE. 73 

56. Mesostenus albopictus. 

Mesostenus albopictus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 477, 
pi. iv., fig. 1. 

North Island (Enys.)— B.M. 

Ophionides. 
57 ? Ophion luteus. 
Ichneumon luteus, Linn. Syst. Nat, i., p. 566, n. 51 (1758) ; 
Fabr., Syst. Ent, p. 341, n. 77 (1775). 
New Zealand (Fabricius).* 

58. Ophion inutilis. 

Ophion inutilis, Smith. Trans, Ent. Soc. 1876, p. 478, 1. c. 
1878, p. 2. 

New Zealand (Wakefield ; Hutton).— B.M. 

59. Ophion ferrugineus. 

Ophion ferrugineus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1878, p. 2. 
Otago (Hutton).— B.M, 

60. Ophion perigrinus. 

Ophion perigrinus, Smith. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1876, p. 478. 
New Zealand (Wakefield).— B.M. 

61. Ophion skeltonii, n. s. 

Exp. al. 10 1. ; long. corp. jyi 1- 

Shining castaneous ; face, clypeus, and vertex as far as a 
narrow line behind the eyes yellow ; eyes, ocelli, extreme points 
of the mandibles and claws black ; antennae wholly castaneous, 
and a castaneous dot on each side at the base of the clypeus ; the 
lower parts of the face and the extreme back of the head are also of 
the same colour. Wings iridescent, with piceous nervures, and 
finely speckled with brown : stigma large, yellowish ; below it is 
a round darker yellow spot in the upper part of the interno- 
cubital cell, where it begins to narrow ; and halfway between 
this and the extremity of the cell is a curved yellowish line. 

Blenheim (Skelton).— B.M. 

62. Ophion insularis, n. s. 

Exp. al. 13 1. ; long. corp. 8 1. 

Closely allied to O. skeltonii, but less shining ; the head and 
ocelli are concolorous, except the eyes, which are liver-coloured, 
and narrowly edged within and behind with dull yellow. Wings 
nearly as in skeltonii, but the spot below the stigma is larger, more 
yellow, and followed by a small darker spot close to the upper 
part of the curved line, which is piceous, like the other nervures. 

New Zealand (Sinclair)— B.M. 

* Fabricius mentions New Zealand among the localities for this common Euro- 
pean species, but he probably mistook one of the indigenous New Zealand species 
for it. 



74 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

These two curious species are more nearly related to an 
unnamed Ophion from Natal, than to any other in the British 
Museum collection. 

6$. Paniscus ephippiatus. 

Paulsens ephippiatus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1876, p. 478, I.e., 
1878, p. 3. 

New Zealand (Wakefield ; Hutton)— B.M. 

64. Scolobates intrudens. 

Scolobates intrude?is, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1878, p. 3. 
Otago (Hutton)— B.M. 

65. Scolobates varipes. 

Scolobates varipes, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1878, p. 3. 
Otago (Hutton)— B.M. 

TrypJionidcs. 

66. Mesoleptus mulleri. 

Mesoleptus miilleri, Butler, Voy. Erebus and Terror, Ins- pp. 
27, 48 ; woodcut (1874). 

New Zealand (Wakefield)— B.M. 

67. Tryphon obstructor. 

Tryphon obstructor, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1878, p. 4. 
Otago (Hutton)— B.M. 

Pimplides. 

68. Rhyssa fractinervis. 

RJiyssa fractinervis, Vollenhoven, Tijdschr. Ent. (2), viii., p. 
67, pi. iv., fig. 1, ia (1872). 

Rhyssa antipodum, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 479, pi. 
iv., fig. 4. 

New Zealand (Wakefield)— B.M. 

69. Lissonota flavopicta. 

Lissonotaflavopicta, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1878, p. 4. 
Otago (Hutton)— B.M. 

70. Lissonota albopicta. 

Lissonota albopicta, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1878, p. 4. 
Otago (Hutton)— B.M. 

BraconidcB. 

71. Rhogas penetrator. 

Rhogas penctrator, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1878, p. 5. 
Otago (Hutton)— B.M. 

Evauiidce 

J2. Fcenus crassipes. 

Foenus crassipes, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 479. 
New Zealand (Wakefield)— B.M. 



A LIST OF THE HYMENOPTERA OF NEW ZEALAND. 75 

73. Foenus unguicularis. 

Fceiius ungnicularis, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 480, pi. 
iv., fig. 8. 

New Zealand (Wakefield)— B.M. 



Chalcidid^e. 

Eupelmidce. 
74. Eupelmus messene. 
Eupelmus messene, Walker, Mon. Chalc, ii., p. 95 (1839). 
Female. — "Apterus, ferrugineus, sublinearis, fere planus, nitens, 
scite punctatus, parce pubescens ; thorax longi-ovatus ; petiolus 
vix ullus ; abdomen sublineare, piceum, laeve, thorace paullo 
angustius non longius ; pedes graciles, ferruginei ; oviductus 
exertus ; vaginae abdomine breviores. (Corp. long. lin. 1%)" 
New Zealand (Darwin).* 

PteromalidcE. 
75. Pteromalus lelex. 

Pteromalus lelex, Walk. Mon. Chalc., ii., p. 95 (1839). 

" Viridis ; oculi et ocelli rufi ; antennae nigrae ; articuli i-us et 
2-us virides ; abdomen cupreo-varium ; pedes lutei; coxae virides; 
femora viridia, apice et basi lutea ; tarsi apice fusci ; meso-et 
meta-tibiae fulvo-cinctae ; alae limpidae ; squamulae piceae ; nervi 
proalis fusci, metalis fulvi. (Corp. long. lin. ^ ; alas. lin. 1^). 

"Female. — Corpus convexum,obscurum,scitissimesquameum, 
parce hirtum ; caput transversum, breve, thorace paullo latius ; 
antennae subclavatae, corporis dimidio non longiores ; thorax 
ovatus ; prothorax brevissimus ; mesothoracis scutum longitu- 
dine multo latius ; parapsidum suturae conspicuae ; scutellum 
subrotundatum ; meta-thorax transversus, declivis ; petiolus 
brevissimus ; abdomen ovatum, nitens, lasve, supra planum, sub- 
tus carinatum, apice attenuatum et accuminatum, thorace paullo 
longius vix latius ; pedes simplices, subaequales ; alae mediocres." 

New Zealand (Darwin).— B.M. 

76. Pteromalus iambe. 

Pteromalus iambe, Walk., Mon. Chalc, ii., p. 95 (1839). 

" Female. — y£neus, subtus aeneo-viridis ; oculi et ocelli rufi ; 
antennae nigrae ; articuli i-us et 2-us virides ; abdomen cupreo- 
varium ; pedes fulvi ; coxae virides ; femora viridia, apice et basi 
fulva ; tarsi apice fusci ; meso-et metatibiae fuscae ; alae limpidae ; 
squamulae piceae ; nervi proalis fusci, metalis fulvi. (Corp. long, 
lin. 1 ; alas. lin. 1^3)." 

New Zealand (Darwin).— B.M. 



* I am not sure if the type exists in the British Museum. I have not been able 
to find it, and it is not mentioned in Walker's list of Chalcididce in B.M, 



7& JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

OXYUPLE. 

Proctotrupidce. 

yj. Proctotrupes intrudens. 

Proctotrupcs intrudens, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc., 1878, p. 5. 
Otago (Hutton) ; Canterbury (Wakefield).— B.M. 

DiapriidcB. 
78. Spilomicrus quadriceps. 

Spilomicrns quadriceps, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc., 1878, p. 6. 

Otago (Hutton).— B.M. 

Length i}{ lines. Head and thorax shining and nigro- 
aeneous ; abdomen black. Head quadrate, punctured, most 
closely so at the sides of the vertex. Thorax punctured, and 
with a suture crossing between the tegulae ; an impressed curved 
line runs from the suture on each side, diverging outwardly to 
the anterior margin of the mesothorax ; a shorter line running 
between it and the tegulae ; the scutellum punctured ; the meta- 
thorax pubescent, and having a deep central longitudinal de- 
pression ; posteriorly emarginate, the angles of the emargination 
produced and acute ; wings pale, fulvo-hyaline and iridescent ; 
the stigma black, the nervures at the base pale testaceous ; legs 
black ; with the base and apex of the joints ferruginous. Abdo- 
men black, smooth, shining, and impunctate ; the petiole with 
two longitudinal impressed lines. 

79. Diapria coccophaga. 

Diapria coccophaga, Maskell, Trans. N. Z. Inst., xi., p. 230, 
pi. ix., figs. 2-5 (1880). 

New Zealand (Maskell). 
Parasitic on Coccidce. 



TEREBRANTIA. 

Siricim:. 

Xiphydriina. 

80. Brachixiphus deceptus. 

Derocyrta deceptus, Smith, Trans. Ent. Soc, 1876, p. 474, pi. iv. 
fig. 6. 

Male. — XipJiydria flavopicta, Smith, 1. c, 1878, p. 1. 

Otago (Hutton) ; Canterbury (Wakefield).— B.M. 

The two radial cells separate this species from Derccyi'ta, 
and the shorter ovipositor removes it from Xiphydria. I there- 
fore place it provisionally in Brachixiphus, the type of which is 
B.grandis, Phil., from Chili. B.flavipes, Phil., a second Chilian 
species, is, however, a true Derecyrta. I may add that D. bicolor, 
Wesw., is certainly the male of B. grandis. 



A LIST OF THE HYMENOPTERA OF NEW ZEALAND. ^ 
TENTHREDINID^E. 

Selandriince. 
8 1. Monostegia antipoda, n.s. 

Exp. al. 5 1. ; long. corp. 5 lines. 

Deep black, legs more or 'less testaceous ; wings hyaline, 
with piceous nervures ; an oblique shade below the stigma, most 
distinct towards the inner margin. 

New Zealand (Wakefield).— B.M. 

Described from two female examples. There is very little 
character about this species, the only true sawfly which has yet 
been met with in New Zealand ; but I hope to figure it shortly. 
Mr. Smith mistook this for the European T. adumbrata (King), 
but the latter is a true Eriocampa according to the neuration. 
The neuration of M. antipoda is as follows : — Forewings with 
two radial and four submarginal cells, the two recurrent nervures 
received by the second and third respectively ; the first enters 
the second cell about the middle, and the second enters the third 
cell a little before the middle ; the dividing nervule of the radial 
cells enters the third submarginal cell before the dividing nervule 
between the third and fourth ; lanceolate cell with oblique cross- 
nervule ; hind wings with one inner cell. 



GENERAL NOTES, 



Endowment of Scientific Research.— The Royal So- 
ciety has made a grant of £7$ to Prof. T. J. Parker, of Otago 
University, to assist him in researches on the embryology of 
Callorhynchus (Elephant Fish), Hatteria (Tuatara Lizard), and 
Apteryx (Kiwi). Attempts to obtain the ova of the first-named 
have this year been unsuccessful up to the present time ; but we 
understand that Professor Parker intends to proceed north 
shortly in order to obtain a supply of the Tuatara Lizards. The 
chief difficulty in each of the specified subjects will be in obtain- 
ing the material to work upon. 



Plants Suitable for Cultivation in N.Z.— The above 
is the title of a pamphlet of about 8 pages, prepared by Mr. J. F. 
Armstrong, of Christchurch, and issued at the Government Print- 
ing Press, Wellington. Its contents consist of a list of plants, 
divided into twelve classes, as follows : — 1. Alimentary; 2. Fibre; 
3. Timber; 4. Fodder ; 5. Medicinal ; 6. Oil ; 7. Plants for bind- 
ing sand-drifts ; 8. For Basketwork ; 9. Dyes; 10. Tanning; 1 1. 
Hedge Plants ; 12. Miscellaneous. The list is a very complete 



yS JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

one, and gives appended to the names of the plants much infor- 
mation regarding their habitat, uses, modes of cultivation, &c. 
It cannot fail to be generally useful, and should be widely dis- 
tributed. In a future reprint, it would be advisable to state — 
as far as possible — where plants of many of the kinds named 
could be obtained in New Zealand. 

In connection, however, with this subject, we would point out 
the fallacious nature of the idea that because a certain plant will 
grow in a country, therefore its extensive cultivation is desirable. 
Thus we are told that Canna cdulis " is t'he hardiest of all the ar- 
rowroots, and might be very profitably grown in the North Island." 
The italics are our own. Similar statements are made about some 
other plants, and these statements would be perfectly correct if 
labour cost about a shilling a day in this Colony. At present 
rates, however, the production of such an article is commercially 
impossible. The same remark applies in an equal degree to the 
production of Tea, Silk, and Opium in this Colony. We simply 
cannot compete with India and China for these products, and in- 
stead of trying to do so, we would be much better employed im- 
proving the opportunities that we have. Let us grow our own 
fruit, and stop the importation of apples and other fruit and 
vegetables from Tasmania and America. Lemons grow well in 
Auckland, yet they cannot be bought under 4d. each (often 6d.) 
in Dunedin. Here is room for improvement. We do not make 
these remarks from any desire to disparage the general value of 
Mr. Armstrong's pamphlet, but because no doubt he is uninten- 
tionally misleading in some of his ideas. For example, he says: 
" The tea-plant is perfectly hardy in Canterbury, and no climatic 
considerations prevent its cultivation in the Colony. The greater 
part of the western side of New Zealand seems fitted for the 
production of tea of better quality than nine-tenths of the im- 
ported article. As so much money is now sent out of the Colony 
for tea, it seems desirable to attempt its culture in a commercial 
sense, and it would be a good thing if good seed could be ob- 
tained from Japan, and plants raised for distribution. The pre- 
paration can now be done by machinery." There are just two 
fatal objections to this ; one is that the tea-plant would not pro- 
duce the rapid flushes of young leaves in spring that are so 
characteristic of it in tea-growing countries, for our spring climate 
is too erratic and frequently too cold ; the second is the labour 
question. Coolies at 4 annas (sixpence) per day, work on the 
plantations in Assam ; but we have no coolies in this Colony, 
and if we had they would probably want four shillings. 

The same objections may be urged with equal truth and 
force against the cultivation of poppies for opium, or of mulber- 
ries for silkworm rearing ; though, perhaps, in the latter case, 
some women and girls might find suitable occupation where at 
present they are unremuncratively employed. — Ed. 



College of AGRICULTURE, Lincoln. — We regret to learn 
that Dr. R. von Lendenfeld has severed his connection with this 



. GENERAL NOTES. 79 

institution, after holding the position of lecturer on Natural 
Science only a few months. 

The rapid changes which have taken place in the staff during 
the last few years cannot but have been hurtful to the progress 
of the work carried on at the College. Three teachers of Natural 
Science have held the position there in about as many years, and 
now the post has been again filled by the re-instalment 
of Mr. Kirk, who resigned some twelve months ago. We 
do not know where the blame lies for such an un- 
satisfactory state of things, but the matter is one which 
deserves the fullest consideration of the governing body. 
Until a settled appointment is made, no progress with 
scientific work will be made by the students, and one of the 
advantages which would accrue to the country from the posses- 
sion of such an institution, that, namely, of having scientific ex- 
periments in agriculture regularly conducted, will not be forth- 
coming. 



The Rabbit Pest. — The occurrence of numerous cases of 
tuberculosis among rabbits in this and the neighbouring colonies, 
has led many persons to suggest the advisability of inoculating 
numbers of these animals and liberating them, so as to spread 
the disease as widely as possible. 

It is manifest, however, from all that has appeared in the 
papers on the subject, that very little is known as to the disease. 
Its true nature, its power of propagation, and even the causes 
which lead to its occurrence are almost unknown. At the same 
time, the probable danger of infecting our cattle and sheep with 
dangerous diseases intended only to destroy the rabbits is suffi- 
ciently manifest to have early attracted attention, and has pro- 
bably prevented many from attempting rash experiments in the 
way of inoculation. 

From a commercial point of view, the question of destruction 
of the rabbits is one of the most serious importance, and it is one 
which deserves a large share of attention. Any scheme which 
promises to lead to a solution of the difficulty is worthy of con- 
sideration, and no expense should be spared in attempts to find 
some remedy for the pest. At the same time, the desultory in- 
vestigation of a few farmers and runholders, who occasionally 
send one or two diseased rabbits to the nearest doctor or vet. 
to have a post mortem examination made, are not likely to pro- 
duce any effective results. The matter is one which should be 
scientifically investigated, and all interested in it — and who is not, 
directly or indirectly, in this Colony — would benefit by such an 
investigation being made. 

In other countries, specialists have often been engaged at a 
very considerable first expense, to examine and report on the 
epidemic diseases of animals, in many cases with the most satis- 
factory results. We need only refer to the remarkable researches 
of Pasteur on pebrine and other allied diseases, and of Koch on 



80 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

anthrax, to show the enormous value — from the monetary point 
of view only — of a scientific attack of such problems. Lest the 
readers of this note think that the value of such investigations is 
overstated, we need only refer them to Prof. Huxley's address to 
the British Association in 1870 (" Biogenis and Abiogenesis," 
Critiques and Addresses, Art. X., p. 218), for a confirmation of 
this view. 

When the expense incurred by our farmers and runholders in 
restraining the excessive multiplication of rabbits is considered, 
and when we add to this the dead loss in stock, wool, crops, &c, 
and incidental expenses, we run up an immense total, against 
which any items we can place to the credit side of the account 
are a mere bagatelle. It is quite clear, too, that £5000, or £ 10,000 
even, would be well-spent money were it to result in any scheme 
for reducing or exterminating the pest. Were an able specialist 
secured for two or three years to study and report on the whole 
question, giving him carte blanche to experiment on any scale 
he considered necessary, the great probability is that any expense 
so incurred would be recouped to the country a hundredfold. 
Such a man could be obtained in England, France, or Germany. 
The question of obtaining the requisite funds for such a scheme 
would be considerable, and the raising of them might be attended 
with a little difficulty, but this would not be insuperable. It is 
a matter which concerns our farmers and runholders most closely, 
and one which they could manage either through such a society 
as the Otago Agricultural and Pastoral Association, or by co- 
operation among themselves. It might be undertaken by the 
Government, but the official machinery moves slowly in this 
Colony, and is always more or less in favour of running in 
grooves. Were a small and energetic committee of leading 
agriculturists to take up this scheme, and associate with them- 
selves Prof. Parker, whose knowledge of European scientific men 
and ways would be of great use to them, the probability is that 
the most valuable benefits would be obtained. The scheme is 
advanced for what it is worth ; if it leads to any useful results, 
the object of the writer will have been secured. — G.M.T. 



New Zealand University — Degrees in Science. — "The 
Queen has been pleased to direct Supplementary Letters Patent 
to be passed under the Great Seal granting and declaring that 
the Degree of Bachelor and Doctor in Science granted or con- 
ferred by the University of New Zealand shall be recognised as 
academic distinctions and rewards of merit, and be entitled to 
rank, precedence, and consideration in the United Kingdom and 
in the Colonies] and Possessions of the Crown throughout the 
world, as freely as if the said Degree had been conferred by any 
University of the United Kingdom." — "Nature," 13th Decem- 
ber, 1883. 



GENERAL NOTES. 8 1 

Bicentenary of Bacteria. — It is just two hundred years 
since Leeuwenhock announced to the Royal Society his discovery 
of Bacteria, and the proposal has been made that steps should 
be taken by English scientific men to commemorate the event. 
Prof. Cohn, of Breslau, in a communication to " Nature " on the 
subject says of Leeuwenhock's second set of drawings, communi- 
cated to the Royal Society in 1692 : — " They have not been 
surpassed till within the last ten years It deserves our highest 
admiration that the first discoverer of the invisible world could 
already reach a limit which has never been outstepped, though 
the members of the Royal Society, when considering two hun- 
dred years ago the curious communication of the philosopher of 
Delft, may have scarcely foreseen that his astonishing discovery 
had opened to science a new path, which only in our own days 
has led to the most important revelations about fermentation 
and disease." We shall probably hear shortly what form the 
proposed celebration will take. One suggestion advanced, and 
a very good one too, is that the Royal Society should take steps 
" to urge on the English Government the expenditure of ample 
funds upon a new and vigorous prosecution of the study of the 
relations of Bacteria to disease, in fact upon the foundation of a 
national laboratory of hygiene." 



International Forestry Exhibition. — It was a matter 
of very general regret that this Colony was not represented at 
the Great Fisheries Exhibition lately held in London, for though 
the fisheries of New Zealand are most imperfectly developed at 
the present time, there can be no question as to their future im- 
portance. Now we hear that a great exhibition of Forestry is to 
be held in Edinburgh in 1885, and a glance at a sketch of the 
arrangements (see "Nature" of November 1, 1883) shows that 
every branch of this interesting subject will be illustrated. The 
forests of this Colony constitute one of its special and valuable 
features, and apart from the direct gain which will accrue from 
exhibiting their wealth on such an occasion, a great indirect gain 
will be secured in keeping the natural resources of the Colony 
before the eyes of would-be European emigrants. In both 
islands there is an immense amount of valuable timber, and our 
Government would be doing both a politic and a sensible act in 
using every endeavour to have this fact made known as widely 
as possible. The value of the scientific and practical results of 
the Fisheries Exhibitionhas exceeded all expectation, and asimilar 
result, though probably not to such an extent, may be anticipated 
from the forthcoming one. Advertising is considered to be one 
of the most valuable aids to the furtherance of business, and — to 
take a low estimate of the matter — here is an opportunity for 
our Colony of parading its ligneous wealth, which should not be 
overlooked. — Ed. 



82 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Notes from Lake Te Anau.— The following letter, which 
is both interesting- and amusing, has been handed to us by the 
hon. secretary of the OtagD Acclimatisation Society : — 

" Te Anau Lake, 

" Linwood Station, Mararoa, 

"December 15, 1883. 
" Mr. Arthur. 

" Dear Sir, — Not being very profitably employed in October 
last, and having a boat, I thought I would spend a month or 
two on the lake getting bird skins and seeing the place, and 
keeping a particularly sharp look out for the great swamp-hen 
you mentioned. Though I have an extra good dog, and camped 
for days in swampy places, I saw nothing of it. 

" With the kiwi I have got very little better acquainted, they 
are so scarce and shy ; while the kakapo are quite plentiful, and 
easily caught with a good dog. The scent of the latter is so strong 
that the dog will hold up his nose and go away for hundreds of yards 
to a kakapo's den — a bit of a hole under a bank or old tree, so 
paltry that the dog seldom wants any assistance in getting one 
out. They are such poor fists at hiding or defending themselves. 
Though they can bite a little, and pinch with their great claws, 
they do it in so slow and aimless a way,thatthe appearance they put 
is by far the most formidable part of their defence. I saw one 
in great trouble one evening at dusk. I was camped by the 
river, and just across it a Maori hen had taken in hand to thrash 
a kakapo, and he was doing it properly. It was laughable to 
see the lively way the Maori hen danced round him and the dis- 
tressed toddle of the kakapo with his drooping wings, and to hear 
all the noises he made until he took refuge in a sapling. They are 
now living on the leaves and tender shoots of the broadleaf, and are 
very fat and gluttonous. Some of their crops in the morning are 
as big as a man's fist, filled with green pulp. Had they been 
undisturbed, with their lack of enemies and abundance of food, 
they were in a fair way of developing to replace the moas. As 
it is they are the easiest things in the world to exterminate. A 
few wild dogs would clear the country in a decade, for my dogs 
are very fond of them to eat and also delight in hunting them, 
so much so that while there are any about it is useless for me to 
look for kiwi, for the dogs will not trouble them. Some one 
has put ferrets across the Waiau, under Mt. Luxmore. I was 
trapping rabbits there and caught two ferrets, so that I think the 
end of the kakapo has already begun. 

"The kiwi may stand it out better ; though they live in deep 
holes in the day time, yet they are very vigorous and are demons 
to kick ; I know this by the savage way my dog treats them. 

" There are two sorts of kiwi here, one is much taller and has a 
distinct claw on its wing which the other has not, and has a much 
hoarser voice, more like a rattle. The small one has a dribbling 
scream often repeated. They are laying now, (the kakapo is not 
thinking about it yet). I got one of the small ones with a ma- 



GENERAL NOTES. S3 

ture egg in it, and another great eggshell I saw that had been 
hatched, which put me in hopes of a takahi, but it was only a big 
kiwi's. It has a peculiar beak, its upper mandible would make a 
crotchet needle or a bodkin, the nostril being as near the end as 
the eye of a needle. I think it must hunt its grubs and wire- 
worms by scent, for it is a poor scratcher, if it scratches at all ; 
and for it to find its food by sight in the dark among the ac- 
cumulation of rubbish where it lives, would be like finding the 
needle in the bundle of straw. 

" The shags have a breeding place of about 30 nests half way 
between Te Anau and Manapouri ; and you will be glad to hear 
that I visited them this season. So artfully, however, had they 
chosen a site on leaning trees over a rapid that I got very few heads 
(9), but I upset some of their nests, and wasted some powder and 
shot on the others. One big young fellow attracted my attention 
by its incessant crying for food. I thought, " That one must be 
starving, it is only a charity to shoot it," when, behold ! it was 
full to the eyes of half-digested eel. I find nothing but eel in the 
black shags, while the two smaller shags seem to devote them- 
selves entirely to a sort of little flathead. I have examined them 
carefully in hopes of finding trout or other fish, but there were 
none. It is a good plan to advertise for their heads, for it causes 
the death of scores that will not have to be paid for, for people 
cannot get enough to make it worth while sending them. I caught 
just one upukerora a year ago at night in Home Creek with a 
worm for a bait. It was about a foot long. I tried to eat it, but 
it was not much chop. I have seen nothing of them since, nor 
have I seen any trout in the Waiau or the Lakes, though there are 
plenty at Linwood, in Kakapo Creek, that could get into the 
lakes if they wished. 

" All round the south end of Te Anau there are traces of old 
Maori ovens, and in one place near the mouth of the Upukerora 
river there has been a pah of maybe a dozen whares, some of the 
totara woodwork yet remaining ; I hear some of the whares were 
standing 25 years ago, but it must have been long since they 
were built, for the holes in the wood were evidently mortised with 
stone chisels. Scraps of moa bone are quite common, and in 
two places I have seen charred moa bone in the cinder heaps. 
But what attracted the later Maoris to this place must have 
been the abundance of eels. I think they cultivated potatoes, 
for I found a long pipi shell from the sea which they use for 
scraping potatoes, also pawa shells, and scraps of iron, showing 
they were in communiction with the whalers. 

" There are rabbits on all the mountain tops between Mana- 
pouri and Te Anau, and through the bush .as far as the end of 
the south fiord in Te Anau. They are doing much harm by 
exterminating shrubs that cattle could have lived upon. It is 
supposed that rabbits were put across the Waiau purposely 
by rabbiters, but I do not think it. I saw a rabbit one evening 
swim the Mataura where it was 60 yards wide, and it came from 
the other side towards me, until it saw me, when it pricked up 



84 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 

its ears and was for off back again ; so expert a swimmer was 
it, that it took my dog all its time to overhaul it. I think that 
it could be easily established as a fact that a creek is no barrier 
at all against rabbits ; and that rivers like the Waiau are imper- 
fectly so. — Yours, &o, 

" R. H." 



HlERACIDEA NOVyE-ZEALANDI^E AND H. BRUNNEA. — Are 
the two species distinct? A satisfactory solution of this problem 
will perhaps be difficult to arrive at by a mere examination of 
skins or mounted specimens ; but with a perfect knowledge of 
the natural economy of the two species no professed ornitholo- 
gist will hesitate in proclaiming them distinct, and as I have 
given much time for several years to the careful study of this sub- 
ject in one of the best localities in' New Zealand, a few remarks 
on the range and habits of the two species will afford the most 
natural method of proving them distinct. 

Any collector who has taken the trouble to secure specimens 
of the quail-hawk will admit that they are generally met with on 
the ranges, in districts abounding with rocks, and in the open 
country close to the ranges ; it is, however, in the back country 
where we may expect to find this bird, and for many months in 
the year it may be seen in isolated specimens perched on a high 
rock, and scanning the district around, where its stately figure 
gives it a very noble appearance. After the breeding season is 
over the birds separate and live as described above, their food 
consisting of lizards and the flesh of the common weka (Ocydro- 
mus australis), the latter constituting its principal food, but at 
the approach of winter the birds retire to the " Warua Facings," 
near the Plains. It is then it becomes the " dashing quail-hawk " 
when seen pursuing a pigeon or tui. I, however, maintain that 
the principal food of this species, either in the back country, or on 
the warm side of the ranges, is the common weka, although I 
have many times seen it pursuing, and on one occasion striking 
down, a pigeon ; at another time I observed it pursue and cap- 
ture a tui in mid-air, and bear it off in triumph trussed up in its 
talons. Still it is not so often seen giving chase to birds on the 
wing as the smaller species. I do not claim that the quail-hawk 
is never seen on the Plains side of the ranges during summer or 
autumn, but I contend it is rare, while during the winter months 
it is comparatively common. The localities chosen by both birds 
for nesting are widely different, the larger bird preferring a re- 
mote rocky gully, where it makes its nest on the ground, 
generally in the shade or under cover of rocks. 

The smaller bird nests invariably in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the bush or close to the Plains, where it can 
procure a fitting supply of food, and during this period it 
may be seen almost daily pursuing the common Pipit 
(Authus novce-zealandice) on the wing, which it hunts with 
great spirit, and has been properly described as the "worst 



GENERAL NOTES. 85 

natural enemy of this bird." It may also be seen occasionally 
pursuing the wild pigeon (Carpophaga novce-zealandice), and 
many other species of bush bird ; it is likewise a frequent visitor 
to the pigeon house, and commits great havoc among the pigeons 
in the summer and autumn months. I have often observed it sit- 
ting on fences or the old withered stems of cabbage trees (Cor- 
dyline australis), and flying every few minutes to the ground 
catching lizards. I have seen it visit stacks of grain for several 
weeks, subsisting on mice, and waiting patiently sitting on the 
rails around the stacks until a mouse made its appearance, when 
it would dart quickly and seize it, rarely ever missing its mark ; 
but the " strong predilection for its chase of the lark," and the fact 
of the latter being a very common bird, would warrant unmistake- 
ably that it constitutes the principal food of the bush hawk. There 
are many other " individual peculiarities " which cannot be no- 
ticed here, but one I will mention, that were the two species 
identical it would be absolutely unnatural to suppose that the 
largest birds of both sexes would betake themselves to a solitary 
life in the back country, except during the winter months, while 
the smaller ones remain in and around the wooded gullies and 
bush near the Plains. If the colours and markings in mature 
old birds (which are very different) will not suffice, if careful 
" sexing " and measurement will not convince some ornitholo- 
gists that they are distinct, they will undoubtedly accept them 
as such when a proper knowledge of their economy is obtained. 

W.W.S. 



Dr R. VON LENDENFELD having left the Lincoln College 
of Agriculture, has proceeded to Sydney, where he has been 
commissioned by the Hon. W. Macleay, of Sydney, to write a 
monograph of the Australian Sponges. Rooms and material 
have been placed at his disposal, so that we may shortly expect 
to hear of the progress of this work, for the execution of which 
he is well qualified. 



Royal Society of New South Wales.— The sixteenth 
volume of the Journal and Proceedings of this Society for 1882, 
has only recently been issued. The great delay in its appear- 
ance is explained to be due to the amount of more pressing work 
which had to be got through at the Government printing office. 

Many of the papers which are contained in the present 
volume have been already referred to in the N.Z. Journal of 
SCIENCE ; but, as a general rule, most of the papers read before 
the Royal Society are of a nature unfavourable to condensation. 

Prof. Liversidge communicates four valuable papers, dating 
from 1880, but which are only now published, together with six 
beautifully executed photo-heliographs. The Rev. J. E. Teni- 
son-Woods also contributes four papers (some of which have 
been already noticed in our columns), also beautifully illustrated 



86 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

It is a pity, when such fine work was introduced into the volume, 
that the bulky diagrams illustrating Mr. Russell's paper on 
11 Tropical Rains," and the meteorological charts of the Sydney Ob- 
servatory had not been reduced by photo-lithography to a more 
elegant size. As it is, they disfigure the book by their unwieldi \ 
ness, and besides run a great risk of being torn to rags if often 
consulted. 

Mr. Manning's paper entitled " Notes on the Aborigines of 
New Holland " has been already referred to ; but we notice for 
the first time a paper on the same subject by'Mr. John Fraser, of 
West Maitland. The author seems to have studied the native 
habits and characters to some purpose, and his facts probably 
form a valuable contribution to the literature relating to the 
Australian aborigines. The preface is however a singular pro- 
duction. Mr. Fraser is evidently a firm believer in the story of 
Ham and his son Caanan, and after comfortably locating their 
descendants in the plains of Mesopotamia and Egypt, he informs 
us that " a time of disaster came which carried them into the re- 
motest parts of the earth — into Central. Africa, into the mountains 
of Southern India, whence, after a while, another impulse sent 
them onwards towards our own island-continent, &c. &c." A 
man who quotes his Bible in support of scientific theories, and 
refers his readers to the pyramids, should send his theoretical 
contributions to some British-Israelite papers, and leave only his 
facts to the Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South 
Wales.— Ed. 



SceloglauxAlbifacies (Laughing Owl).— Thehistoryof 
this bird remained, for many years, a desideratum to naturalists, 
and fears were entertained that the species would become ex- 
tinct before such was known ; but within the last two years a 
perfect knowledge of its habits, food, and nidification has been 
obtained. The reason why so little of its history was known 
until lately, is that the species lives in the fissures of high 
rocks, where perhaps field naturalists would not risk life 
or limb in securing specimens. Be this as it may, the fis- 
sures of high rocks form the stronghold of the Sceloglaux, where it 
lives during the day, and where in the months of October and 
November it rears its young. 

I lived for several years on the Albany Estate near Timaru, 
where the magnificent limestone rocks on the estate afforded 
me a favourable opportunity of studying the complete history of 
this bird. Here I succeeded in capturing a splendid series of 
specimens, and also procured their eggs and young. To give 
anything like a history of this beautiful owl would occupy more 
space than is at my disposal here, but I will briefly record what 
I consider the most important items relative to the species. 

The suggestion of Dr. Bullcr, that the Kiori Maori (native rat) 
before its extermination, may have constituted the principal food of 
this owl, is an important one ; and my researches among the rocks 






GENERAL NOTES. 8/ 

at Albany, and experiments with the living birds in captivity is 
greatly in support of this. In several of the crevices where I 
captured them I found a conglomerate of exuviae ranging from 
three to twelve inches thick. From the under surface and through 
the mass to nearly the upper surface this conglomerate is thickly 
studded with owl's castings composed entirely of light brown hair 
(which is unquestionably that of the Kiori Maori) and small bones. 
The birds, moreover, in a captive state, have a greater preference 
for young or half-grown rats than for any other food. The power- 
ful flight of this owl would enable it to travel many miles during 
the night in search of food, as, were a considerable number 
located in one place, they would soon reduce the supply in the 
immediate neighbourhood. This applies to the period when 
the Kori Maori existed. The castings more recently deposited 
among the rocks, are composed chiefly of elytra and legs 
of beetles. They likewise subsist on rats, mice and lizards, 
but their principal food is the various large species of Coleoptera 
common among the debris beneath the rocks where they live ; 
therefore, under the changed conditions, we need no longer 
wonder at the rapid decline of this splendid owl. Besides those 
captured alive, I found the remains of nearly a dozen more, which 
had died in the rocks. This will prove incontestably that the 
species is rapidly becoming extinct, the cause being an insuffi- 
cient supply of proper food, the coleoptera on which it subsists 
being totally inadequate to support this large bird. In captivity 
they soon become tame, and the superior food produces a marked 
improvement on the birds ; in a few weeks they become fatter 
and stronger, and increase a little in size. 

They begin to breed both in the wild and captive state in the 
months of September and October, and sit on the eggs for 
twenty-five days. During this period it is singularly interesting to 
watch the male catering for its mate. Pkept a pair in a large pack- 
ing case with a dark recess in cne corner, and when the female 
was hatching her eggs, the male regularly carried every morsel of 
food supplied to them into the dark recess, and fed its mate 
sitting on the eggs. All during the building season the birds 
are noiseless, rarely ever uttering a sound, except when the male 
is carrying the iood to the nest, when he uttered a low hoarse call, 
the female rising from the eggs and responding with a peevish 
twitter, when receiving the food. This " touch of nature " is 
very pleasing to observe, and from it we may infer that the male 
has a " hard struggle in supplying food to its mate during the 
period of incubation." When the young are hatched they are 
fed by the parent birds on large blackish worms procured from 
the edges of swamps, where I have observed the fresh trail of the 
latter from the previous night. They rise to the surface and change 
quarters during the night, when they are picked up by the birds 
and conveyed to the nest to feed their young. The uncontrol- 
lable outburst of laughter, i.e. the call peculiar to this 
species, is only heard when the birds are on the wing and 
generally on dark and drizzly nights or immediately 



88 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

preceding rain. The call of the adults- in waking up 
in the evening is precisely the same as two men cooe- 
ing to each other from a distance, with the male it is 
louder and hoarser, with the female it is shriller and less pro- 
longed. When confined to the narrow limits of a packing case, 
there is no bird which manifests a greater liking for its kind than 
the Laughing Owl of New Zealand. — W. W. S. 



Synonymy of N.Z. Geometrina. — Cidaria chaotica, Meyr., 
is synonymous with Melanthia arida, Butl. 

Itama ? cinerascens, Feld., is given doubtfully by Mr. Mey- 
rick as a synonym for Harpalyce Jinmeraria, Walk., but they 
differ much both in contour and in venation of wings. In 
cincrascens n and 12 are fused for a short distance, while in 
hnmcraria they are free. But Stratocleis strepiophora, Meyr., 
is a synonym of Itama ? cinerascens, Feld. The names of these 
two moths will, therefore, stand as Cidaria arida y Butl., and 
Stratocleis cinerascens, Feld., adopting the genera in which Mr. 
Meyrick has placed them. 

Stratocleis cinerascens, Feld. — Costa of anterior wings nearly 
straight between the basal and submarginal lines ; outer margin 
irregularly sinuous ; a strong projection, often bidentate between 
3 and 4. Posterior wings more regularly sinuous. The male 
answers to Mr. Mey rick's description of 5. streptophora. Anterior 
wings cinereous-brown, speckled with black, whitish yellow about 
the discal area ; a black basal line interrupted and not strongly 
marked except on the costa; median band bounded on the inner 
side by a broad fuscous line spreading out on the outer side into 
the lighter median belt ; discal dot black ; indications of a fus- 
cous much bent line at the outer side of the median belt, some- 
times shown only by a dark mark on the costa ; a submarginal 
line of very white crescentic spots touched on the inner side with 
black. Underside of anterior wings whitish-yellow, suffused 
with reddish-brown ; the three dark lines, and the submarginal 
crescents evident near the costa. Posterior wings yellowish- 
white, faintly speckled on the posterior half and suffused with 
brown on the margin ; indications of a submarginal line of white 
crescents near the abdominal edge ; discal dot black. Underside 
of posterior wings whitish-yellow finely speckled with black, a 
submarginal line of black marks faintly touched outside with 
white. Both wings are silky and shining above. Antennae pec- 
tinated. Legs whitish -yellow, speckled with black. Expanse 
of wings about an inch and a half. 

Female. — I have two forms of the female, one has the ground 
colour whitish-yellow and the markings a very light rust-colour; 
the other and more common form has the ground colour a dul 
paper-white, with fuscous markings as in the male. The basal 
line and the third line are more distinct in the female than the 
male, owing to the lighter ground colour. The third line starts 
on the costa, midway between the second line and the submar- 



GENERAL NOTES. 89 

ginal crescents, curves round towards the submarginal line till 
opposite the disc, whence it goes obliquely to the hind margin of 
the wing, which it touches near the end of the second line. The 
female is a little larger than the male, and has filiform antennae. — 
Alex. Purdie. 



Subterranean Crustacea. — Towards the end of last year I 
received a letter from Mr. D. L. Inwood, of Winchester, telling me 
that he had obtained some subterranean Crustacea from a well at 
Winchester, near Temuka, South Canterbury. " They were pro- 
cured," he says, " from a tube-well sunk some 16ft. or so into 
shingle, on the high bank of a creek ; the bottom of the well is, 
I should imagine, some six to ten feet below the bottom of the 
adjacent creek." Subsequently he very kindly sent me some 
specimens, which, so far as I have yet examined them, appear to 
be as follows : — (1) three large specimens oi P hreatoicus typicus : 
these differ slightly from my Eyreton specimens, but whether 
they belong to a different variety, or whether the differences are 
due to age, I am not yet prepared to say ; (2) one of Gammarus 
fragilis; (3) one of Cruregens fontanus ; (4) three of Calliopius* 
subterraneus. With the exception of P hreatoicus typicus, none of 
these species appear to differ in any appreciable degree from the 
Eyreton specimens. At Eyreton Phreatoicus typicus is rare — I 
have seen only about 8 or 9 specimens altogether — but Mr. In- 
wood tells me that at Winchester it seems quite as common as 
any of the others. It will be seen that all the species found at 
Eyreton, with the exception of Crangonyx cojnpactus, have also 
been found at Winchester. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 



LINNEAN SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Sydney, 27th December, 1883. — C. S. Wilkinson, Esq., F.G.S., 
F.L.S., President, in the chair. 

New member — J. N. Mackintosh. 

Papers — 1. " On the localities of some plants from the southern 
parts of New South Wales," by Baron von Miiller, K.C.M.G., 
F.R.S., &c. The paper contains remarks on, and a list of, a num- 
ber of plants, with their localities, lately collected for the Baron, 
by Mr. Wilhelm Baeuerlen, in thb Clyde River and Utladulla 
districts. 

2. " Descriptions of Australian Microlepidoptera, No. 10," by 
E. Meyrick, B.A. This is a continuance of the (Ecophoridae of 
Australia, and deals with the genera Philobota, Leistomorpha, Comp- 
sotropha, and Enodyta. About 70 new species are described. 

I am informed by the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing that. the name Calliope being 
pre-occupied has been altered to Calliopius. 



90 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

3. " Notes on the Geology of the Southern Portion of the 
Clarence River basin," by Professor Stephens. This was an ac- 
count of the Sugar lands of the Clarence, explaining the mode of 
their formation, and their relation to the coal measures which un- 
derlie them uncomformably. The period of deposition ot these 
latter rocks was also considered, and their immediate superposition 
upon the vertical Siluro-Devonian Slates and Quartzites described. 
The existence of a great N. and S. fault at the present outcrop of 
these rocks was demonstrated, and the probable existence of others 
near the present coast line, supported by various considerations. 

Mr. Macleay read a communication from Baron von Muller, 
on the Orthography ol Linne's name. 

Mr. Macleay also read the following note: — The October num- 
ber of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, contains an 
article on a case of commensalism of a Caranx and a Cvambessa, 
written by M. Godefroy Lunel, and translated by W.S.Dallas, 
F.L.S. In this paper M. Lunel speaks of the commensalism of 
Fishes and Medusae as something doubtful and unknown, but the 
following report of the Royal Commission on the Fisheries of New 
South Wales, written nearly four years ago, will show that the fact 
was well-known to the Commissioners. Alluding to the Yellow- 
tail " Trachurus trachurus " it says : — " The very young fry have a 
most extraordinary and ingenious way of providing for their safety 
and nutrition at the same time ; they take up their quarters inside 
the umbrella of the large Medusae, where they are sate from their 
enemies, and are, without any exertion on their part, supplied 
with the minute organisms which constitute their food, by the con- 
stant current kept up by the action of the curtain-like cilia of the 
animal." 

ANNUAL MEETING. 

Sydney, 30th January, 1884. — C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., Presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

The President delivered an address on the Progress of Science 
in Australia during the past year, and concluded by a general ac- 
count of the Geology of the country, from an economic point of 
view. 

The Treasurer, the Hon. J. Norton, M.L.C., read the balance- 
sheet, showing a credit balance of ^179 12s. id. Of this the sum 
of ^"60 5s. consisted of subscriptions to the Library Fund. 

The Hon. W. Macleay, M.L.C., proposed certain alterations in 
the rules, increasing the number of Vice-presidents, establishing 
the office of Honorary Librarian, and adding one more member to 
the Council. These proposals were carried unanimously. 

The following gentlemen were elected office-bearers for the cur- 
rent year :— President — C. S. Wilkinson, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Vice-presidents — Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woods, F.L.S. , &c, and Dr. 
James C. Cox, F.L.S. Hon. Secretaries — Hon. William Macleay, 
F.L.S., and Professor W. J. Stephens, M.A. Hon. Librarian — 
William A. Haswell, M.A., B.Sc. Hon. Treasurer — Hon. James 
Norton, M.L.C. Council— John Brazier, CM. Z.S.; Dr. Thomas 
Dixson, M.R.C.S. ; J. J. Fletcher, M.A., B.Sc; J. G. Griffen, C.E„ 
A.M.I C.E. ; Edwin Haviland, Esq. ; Hon. P. G. King, M.L.C. ; 
P. R. Pedley, Esq. ; E. P. Ramsay, F.L.S. ; and H. R. Whittell, 
Esq. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 91 

MONTHLY MEETING. 

C. S. Wilkinson, F.G S., &c, President, in the chair. 

New member— Capt. G. R. Stevens, F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. 

Papers — 1, " Supplement to the Descriptive Catalogue of the 
Fishes of Australia," by William Macleay, F.L.S., &c. This paper 
contains references to, or descriptions of, 157 species of Fishes not 
mentioned as Australian in the previously printed catalogue. The 
species here described lor the first time are from the pens of Dr. 
Klunzinger, Dr. Gunther, Messrs. De Vis, Ramsay, Macleay, and 
R. M. Johnston. The total number of Australian Fishes now 
amounts to 1251 species. 

2. " On some new Batrachians from Queensland," by Charles W, 
De Vis, M.A. This paper contains descriptions of three new 
species of Frogs, collected at Mackay > by Mr. H. Ling Roth, and 
named by the author as follows : — Limnodynastes lineatus, approach- 
ing L. Peronii, but distinguished by shorter hind limbs, and con- 
tinuity of dorsal stripes ; L . olivaceus ; and Hyla Rothii. 

3. " On Plants indigenous in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Sydney," by Mr. Haviland. This, the sixth of the series, gives an 
account of some species of the genus Darwinia, showing the sup- 
posed manner of fertilisation, and explaining, to some extent, the 
prevalence of the species D. fascicularis, notwithstanding tne great 
disproportion between the fertilised and the fertilising flowers. 

4. " Studies on the Elasmobranch Skeleton," by William A. 
Haswell, M. A., B.Sc. The species chiefly described are — Garcharo- 
don Rondeletii, Crossorhinus barbatus, Heptanchus indicus, Pristiophorus 
cirratus, Trygonorhina fasciata, Trygon pastinaca, and Hypnos subniger. 
The separation of Crossorhinus from the Scyllidae is regarded as 
fully justified. The existence of a mesial ventral cartilage in rela- 
tion to the pectoral arch of Heptanchus is pointed out, and some 
hitherto unnoticed modifications in the arrangement of the 
branchial arches in Trygonorhina, Trygon, and Hypnos are described. 

Mr. Macleay exhibited for Mr. James Macdonald, who was 
unable to be present, a specimen of a very curious little fish, which 
his nephew, Master John D. Wilson, had captured at the North 
Shore in an empty shell. Mr. Macleay said that it was a species 
of Salarias, and as far as he had been able to examine it, thought 
it was new. 

Mr. Pedley exhibited three specimens ol Centriscus gracilis, an 
extremely rare fish in Port Jackson. 



Sydney, 27th February, 1884. — C. S. Wilkinson, Esq., F.G.S., 
F.L.S., President, in the Chair. 

New member — Dr. R. von Lendenfeld. 

Papers — (1.) " Monograph of the Australian Sponges," by R. 
von Lendenfeld, Ph. D. Part 1. 

This paper is introductory to a monograph upon the Australian 
sponges, large materials for which have already been accumulated 
by the author, partly from his own collections, and partly from 
those in the Museums of Christchurch and Dunedin, New Zealand, 
and of Adelaide, South Australia. The real investigation of this 
branch of the Coelenterata may be said to begin with the work ot 
Grant, 1826 ; to have risen to a new and much higher level under 
\ Schulze, 1875-1881, and to have been continued by Lollas, Keller, 



-92 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Vosmaer, Marshall, the author, and others, with continually in- 
creasing success up to the present time. A sufficient account of 
the Bibliography of the Spongida is p /esented in this paper to en- 
able those interested to find any desired information upon the 
subject, a matter of no small difficulty at present. 

(2.) " The ScyphomcdustB of the Southern Hemisphere," by R. 
von Lendenfeld, Ph. D. Part 1. 

The Scyphomedusce or " Jelly-fish " appear to be more numerous 
in the Southern than in the northern hemisphere. Of the 210 
known species, 104 have already been tound in the former, and as 
the animals of that hemisphere are not nearly so well known as 
those of the Northern, the number of Southern species must 
doubtless be much greater than that mentioned. Only 26 of the 
104 Southern species are Australian, but this apparent poverty of 
the Medusae of our shores, is due to the limited investigation that 
has been made. In this paper all the species of this hemisphere 
are described. 

(3.) " Notices of some new Fishes," by William Macleay, F.L.S., 
&c Four species are here described. Two of them, Platycephalus 
longispinis and Uvolophus bucculentus were taken in. the trawl in deep 
water outside the Heads of Port Jackson. The third, Petrosc'rtes 
Wilsoni, was found by Mr. J. D. Wilson, at the North Shore ; and 
the fourth, Athirinosoma jamiesoni. was a small fresh- water fish from 
the Baemer, one of the head waters of the Brisbane River. 

(4.) " On the improvement effected by the Australian climate, 
soil, and culture on the merino sheep," "by P. N. Trebeck, Esq. 
In this paper Mr. Trebeck traces the changes and improvement 
which wool has undergone in Australia since the first introduction 
of German and Silesian sheep. Samples of the wool of all the 
periods and flocks alluded to, were exhibited. Mr. Trebeck concludes 
his paper by stating his opinion, that the whole of the country on 
our western watershed was eminently suitable for the Merino sheep, 
and that we only required the fostering assistance of an intelligent 
Government to keep in the front ranks of the wool producing 
countries of the world. 

Among numerous other objects exhibited, was a specimen of 
the plant in flower of Swainsonia Greyana, shown by Mr. Whittell. 
The specimen was grown at Petersham, near Sydney, from seed 
collected by Mr. Whittell in the Albert District, where the plant 
seldom attains a height of more than five feet, but the specimen 
exhibited was fully nine feet high. Plants of this genus in various 
parts of this colony are found to be poisonous to sheep and other 
stock that feed upon it. Mr. Whittell also exhibited specimens of 
Lagvia mfescens, sl beetle which was very numerous this year in the 
orchards of the Ryde District, where it had been very destructive 
to fruit. 

The President announced that the Council of the Society had 
been presented by a member of the Society with ^100, accompanied 
with a request that it should be offered as a prize for an essay on 
"The Life History of the Bacillus of Typhoid Fever." The Council 
has assented to the proposal, and advertisements to the effect will 
be immediately inserted in the most prominent scientific publica- 
tions throughout the world. The essay will be received by the 
Society not later than 31st December, 1884. The intention and 
wishes of the donor of the prize will be best given in his own 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 93 

words. " The questions chiefly to be solved in the investigation 
of the Life History of the Bacillus of typhoid fever, are — 1. What 
are the specific characters of the organism, as distinguished from 
other Bacteria ? 2. What are the changes, if any, which the or- 
ganism undergoes in the human body? 3. What are its modes of 
development and reproduction in the human body? 4. What 
changes or metamorphoses, if any, does the organism undergo after 
ejection from the human body, or in any other condition of its 
existence ? 5. What fluids or other substances seem best adapted 
for the growth and multiplication of the organism ? 6. Can the 
organism live or be cultivated in pure or distilled water ? 7. What 
are its limits of endurance of heat, cold, dryness, or humidity ? As 
far as these points are concerned, the author should confine him- 
self entirely to facts which come under his own observation, and 
those should be given in detail, with a full explanation of the 
method of investigation. But in dealing with the results obtained 
by these investigations, and the consideration of the means whereby 
a knowledge of the life history of this most dangerous organism 
may help towards its eradication, the theories and observations of 
others may appropriately be referred to, but in every such case 
the authority must be correctly cited. The chief points to be as- 
certained in this branch of the subject are — 1. How, and under 
what conditions, does the organism get access to the human body ? 
2. How can its growth be impeded, or its vitality destroyed in the 
human body without serious injury to the individual affected ? 3. 
How can it be eradicated or rendered innocuous in wells, water- 
holes, drains, &c." 

The President remarked that the present seemed a very oppor- 
tune time to bring the matter forward, as the subject was now en. 
gaging the serious attention oi medical men, owing to the preva- 
lence of typhoid fever. He had been given to understand that 
Australia offered exceptional opportunities for the investigation of 
the Bacteria, as the climate was favourable for their growth during 
the greater part of the year. He expected, however, that essays 
would be received also from other parts of the world, especially 
from Europe ; and he felt sure that the information which would 
be obtained would be of great value in regard to the treatment of 
typhoid fever and other diseases caused by the different forms of 
Bacteria. It is owing to the unostentatious liberality of the donor 
of the prize that this Society is afforded the happy prospect of 
doing such great good ; lor it is in deference to the wishes of the 
member who has made this munificent gift that his name should 
not be published in connection with it, but that the prize should 
be offered by the Society. 



WELLINGTON PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

ANNUAL MEETING. 

Wellington, 13th February, 1884.— Dr. Buller, F.R.S., Presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

New members — Rev. H. van Steveren, Messrs. F. H. Penne- 
father, Richmond, and W. F. Wheeler. 

Papers — 1. " New Species of New Zealand Plants." The fol- 
lowing are described and figured : — Plagianthus linariifolia, Sophom 
prostrata, Carmichaelia uniflova, Hectorella elongata, and Pleurophyllum 
hookeri. 



94 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

2. " Notes on some Australian Plants new to New Zealand." 

3. " Three days in Campbell Island, with illustrations in pen 
All three by Mr. J. Buchanan, F.L.S. 

and ink." 

4. " Non-Euclidian Geometry vindicated," by F. W. Frankland, 
being a reply to Mr. Skey. 

5. "On the Lichenographia of New Zealand," by Dr. Knight, 
F.L.S , &c. 

The following is a list of the lichens described and illustrated 
in this paper : — 

1. Pilophovon Colensoi (Bab.) Knight. 

Syn. Steveocaulon Colensoi (Bab.) " Flora N.Z.," Vol. II., p. 294. 
** Nylander Syst. Lich.," p. 232. 

2. Myviangium Duvicei (Mont.) 

3. Physcia adglutinata (Flk.) 

4. ,, synthalea, sp. n. 

5. Pannaria bvunnea (Sw.), var. pulvevulenta (Knight). 

6. Lecanora cyvtospova, sp.n. 

7. Pertusaria cupulavis, sp. n. 

8. ,, Icevis, sp. n. 

9. Lecidea atrolurida, sp. n. 

10. ,, (Bombyliospova) monospora, sp. n. 

11. ,, (Sporastatia) desmaspova, sp. n. 

12. Avthonia phymatodes, sp. n. 

13. Opegrapha spodoelceina, sp. n. 

14. ,, stellata, sp. n. 

15. ,, inter texta, sp. n. 

16. Gvaphis strigata, sp. n. 

17. ,, librata, sp. n. 

18. Fissuvina vugosa, sp. n. 

19. ,, alba, sp. n. 

20. Tvypethelium bicolor, sp. n. 

21. Stigmatidinm pvominulum, sp. n. 

22. Verrucaria mycospova, sp. n, 

23. ,, olivaceo-fusca, sp. n. 

24. Odontrema concentricum (Stirton). 

In reference to Pilophoron Colensoi, it has hitherto been referred 
to Steveocaulon by Nylander, Fries, Babington, and others. Its 
simple spores, now first described, determine the true relation of 
Colenso's plant. Professor Fries in his " Monographia " considers 
it probable that it is a form of Steveocaulon avgns ; while Dr. N\ lander 
was inclined to divide the genus Steveocaulon, and place this interest- 
ing lichen under a new genus — Covynophovon. Relegated to Palo- 
phovon, it establishes another link of continuity between Cladonia 
and Steveocaulon. 

Dr. Knight finds that Myviangium Duvicei has no true thallus, 
but a mere cellular torus (devoid of gonidia), which rapidly loses 
all trace of structure by carbonisation. 

6. " Sunset Glows," by Dr. Hector. 

The following is an abstract of the Annual Report : — 

The Society held ten general meetings and a conversazione, 

the average attendance being larger than usual. At these 

40 papers were read, viz.: 6 on geology, 6 on zoology, 13 on 

botany, 2 on chemistry, and 13 on miscellaneous subjects. There 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 95 

were now 247 members on the roll, 15 having been added during 

the year. 

The balance sheet showed the total receipts to have been ^"316 

15s. yd. (including a balance from the previous year of ^105 14s. 

yd.), and the expenditure ^171 13s. 8d., leaving a balance in hand 

of £145 is. 1 id. 

The President, Dr. Buller, then delivered his annual address.* 
The election of office-bearers for the ensuing year resulted as 

follows :— President— Dr Buller, F R.S.,C M.G.; Vice-presidents— 

Dr. Newman and Mr. R. W. Govett ; Council — Drs. Hector, 

F.R.S., Grabham, and Hutchinson, Messrs. W. T. L. Travers, 

F.L.S., Cox, Chapman, and King ; Hon. Secretary and Treasurer — 

Mr. R. B. Gore ; Auditor— Mr. H. Logan. 



PHILOSOPHICAL INSTITUTE OF CANTERBURY. 

Christchurch, 6th March, 1884.— Mr. R. W. Fereday, Presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

Papers — 1. Professor Hutton gave an address on Earthquakes. 
He explained the movements of the earth during the shock, and 
the effects produced by shocks on buildings, &c. He then ex- 
plained the origin of the earthquake waves, and said that, accord- 
ing to some scientific men, even the remarkable red sunsets seen 
during the last five months may be regarded as an indirect effect 
of the great earthquake and volcanic explosion that took place in 
the Straits of Sunda on August 27th and 28th. He then men- 
tioned the earthquakes in New Zealand, and exhibited a drawing 
of an under-cut rock pinnacle on the Lyttelton hills, which proved, 
in his opinion, that no severe earthquake had occurred in that 
district for many thousands of years. 

Mr. A. Ringwood agreed that the red sunsets were due to the 
fine dust in the air left by the explosion of Krakatoa ; this dust 
had been driven 40 miles high, above the ordinary currents of the 
atmosphere, and had spread over the whole globe. It was probably 
kept from falling by having the same kind of electricity as the 
earth, and consequently repelled by it. He thought that this dust 
mantle was sufficient to intercept a considerable portion of the 
sun's rays, and was thus the cause of our remarkably cold summer. 

Mr. Hogben thought that earthquakes were caused bythe cool- 
ing and shrinking of the earth's crust. He doubted the opinion 
that the red sunsets were caused by volcanic dust, he thought that 
an extra amount of aqueous vapour in the air might be the true ex- 
planation. 

Mr. Inglis described some fissures produced by earthquakes in 
the Manawatu district, in Wellington, the most remarkable of 
which ran along the crest of a sand hill. He also mentioned that 
the chimney of his house was partly twisted round by the shock. 

Mr. Dobson described the fissured structure of some rocks in 
Victoria, which he considered had been caused by three successive 
earthquakes from three different directions. 

Dr. Bakewell mentioned his experiences of earthquakes in 
Trinidad and elsewhere. 

Mr. Lambert thought that the sands and gravels under Christ- 
church would act as a cushion to deaden earthquake shocks, and 
consequently he did not fear any dangerous ones taking place there. 

* Given in full at page 55. 



g6 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

THE PHYLOGENY OF THE HIGHER CRUSTACEA* 



UY \V. K. BROOKS. 



The class Crustacea is one of the dominant groups of the 
animal kingdom, and it includes a very considerable propor- 
tion of our living animals. Its representatives are extremely 
diversified in structure ; and a single order, such as the Decapoda, 
includes a much greater variety and diversity of forms than the 
whole class of insects. It is very rich in primitive and transi- 
tional forms ; and when we add to this that there is no group in 
which our embryological knowledge is more rich and varied, or 
in which the embryological history of the individual throws so 
much light upon the evolution of the race, its importance as a 
means lor tracing the actual history of the evolution of species 
is obvious. In fact, most of the problems in the logic of morpho- 
logical reasoning, are, in great part at least, problems in the 
morphology of the Crustacea. 

Since the awakening in natural science which followed the 
publication of the " Origin of Species," many naturalists have 
attempted to disentangle the story of the phylogeny of the Crus- 
tacea. Some of these attempts, such as Miiller's " Fiir Darwin " 
and Huxley's " Crayfish," are familiar to all ; while others, such 
as Claus' " Crustaceen System," are known to none except 
specialists. The latest attempt in this field (" Studien uber die 
verwandschaftsbeziehungen," by Dr. J. E. V. Boas, Morph. 
JaJirb., viii. 4, 1883) is, to say the least, a very valuable addition 
to crustacean morphology, as well as an interesting study in 
scientific logic. Its results seem to be a close approximation to 
the true natural classification of the higher Crustacea, and it 
should therefore receive the careful attention of all naturalists, 
and of all who wish to be informed regarding the methods of 
thought in morphology ; but, as it is from necessity filled with 
minute details, which would be formidable to all except specialists, 
the general reader must be contented with a summary of the 
results. 

The proof that the crabs are descended from long-tailed de- 
capods is familiar to all naturalists ; and no one can doubt, that, 
among these, the swimming decapods, such as Penaeus, are the 
most primitive. So far, the phylogeny of the decapods may be 
regarded as definitely settled, and Boas proposes no modification 
of the accepted view ; but his opinion regarding the origin of 
the swimming decapods from the lower Crustacea is novel, and 
the evidence which he furnishes seems to be conclusive. The 
Decapoda are generally regarded as the modified descendants of 
the Schizopods ; but Boas points out that the order Schizopoda 
is not a natural group, since the animals which have been in- 
cluded in it belong to two widely separated orders. 

* Extracted from "Science," Vol.11., p. 790 (December 21, 1883). 



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THE 

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[No. a^^II- 




JUL of sua 



DEVOTED TO THE FURTHERANCE OF 
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Judicio perpende : et si tibi vera videntur 

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CONTENTS : 

Phylogeny of the Higher Crustacea. By W. K. Brooks 

Bacteria. By Prof. T. Jeffery Parker 

On Lepidopus Caudatus, Gunth (Frost -fish). By Dr. R. v. Lendenfeld 

Correspondence — ... 

The N.Z. Institute — The Timber of Nesodaphne Taiva. 

Biographical Notices — 

I.— Julius von Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S., C.M.G., &c. (with portrait). 

Notes on Insect Life. By Alex. Purdie, M.A. 

University Notes 

General Notes — 

Auckland Institute- and Museum — University of New Zealand (Honours in Science) — Acaena 
Huttonii (Brown) — Mr. J. H. .Cox — Psepholax- tibialis and P. coronatus — Torpedo Ray — 
Earthquakes— PJants suitab e for Cultivation in New Zealand— What a Museum should 
be — Dactylanthus Taylori — Large Shark — Ants— Pure Carminic Acid for Coloring Micro- 
scopical Preparations. 

The New Zealand Institute. By Coleman Phillips ... .. ., 

Review 

The Law of Heredity. 

Meetings of Societies— 

Philosophical Institute of Canterbury — Linncan Society of New South Wales. 



PAGE 

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112 

116 
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THE PHYLOGENY OF THE HIGHER CRUSTACEA. 97 

According to this author, the Euphausiacea and the Mysida- 
cea are not at all intimately related. The latter are not in the 
line which leads to the Decapoda, and there is no natural group 
Schizopoda. He therefore divides the group into two orders, — 
the Euphausiacea and the Mysidacea : the former including the 
primitive unspecialised forms through which the Decapoda have 
been evolved from the lower Crustacea ; and the latter containing 
highly specialised forms, which have been evolved from the Eu- 
phausiacea along an independent line, and which have no direct 
relationship to the Decapoda. He holds that the Euphausiacea 
are a synthetic group of Crustacea which has given rise to several 
divergent groups of descendants. Of these the decapod stem 
has undergone the least modification. A second stem, the My- 
sidacea, has diverged in an entirely different direction, and has, 
in its turn, given rise to the Cumacea, and through these to the 
Amphipods and Isopods, the latter being the most highly modi- 
fied of the Malacostraca. A third line of descent from the 
Euphausiacea has given rise to the Squillacea. 

The recognition by Boas of the fact that the group Schizo- 
poda is not a natural one, and the discovery that the animals 
which have been thus associated may be divided into a very 
primitive group, the Euphausiacea, and a highly specialised 
group, the Mysidacea, seems to be a very great advance in crus- 
tacean morphology. He gives the following definition of the 
Euphausiacea : — 

Malacostraca, with the mid-body and abdomen compressed, 
with a well-marked bend in the abdomen ; carapace well de- 
veloped ; the last segment of the mid-body a complete ring ; 
eyes stalked ; antennae with a large scale ; mandible simple ; 
first maxilla with broad, one-jointed palp, and with well-deve- 
loped exopodite ; second maxilla with a similar palp, and with 
exopodite, and a cleft lacinia interna. The appendages of the 
mid-body or cormopods all have a well-developed exopodite, 
and an epipodite which is subdivided in all except the first pair, 
where it is simple. The endopodite is thin and weak, and it 
does not end in a sharp point : it is more or less rudimentary on 
the last two pairs. The first cormopods are not specialized as 
maxillipeds, but are like the others. The abdominal feet are 
powerful swimming organs, with an appendix interna. In the 
male the first or most anterior ones are specialized as copulatory 
organs. The tail-fins are well developed. The liver is com- 
posed of a great number of small lobes. The heart is short and 
wide. The halves of the reproductive organ are united by a 
transverse unpaired portion. Spermatophores are present, and 
the spermatozoa are simple round cells. There is an antennary 
gland. The young leaves the egg as a free-swimming nauplius, 
and the carapace of the older larva is a great phyllopod-like 
mantle. 

It is easy to trace the relationship between this group and the 
decapods, on the one side, and, on the other side, through Ne- 
balia, to the Phyllopods and lower Crustacea. 



98 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

The Dccapoda natantia resemble the Euphausiacea in many 
conspicuous and highly important particulars. In these two 
groups alone, among the Malacostraca, we have a free-swimming 
nauplius ; and in both the carapace of the larva is a great 
mantle. The abdomen is bent in both, and the integument is 
horny. The carapace, the abdominal appendages, the large tail- 
fin, and the pointed telson are alike in both. The endopodite of 
the first pleopod is a copulatory organ in the decapods as well 
as in the Euphausiacea; and spermatophores are almost universal 
in these two groups, while they are found in no other Malacostraca. 

The close relationship between these two groups can hardly 
be questioned ; nor is it difficult to show that the Euphausiacea 
arc the primitive, and the Decapod the derived, form. In the 
presence of simple epipodites, and of a four-jointed palp on the 
first maxilla, the PenaBadae are nearer to the phyllopods than 
Euphausia ; but in all other respects Euphausia is the most 
primitive, and it shows its close relationship to the lower Crus- 
tacea by many characteristics, among which are the following: — 
The terminal joint of the cormopod is rounded and blunt, as it 
is in Nebalia, instead of being pointed, as it is in all the Mala- 
costraca except Nebalia. There are no specialized maxillipeds ; 
but the first cormopod is like all the others, as it is in Nebalia, 
and all the cormopods are furnished with exopodite and epipo- 
dite ; while in all other Malacostraca there are true maxillipeds ; 
and either the exopodites or the endopodites, or both, are 
absent on some or on all the cormopods. The antenna has a 
well-developed exopodite ; and in the young this is flabellum- 
like, and very similar to that of the adult Limnadia, or Estheria. 
This feature of resemblance to the lower Crustacea is shared by 
the young of the Decapoda natantia. The first maxilla has a 
large exopodite ; while this is rudimentary in the Decapoda and 
Mysidacea, the only other Malacostraca where it occurs at all. 
The pleopods are much like those of Nebalia : they are efficient 
swimming organs, and are provided with an appendix interna. 
The spermatozoa, like those of the phyllopods, are simple round 
cells without tails ; and this is true of no other Malacostraca 
except the Squillas. 

While the Euphausiacea are thus seen to be very much like 
the phyllopods in so many important features, they are true 
Malacostraca ; but they have deviated greatly from their phyl- 
lopod ancestor, and have acquired a small carapace, differentiated 
cormopods with long slender endopodite, small exopodite divided 
into shaft and flabellum, and an epipodite which is purely res- 
piratory. They also differ from Nebalia in the possession of 
that distinctively Malacostracan organ, a tail-fin, made up of a 
telson and a pair of swimmerets. 

The relationship of Nebalia to the Malacostraca on the one 
hand, and to the phyllopods on the other, has long been recog- 
nised, and Claus has even gone as far as to hold that this form 
is a true Malacostracan ; but Boas believes that it is neither a 
true Malacostracan, nor the phyllopod from which the Malacos- 



THE PHYLOGENY OF THE HIGHER CRUSTACEA. 99 

traca originated, but simply the nearest living ally of this ances- 
tral form. 

He believes that the presence of a great mantle-like cara- 
pace, of eight unspecialized broad cormopods with leaf-like exo- 
podites, of a furcated abdomen without tail-fins, and of eight 
abdominal somites, show that it is not a Malacostracan, but a 
phyllopod, As many phyllopods, such as Limnetis and the 
Cladocera, have, like the Malacostraca, an exopodite on the 
second antenna, we must believe that the Malacostraca have in- 
herited this feature from their phyllopod ancestor ; and, as it is 
absent in Nebalia, this form cannot be the direct ancestor of the 
Malacostraca. So, too, the fifth and sixth pairs of abdominal 
feet are rudimentary in Nebalia, while they are well developed 
in nearly all Malacostraca. As most of the phyllopods and 
some of the Malacostraca leave the &gg as a free-swimming nau- 
plius, we must believe that this was true of the phyllopod ances- 
tor of the Malacostraca ; but as Nebalia does not pass through a 
free nauplius stage, but leaves the egg in a more advanced con- 
dition, it cannot be in the direct line of evolution. Boas there- 
fore concludes that Nebalia is a true phyllopod, and that the 
Malacostraca have originated from a form somewhat different, 
although Nebalia is the closest living ally of this ancestral form. 

Having thus traced the decapods back through the Euphau- 
siacea to a phyllopod ancestor very similar to the recent Nebalia, 
we have now to trace the ancestry of the other Malacostraca. 
Boas holds that squilloids are a branch from the Euphausiacea, 
and that the Mysidacea have been derived from the Euphausia- 
cea along still another line of descent, and have in their turn, 
given rise to all the remaining groups of Malacostraca. 

The Mysidacea differ from the Euphausiacea and the deca- 
pods in many features which they show in common with the 
Cumacea and the amphipods and isopods ; and it is not difficult 
to show that, in these points of difference, the Euphausiacea are 
the primitive group, and the Mysidacea the modified group. 

In Euphausia, as in the swimming decapods, the body and 
abdomen are compressed ; while they are flattened and rounded 
in the Mysidacea, and the tip of the abdomen is directed back- 
wards, lacking the peculiar bend of Euphausia and Penaeus. 

The structure of the mandible is very instructive. In Mysis, 
as well as in Cumacea and amphipods and isopods, the mandi- 
ble is forked, the cutting part being widely separated from the 
crushing part ; and between the two there is a row of setae, and 
a peculiar accessary appendix. In Euphausia and the decapods 
the appendix and row of setae are absent, and the chewing part 

I is hardly separated from the crushing part. In Mysis, as in 
Cuma and the amphipods and isopods, the palp and exopodite 
of the first maxilla are absent, and the laciniae are turned for- 
wards as well as inwards ; and in all these forms the laciniae of 
the second maxilla are directed forwards. They overlap, and 
the lacinia interna is undivided. In Euphausia, the decapods, 
and squillas, there are no brood-pouches ; but these structures 



100 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

are present in Mysis, as well as in the Edriophthalmata, and 
they are formed in essentially the same way in all, — by plates 
which are developed on the basal joints of certain of the cormo- 
pods. In all these forms the young pass through a long meta- 
morphosis within these pouches. The liver is comparatively 
simple. There are no spermatophores, and the spermatozoa 
have tails. The Cumacea are regarded by Boas as a greatly 
modified offshoot from the Mysidacea ; and the amphipods and 
isopods are derived from an ancestral form somewhat like, but 
more primitive than the living Cumacea. 

As regards the position of the amphipods and isopods, Boas' 
view is directly opposite to that which has been generally 
accepted ; as he regards these as the most highly specialised 
and divergent of the Malacostraca, instead of low and primitive 
forms. The conspicuous segmentation of the nervous system, 
the absence of a carapace, the sessile position of the eyes, the 
great number of similar somites, the worm-like shape of the 
body, and the elongation of the heart, — all seem at first sight to 
show that these forms are ancient and low. Boas points out 
that the nervous system gives no proof of a primitive condition, 
as there are as many independent ganglia in Mysis as there are 
in the sessile-eyed Crustacea. It is true that the heart is longer 
than it is in Mysis ; but there are only three pairs of ostia, and 
the length of the heart, as compared with that of the mid-body, 
is no greater than it is in Mysis. As the eyes are stalked in 
Nebalia, the nearest ally of the Malacostraca, all of the latter 
must have inherited stalked eyes from their phyllopod ancestors, 
cind the sessile eyes of the Edriophthalmata must be due to 
secondary modification. So, too, regarding the absence of a 
carapace. As the Malacostraca inherits this structure from the 
phyllopods, those forms in which it is absent must have lost it 
by secondary modification. The same thing is true of the ab- 
sence of a scale on the antenna. There is, therefore, no proof 
that these animals are primitive ; and the many points of resem- 
blance to the Mysidacea which we have just noticed show the 
close relationship between these groups. But a? the Mysidacea, 
like the Euphausia and the decapods, have stalked eyes, a cara- 
pace, and a fused mid-body, exopodites in first maxillae, exopo- 
dites and palpi in second maxilke and on cormopods, and as a 
seventh abdominal segment is present, we must believe that the 
Mysidacea are the more primitive group, and the Edriophthal- 
mata their recently modified and highly specialised descendants. 

Boas believes that most of these differences are due to the 
fact that the Edriophthalmata have become adapted for running 
instead of swimming ; and he thus explains the loss of the exo- 
podites of the cormopods, the strengthening of the endopodites, 
the shortening of the abdomen, the loss of power in thepleopods, 
the flatness of the body and abdomen, the thickening of the in- 
tegument, and the loss of eye-stalks and of the antennary scale. 
The respiratory function of the pleopods he attributes to the loss 
of the carapace, and the thickening of the integument, 



THE PHYLOGENY OF THE HIGHER CRUSTACEA. 



IOI 



The general conclusions of this highly suggestive and in- 
teresting paper may be summarised as follows : — 

The Malacostraca are descended from the phyllopods, among 
which Nebalia is their nearest relative. The Euphausiacea are 
the most primitive Malacostraca. The decapods originated from 
the Euphausiacea, although the most primitive decapods, the 
Natantia, are now widely separated from this ancestral form. 
The Squillacea stand by themselves, their nearest, although dis- 
tant, allies being the Euphausiacea. They show in certain 
points a more primitive condition than any other Malacostraca ; 
although, as a whole, they are highly modified. The Mysidacea 
are also derived from the Euphausiacea ; although they are so 
different from them that they must be placed in a distinct order, 
and the group Schizopoda must be abandoned. The Mysidacea 
have no close relationship to the decapods. The Cumacea arise 
from the Mysidacea, and the amphipods and isopods from a form 
between the Mysidacea and the Cumacea. The amphipods and 
isopods are not a primitive group distantly related to the Po- 
dophthalmata, but they are the most highly specialized of the 
Malacostraca. 

He gives the following as his phylogenetic classification of 
the Crustacea : — 

Amphipoda. 



Mysidacea, 



Squillacea 




Eupha 



Lophogastrida. 



Decapoda. 



usiacea. 



Nebalia 



Phyllopoda. 



102 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

BACTERIA* 



(Continued from p. 54..) 

A beam from the electric light passed through the two side 
windows, at first reveals "motes" or atmospheric dust inside the 
chamber as well as outside, but after a few days the beam shows 
an entire absence of motes inside the chamber. The dust has, 
in fact, all fallen on to the bottom and sides of the chamber, 
where it has been caught by the sticky glycerine, and any living 
germs in it killed. When the dust has thoroughly subsided, the 
tubes are filled by means of the funnel, which is afterwards 
plugged with cotton wool moistened with glycerine. A vessel 
filled with brine is now brought under the apparatus, and raised 
until the lower ends of all the tubes are immersed in the brine, 
which is then thoroughly boiled for some time. The ends of 
the bent tubes are then temporarily plugged with cotton wool, 
the brine bath removed, and the fluids allowed to cool. Finally 
the wool plugs are removed from the bent tubes, so as to place 
the fluids in free communication with the air. In this case any 
germs carried into the bent tubes by currents of air are certain 
to be caught in one or other of the bends and killed by the gly- 
cerine, since it is practically impossible that any particle should 
take the zig-zag course necessary for entrance into the chamber 
without ever touching the sides of the tube. 

Except in cases which I shall discuss hereafter, these experi- 
ments, if carefully prepared, all give the same result — putrefac- 
tion does not occur, the fluid remaining clear and sweet for any 
length of time. Pasteur and Tyndall made experiments of the 
sort literally by hundreds. I knew of one flask plugged with 
cotton wool which remained unaltered for fully seven years in 
London, and was still unaltered when I left. In the Dunedin 
Museum I have a Tyndall's chamber containing infusions of hay, 
turnip, mutton, and fish, and sealed tubes of mutton and turnip 
infusion which were prepared in May, 1882, and none of which 
shew the slightest sign of putrefaction. 

I mentioned incidentally that there was an exception to the 
rule that in carefully-conducted experiments of this sort putre- 
faction did not occur. Professor Tyndall found, at one stage of 
his experiments, that infusions made of old hay always putrefied, 
however long they were boiled, and whatever care was taken to 
exclude germs. 

The way Tyndall grappled with this apparently anomalous 
result gives a very good practical instance of scientific method. 
Many observers would have immediately jumped to the conclu- 
sion that at last there was clear proof of spontaneous generation. 
Tyndall, on the other hand, argued something like this : — Thou- 

*A lecture delivered at the Oamaru Athenaeum and Mechanics' Institute, on 
30th January, 1884, by Prof. T. Jeffcry Parker. 



BACTERIA. 103 

sands of infusions of all sorts exposed to exactly the same con- 
ditions as this infusion of old hay, have shown no development 
of life : is it not more likely that, owing to some at present un- 
known cause, the germs in this infusion were not killed by boil- 
ing, than that spontaneous generation occurred in this case and 
in no other ? 

He next tried if he could invent any reasonable hypothesis 
to account for the development of bacteria in these particular in- 
fusions, and finally arrived at the following : — Ordinary seeds — 
such as those of the common pea or bean, for instance — are, 
when fresh, easily boiled to a pulp and killed, but when 
thoroughly dried will bear prolonged boiling without becoming 
softened ; there are some seeds, indeed, which horticulturists 
regularly boil for some time before sowing. Why should not 
the same thing occur with the spores of Bacteria : was it not 
conceivable that prolonged exposure to a dry atmosphere — as 
would be the case in spores adhering to old hay — should so shrivel 
and harden these minute germs that even long application of 
the boiling temperature should be insufficient to kill them ? 

Having made the hypothesis, the next thing was to test its 
truth by making deductions from it and finding if these deduc- 
tions were in accordance with fact ; i.e.. to apply the method of 
verification. He said : If the hypothesis is true, the time taken to 
soften any spore will be roughly proportional to its age. Let us 
suppose our fluid to contain germs of very various ages. Just as if 
we had a bushel of peas of all degrees of dryness, a short boiling 
would completely soften the freshest, while it would hardly affect 
the driest ; so in this case. A short boiling will kill all adult 
bacteria and perfectly fresh spores, but will only begin to soften 
older and drier spores. If, now, the fluid is placed aside for some 
hours, the least hardened of the unkilled spores will be softened 
and made ready to germinate : application of the boiling tempera- 
ture at this stage will kill them and begin to soften the next 
oldest. In this way, the application of heat at intervals for seve- 
ral days will kill the oldest and driest spores, since at the end of 
that time even these will be softened and ready to germinate. 
Tyndall verified this deduction by performing hundreds of new 
experiments on old hay infusion, and found that in every case 
the most obstinate infusion had all its germs infallibly killed by 
this method of" discontinuous heating." 

On the whole, therefore, I think we may conclude that the 
results of recent research lend no support whatever to the 
doctrine of spontaneous generation. 

It must be borne in mind that in any case in which an organic 
infusion has remained unaltered for any length of time by being 
protected from atmospheric germs, the introduction of the smallest 
particle of a putrefying infusion or of the scum of a dried putre- 
faction will infallibly cause it to putrefy. 

It may be said of all I have told you so far, that it is doubtless 
very interesting from a scientific point of view, but that it is of no 
great practical importance. But the researches into this subject 



104 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

— apparently so remote from all direct human interest — have 
begun what promises to be a complete revolution in the Science 
of Medicine. 

Most of the great applications of science begin in this way. 
A few enthusiasts work at some apparently insignificant subject 
from pure love of knowledge, often with the result of being looked 
upon by their contemporaries as a sort of harmless madmen. 
Indeed in times past such persons were generally considered 
more mad than harmless, and sometimes had to pay very dearly 
for their eccentricity. But it is usually found, sooner or later, 
that those who are supposed to have become mad with overmuch 
learning are the very men who finally succeed in turning the 
world upside down. 

In the present case the study of Bacteria has given birth to 
the Germ Theory of disease. 

It is a matter of common observation that certain diseases — 
scarlet fever, typhus, measles, diphtheria, small-pox, cholera, etc., 
are infectious — that is, can be transmitted from person to person. 
Whenever an outbreak of one of these diseases is thoroughly 
investigated, it can always be traced to some definite cause, such 
as the arrival of an infected person in a previously healthy locality. 

In all diseases of this sort a regular series of stages is gone 
through : after the complaint has been " caught," there is a pe- 
riod of incubation, during which no morbid symptoms are mani- 
fest ; then the characteristic symptoms of the particular disease 
appear, the patient sickens, and the symptoms develope until 
the paroxysm of the disease is reached. Then, unless death 
supervenes, there is a remission of the morbid symptoms, the 
patient becoming gradually convalescent. It is at this period, 
however, that the risk of infection is greatest. But the patient 
himself is usually safe for the future from this particular disease. 

There is a close analogy between the course of these diseases 
and the putrefactive changes in hay-infusion produced by Bacillus 
subtilis : the spores found in the hay remain latent for a time, 
i.e. until they are thoroughly soaked with the fluid and rendered 
fit for germination ; then the bacilli gradually increase until 
putrefaction is at its height ; a scum forms in which they elon- 
gate into filaments and form spores, the active bacilli in the fluid 
gradually diminishing. Hereafter the fluid is no longer able to 
support the existence of B. subtilis ; it may, how r ever, support 
that of other putrefactive organisms, and it is itself virulently in- 
fective. 

Of all diseases belonging to this class the one which has been 
most thoroughly worked out is Splenic fever, or Distemper as it 
is sometimes called. It chiefly attacks cattle, sheep, etc., but 
sometimes also man. Its fatal character is such that in a single 
district in Russia, in a period of three years, it caused the death 
of 56,000 horses, cows, and sheep, and of 528 human beings. It 
is so infectious that in any place where there has once been an 
epidemic the contagion seems to hang about for years, causing 
continual fresh outbreaks. 



BACTERIA. 1 05 

The blood of animals suffering from splenic fever is found to 
contain multitudes of Bacteria almost indistinguishable in ap- 
pearance from the still condition of the Bacillus of hay-infusion, 
but differing totally in properties. The Bacillus of hay-infusion 
if injected into the body of a healthy animal produces no morbid 
symptoms ; the Bacillus of Distemper, on the other hand, infal- 
libly produces an attack of the disease. Again, the Bacillus of 
Distemper will not live in hay-infusion. The two are therefore 
considered to be distinct species ; the hay-bacillus is called B. 
stcbtilis, the distemper-bacillus B. anthracis, " anthrax " being 
another name for the disease. 

The history of this distemper was worked out by a German 
physician named Koch. He found that all the time the disease 
was going on, the bacilli multiplied in the usual way, by division, 
in the blood and tissues ; but that when the animal was dead, 
the process of spore-formation began. He also found that blood 
containing bacilli, without spores, retained its infective character 
for about five weeks ; that is, that for five weeks after being 
taken from the body of an infected animal a drop of blood in- 
jected into a healthy one produced an attack of the disease, but 
that after that time it was harmless. On the other hand, it was 
found that blood containing spores retained its power of pro- 
ducing the disease for many years. 

You will see at once how this bears on the ordinary infectious 
diseases to which mankind are subject — on the fact, e. g., that 
scarlet-fever infection will hang about a house for many months 
if the most elaborate precautions are not taken for disinfection 
by stripping off old wall-papers, washing with carbolic acid, 
painting or whitewashing, etc. 

Positive proof that Bacillus anthracis was the cause of Dis- 
temper was afforded by cultivating the organism in various nu- 
trient liquids — apart from the animal body, — and findingthat after 
living in this way for many generations, the injection of a drop of 
fluid containing it invariably produced the disease. It must be 
noticed that the effect of inoculation with disease-bacteria is quite 
different to that of an ordinary poison. In the latter the effect is 
proportional to the dose ; with the bacteria, on the other hand, 
an infinitesimal dose produces all the effects, since the organism 
immediately begins to multiply in the body of the subject. 

It is proverbially difficult to fight an unseen enemy, and it 
will be evident to you all that a very important step was taken 
when the full history of the contagion of splenic fever was thus 
made out. Further experiments were, however, attended with 
even more practical results. 

Splenic fever is fatal both to hoofed animals such as sheep, 
cattle, etc., and to rodents or gnawing animals, such as mice, 
rabbits, and guinea-pigs. Dr. Burdon-Sanderson found, some 
years ago, that a calf inoculated with the blood of a guinea-pig 
which had died of the fever, took the disease in a mild form, not 
fatally as it would have done if inoculated with the diseased 
blood of one of its own kind ; the difference was somewhat simi- 



106 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

lar to that existing between small-pox and the slight illness 
produced by vaccination. This experiment was followed up, 
and it was found that cattle which had had the mild form of 
the disease by inoculation from a guinea-pig were thereafter 
safe from infection with the ordinary or fatal form. They had 
in fact been " vaccinated " (to extend the meaning of that word) 
for splenic fever. 

M. Pasteur tried some experiments with a view of actually 
curing animals suffering from Distemper. It was known that 
birds were not subject to this disease. Pasteur thought that, as 
Bacteria are often very susceptible to temperature, this circum- 
stance might be due to the heat of their blood, which is about 
io° or 12° higher than that of mammals. He artificially lowered 
the temperature of birds, by keeping their feet in cold water, and 
then inoculating them produced a fatal attack of the fever. 
Conversely he raised the temperature of inoculated guinea-pigs 
— otherwise doomed to certain death — and saved their lives. 

These researches point to the possibility of preventing or 
curing the terrible infectious diseases which make such havoc 
among us. It may be urged that life will be hardly worth having 
if we are to be " vaccinated," not only for small-pox but for ty- 
phus, diphtheria, whooping-cough, measles, consumption, and 
the rest ; but the fact remains that the outworks of one of the 
most terrible enemies of the human race have been successfully 
stormed : may we not hope that, sooner or later, the capture of 
the citadel is certain ? 

I may point out that the practical importance of the germ 
theory is reduced to a minimum if the theory of spontaneous 
generation be true, since in that case Bacteria may at any time 
be formed spontaneously in the tissues, and no efforts to keep 
out germs will be of any avail. 

I have taken splenic fever as a type of infectious diseases, be- 
cause it is the one which has been most thoroughly worked out 
and in which the fact that Bacteria are the actual cause of the 
symptoms is most certain ; but other complaints are being inves- 
tigated, and already the bacterial nature of several is no longer 
doubtful. 

One case in which I believe there can be no longer any 
doubt is that of tuberculosis, the lung disease which is the chief 
symptom of consumption. As in the case of splenic fever, Koch 
has discovered a bacillus which is invariably present in tubercleand 
in the saliva of consumptive patients, and which, cultivated apart 
from the living body, is capable of producing the disease by 
inoculation. 

Similarly, erysipelas is certainly, and diphtheria and pneumo- 
nia arc probably, due to species of Micrococcus, a small globular 
form of bacteria ; chicken-cholera, a fatal disease from which the 
domestic fowl suffers, to a true Bacterium ; glanders to a Bacillus ; 
and relapsing fever to a Spirochcete, a sort of very long and 
flexible Spirillum. There is also some reason to think that many 
other diseases, such as scarlatina, measles, typhus, dysentery, 



BACTERIA. I07 

whooping-cough, typhoid fever, malaria, diphtheria, and leprosy, 
are due to the presence of other forms of Bacteria, but the evi- 
dence in all these cases is at present very incomplete. 

Koch's last work in this direction has been the investigation 
of cholera from the standpoint of the germ theory. As many 
of you have no doubt seen in the daily papers, he and a few fel- 
low-workers went to Egypt during the late epidemic, and have 
now proceeded to India for the same purpose. If this enquiry 
is crowned with success, the defeat of Arabi will sink into insig- 
nificance before this new Egyptian campaign against the most 
terrible scourge of modern times. 

The study of these disease-ferments, like every other biolo- 
gical enquiry, brings us face to face with the question — What 
was the origin of these things ? Creation or Evolution ? Were 
the various species of disease-producing Bacteria specially created 
each in the body of the first man or animal to suffer from the 
disease ; or were they, to begin with, formed by a natural pro- 
cess of change from other species —for instance, from ordinary 
putrefactive but not disease-producing Bacteria ? We know 
that the higher animals which suffer from the diseases in ques- 
tion came into existence at a comparatively late period of the 
world's history, and that for long ages after the earth was fitted 
to support animal life there were neither birds nor mammals 
existing upon it. It is further known that the special Bacteria 
which cause disease cannot under ordinary circumstances live 
altogether apart from the animals they infest, so that it may be 
taken as tolerably certain that they came into existence after 
their hosts. The question may therefore be stated thus : — Did 
certain ordinary putrefactive Bacteria undergo gradual changes 
of habit, mode of life, etc., until they became fitted to live .only 
in the blood or other tissues of the higher animals, thus being 
evolved into disease-ferments, or were the latter created anew in 
the tissues ? Now, to say that this latter event took place is 
equivalent to saying they were made either out of nothing, or 
out of the materials of the tissues in which they are found, 
either of which, from the purely scientific point of view, is tanta- 
mount to an admission of spontaneous generation ; and this, 
as I have already pointed out, is rendered highly improbable by 
the testimony of recent research. 

The tendency of the natural man has always been to evoke a 
miracle to explain any phenomenon beyond his comprehension ; 
the work of men of science has always been to try and bring 
such phenomena within the bounds of natural law. The gospel 
of science, if I may use the expression, is that in this marvellous 
universe of ours there " is no variableness neither shadow of 
turning "; in other words, that there is an ascertainable Order 
of Nature. 

The great discoveries of Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Lyell, 
and Darwin, have all tended in the same direction ; all have 
been attacked by those whose faith is so small, or whose impa- 
tience so great, that they prefer a traditional theory of the uni- 



108 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

verse, which professes completeness, to a scientific one which 
acknowledges its imperfections ; but all have finally been victo- 
rious, and have taken their place as the inalienable intellectual 
heritage of man. 

You have all heard a child trying to pick out a tune on a 
penny whistle ; you have all heard a skilled musician play one 
of Beethoven's sonatas. It always seems to me that these two 
performances give a very fair illustration of the difference between 
the theory of the universe with which our forefathers had to be 
a ntent, and that which it is our privilege to know something of: 
the one is a series of disconnected and distressing discords, the 
other of subtle and mutually dependant harmonies. As Dryden 
prophetically sings in his noble " Song for St. Cecilia's Day " — 

" From harmony, from heavenly harmony 

This universal frame began : 

From harmony to harmony 
Through all the compass of the notes it ran, 

The diapason closing full in Man." 



ON LEPIDOPUS CAUDATUS, GUNTH (FROST-FISH). 



By Dr. R. v. Lendenfeld * 



The variety of this Acanthopterygian species occurring on the 
coasts of New Zealand, and known by the name of Frost-fish, is 
distinguished by its manner of life from other fishes, as it is never 
taken with nets, but is frequently cast up on the beach during 
the winter season. 

This fish is ribbon-like and trapeziform, deepest close behind 
the head, and gradually tapering away, and of a silvery colour 
throughout. The large eyes stamp it as a deep-sea form. 
The specimens thrown on the beach attain a length of 120 to 150 
cm. ; they are never found smaller. 

With the intention of finding out the reason why these fish 
are thrown on the shores in great numbers and only at a particu- 
lar season of the year, I examined several specimens. I found 
males and females in part, with fully developed sexual elements, 
and in part without mature ova or spermatozoa. In all likeli- 
hood, in these latter cases, the sexual elements had been parted 
with only a few hours previously. It would seem to follow from 
this that the time at which the deposition of the roe and milt 
takes place corresponds with the time of year at which the fish 
are cast up on the shores. A second and more important con- 
clusion arrived at in this investigation was, however, that in every 
case the swimming bladder was burst, and a great internal hemor- 
rhage was apparent. I have no doubt that at the time of depo- 
sition of the ova, the males and females seek protected places at 

* Zoologischer Anzeiger, VI., Jahrg. p. 559 (22nd Oct., 1883). 



CORRESPONENDCE. 109 

the bottom of the sea, and that at this particular period fishes 
which live on the coast may often swim up the (ascending) sea- 
bed, and arrive in depths of water where such a low pressure 
prevails that the muscular apparatus of the swimming bladder is 
no longer able to compress the air in it so strongly, and the 
specific gravity of the whole fish becomes equal to that of the 
sea water. 

Weakened by the act of deposition of the sexual materials, 
the fish is no longer able to get back by swimming to a suitable 
depth. The higher it ascends the more difficult it becomes to re- 
turn to the deep water, and soon this becomes quite impossible. 
Always ascending higher, the fish — powerless and paralysed by 
the pain of the distension of the swimming bladder — reaches a 
region where the bladder bursts. The fish dies from the internal 
hemorrhage. A portion of the air remains behind in the body, 
and keeps it afloat, where it remains — if not snatched away by 
an albatross or shark — until it is thrown up on the beach. 

The variety of Lepidopus caudatus living on the coast of New 
Zealand is different in several respects from those representatives 
of the same species which occur in the Atlantic Ocean. 

During two months one to two fish were on an average 
(daily ?) thrown up on one kilometre of coast line. 

[NOTE. — The number of frost-fish thrown up on the coast 
varies greatly in different parts. On the boulder beach of 
Moeraki they are thrown up daily by hundreds in still weather 
during winter, but further north and south they are not so plen- 
tiful. No doubt the slope and formation of the sea bottom 
affects their occurrence. — Ed.1 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



THE NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE. 

SIR, — I quite agree with the remark in Mr. G. M. Thomson's 
paper in your last number that the principle on which the New 
Zealand Institute is founded is incorrect and ought to be 
amended. The great defect in its constitution seems to me to 
be the almost entire absence of the essentials of permanence. At 
present the Institute — so far as it consists of a government de- 
partment and affiliated societies — is held together by the govern- 
ment grant of .£500 a year. If this were to cease, the Transac- 
tions of the Institute would at once collapse, and the affiliated 
societies fall away, although a nominal Institute, consisting of 
the Colonial Museum and the other eight departments presided 
over by the manager might still exist. But the existence of the 
Institute then would be useless. It is quite possible that the 
different societies might associate to publish their papers collec- 
tively, but this association would most certainly take quite a 



110 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

different shape to the present New Zealand Institute, and would 
probably assume another name. 

The reasons for this position of unstable equilibrium are not 
far to seek. They are (i) The members of the affiliated societies 
having no voice in the management; and (2) The manager being 
a government official not responsible to the members nor even to 
the governors, but appointed by Act of Parliament, which Act 
also compels him to be the Director of the Geological Survey. 
No doubt a certain amount of representation is, as you point 
out, supposed to be included on the board ; but every one knows 
that this is a hollow sham, a mere mockery of what is meant by 
representation. And of the eleven governors more than half 
have never contributed a paper to the Transactions. 

And yet the Institute has been so far a success. This is al- 
most entirely owing to the skill of the manager, who is certainly 
the best man in New Zealand for the post, and is the one who 
would undoubtedly be elected if the election was in the hands 
of the members. But suppose the present manager were to re- 
tire. Is it probable that the next Director of the Geological 
Survey would be willing to undertake the management of the 
Institute, so alien as it is to all his true work ? Or if he was 
willing, is it likely he would be capable of doing it ? And yet, 
by Act of Parliament, no one else is allowed to be manager. 
Here then is a second danger of collapse, so soon as the present 
unstable conditions are altered. 

It is not my business to draft a reform bill. I only wish to 
point out to the Board of Governors the precarious position in 
which the Institute is placed, in order that they may ward off 
the danger before it is too late. Nevertheless, I may be allowed 
to suggest that the first step towards reform should be for the 
governors to ask the affiliated societies to send delegates to a 
conference, to be held at some convenient time and place, to dis- 
cuss the matter with the manager of the Institute, whose experi- 
ence would be necessary to ensure a good working scheme. 
This, in my opinion, would be better than leaving the affiliated 
societies to take the initiative. — I am, &c, 

F. W. Hutton. 
Christchurch, 24th March, 1884. 



THE TIMBER OF NESODAPHNE TA WA. 

SIR, — After careful observation and enquiry, being fully satis- 
fied that this timber, which is now being destroyed in large 
quantities, would, if its properties were properly known, become 
one of the most valuable of our forest productions, I submit the 
following particulars, hoping thereby to bring it into notice. The 
properties ol Tawa timber are as follows : — 

1. It is proof against the attacks of the marine worm. 

2. When immersed in water, cither salt or fresh, or even oc- 
casionally immersed, as for instance by the tide, it is extremely 
durable, indeed, as far as observation extends, imperishable. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 1 1 1 

3. There being no difference between heart and sap woods in 
this tree, small saplings are as durable as the largest trees when 
placed under similar conditions. 

4. This timber imparts no flavour to anything stowed in it, 
when used for casks or the like. 

The accompanying sample of Tawa timber, cut from the pile 
of a wharf in Nydia Bay, Pelorus Sound, shows the condition of 
the pile after six years' immersion. The wharf referred to was 
originally constructed of birch piles, one of which, when only 
twelve months in was so eaten by marine worms that the deck 
sank. When almost four years up,* the whole structure became 
unsafe, and a number of fender piles had to be driven, for which 
Tawa was by chance used,itbeing the most easily procured timber. 
On lately examining these fender piles not the slightest sign of 
the worm could be detected on any of them, the timber below 
high water-mark being everywhere as sound as the sample for- 
warded. In many other parts of the Sound similar proofs of the 
Tawa withstanding the marine worm can be obtained. As show- 
ing the durability of Tawa saplings I would mention a bridge 
over at Tidal Creek in the mouth of the Pelorus River. The 
stringers of this bridge, small Tawa trees a few inches in diameter, 
are now, after being sixteen years in their place, perfectly sound, 
although only in the water while the tide is full. 

With regard to the Tawa as a material for cask making, it is 
generally remarked by dairy farmers throughout Marlborough 
that since Kauri came into use it is a mere chance whether salt 
butter put up in summer will be found good when opened in the 
winter, and there was no such danger while Tawa kegs were pro- 
curable ; the Kauri not only discolouring and tasting the butter, 
but allowing the brine to leak off, none of which happened with 
Tawa. If it be correct, as I have lately seen stated in print, that 
there is in Adelaide a lack of timber for wine casks, the latter 
qualities of the Tawa should commend it to notice. The Tawa 
is extremely perishable when exposed to the atmosphere, and it 
is this which has prevented its good qualities being recognised. 
If employed for wharf building it could only be used to high 
water mark, and built upon ; but the fact of many of our wharfs 
becoming unsafe through the ravages of the marine worm, while 
the upper portions are still sound, seem to argue in favour of two 
species of timber being used instead of confining ourselves to one. 

The Nesodaphne Tawa, though not of very large growth, 
attains a considerable size, logs from 2ft. to 2ft. 6in. in diameter 
and 30ft. to 40ft. long being easily procurable. As the Tawa 
forms a large proportion of our forest vegetation throughout the 
Pelorus District, a good supply might be obtained. At present, 
however, it is being rapidly destroyed in order to bring the land 
into grass, the soil on which it grows being always good. 

Picton, March, 1884. JAS. RUTLAND. 

[The sample forwarded is perfectly sound in every respect. — ■ 
Editor.1 



12 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



I. — Julius von Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S., C.M.G.. &c. 



This well-known geologist and geographical discoverer, whose 
portrait we present to our readers in the current number, was 
born at Bonn, in Germany, on the ist of May, 1824, his father 
being a wealthy merchant of that city, and for many years occupy- 
ing the position of Burgomaster. 

After passing through the Grammar Schools of Bonn and 
Cologne, the subject of our memoir entered the University of 
Bonn, and devoted a considerable portion of his time to geological 
and mineralogical studies, forming a collection of minerals which, 
in a recent review of his work in the German " Naturen," is de- 
scribed as having been of considerable value. After leaving the 
University,he spent some years in France, and afterwards returned 
to Germany. For the eight years previous to his departure 
for New Zealand, he made extensive journeys over the chief 
parts of Europe, visiting Russia, Austria, and Italy. A large 
portion of these journeys was spent in mountain explorations, 
and during the eruption of Etna in 1852 he ascended the moun- 
tain for scientific purposes. 

A large firm of shipowners, who wished to direct the stream of 
emigration from Germany to New Zealand, made him an offer 
to visit the Colony on their behalf, and report upon it as a field 
for emigration for his countrymen. Dr. Haast visited London 
and accepted the offer. Arriving at Auckland in December, 
1858, he met Dr. Hochstetter, who was a distinguished member 
of the staff of the celebrated " Novara " expedition. As Dr. 
Hochstetter's companion he visited the greater part of the North 
Island, and a portion of Nelson, writing full reports of all he saw 
to the leading German periodicals. The state of the Colony at 
the time, and the fact of the breaking out of the Maori war at 
Taranaki, forced upon him the conclusion that the Colony was 
not then a suitable field for his countrymen to emigrate to, he 
therefore wrote requesting his employers to terminate the engag- 
ment he had made with them. 

The Provincial Government of Nelson having requested Dr. 
Haast to explore the Western and Southern portions of that 
province, he accepted the offer, and accompanied by Mr. Burnett 
and three others, — one of whom was a Maori — he started on an 
expedition which took him for eight months away from civilised 
life. During the journey, in addition to the discovery of the 
Grey and Bullcr Coal Fields and of several gold-bearing districts, 
he filled in the topography of a large part of Nelson, and added 
largely to the knowledge of the geology, as well as the fauna and 
flora, of these alpine portions of New Zealand. On his return 
the Government printed a full report of the journey, and of the 
scientific and other discoveries made, How arduous the journey 





^f 




#L 






BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 113 

was, and how full of danger is well described by the following 
extract from a review of the report published at the time in the 
Lyttelton Times : — " The process of penetrating the mountain 
ranges of the South Island is indeed not easy. Besides the steep 
mountain side and the precipitous rock, there are peculiar diffi- 
culties in the exploration of this country arising from the density 
of the forest, the treacherous character of the rivers, the uncer- 
tainty of the climate, the almost entire want of animals or vege- 
tables fit for human food, and the absence of inhabitants. In 
consequence the explorer must take with him large supplies of 
food and necessaries, on his own back, for no beast of burden can 
be taken up and down New Zealand cliffs, over New Zealand 
torrents, or through New Zealand forests, where man works his 
way only by the aid of human ingenuity, patience, forethought, 
and appliances. The traveller here has but one advantage over 
similar adventurers in other countries, he is not liable to the 
attack of beasts of prey, he may lie down in safety at night 
without fear of any visitor from the forest more dangerous than 
a rat or a woodhen ; but, granting him this security, still he takes 
his life in his hands. Brunner and Haast give unanimous testi- 
mony upon this point. At every few miles an unpleasant dilemma 
presents itself; one alternative invariably is to remain and be 
starved, the other varies according to circumstances. It is per- 
haps to venture through a fog and be lost ; or to scramble down 
a precipice and be dashed to pieces ; or "to cross the snowy top 
of a mountain and be frozen to death ; or to wade a swollen 
river and be drowned. As the alternative is only probable while 
starvation is certain, the former must be chosen whatever it be, 
so that the chances are considerably against the life of the ex- 
plorer. We learn that if a man be a bad walker he need not 
attempt to go ; if he be timid in crossing rivers he will be in 
constant peril ; if he have not a good organ of locality as well 
as a compass he is certain to be lost ; if he have little fore- 
sight and a large appetite (Mr Haast adds — -if he be of a slim 
figure) he runs double risk of starvation ; if he be liable to giddi- 
ness he encounters dreadful danger at the precipices which must 
be crossed. The explorer in our West Country must have none 
of these defects ; but he must be strong to carry weights of 50 to 
70 pounds on his shoulders on a long day's march ; he must be 
expert at fishing and cooking, and, above all, at making a fire 
under any difficulties \ he must have a constitution to stand for 
hours on a mountain top in a sleety southerly wind, or to sleep 
in wet blankets, without ill effects from either ; he must be as 
active as a cat, with joints that will not dislocate and bones that 
will not break ; he must have the digestion of an ostrich, the 
acuteness of a leather-stocking, and the temper of a Mark Tapley, 
or he is not fit even to make the odd man of a party on an ex* 
ploring trip through the mountains to the West Coast of this 
Island. These qualifications, after all, are merely the ground- 
work to which others of a higher character must be added by a 
really efficient explorer of new country. It is required of him 



114 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

not merely to find the country and go through it, but to report 
upon it. The public wish to know whether any of it is available 
for occupation ; if any, how much ; where it is, and how to get 
at it. The explorer must have an engineer's eye to note the line 
of a possible road as he goes along ; he must be skilled in judg- 
ing of the pastoral, agricultural, and timber-producing character 
of every part ; he must have a surveyor's ability to give every 
mountain and stream its exact position on the map, that he may 
show where he has been and where the available land that he 
has seen lies ; he must have an eye for physical geography, for 
zoology, and for botany ; and last, but not least, he must be a 
practical geologist, to discover beneath the surface those metals 
and minerals which may prove the greatest inducements for the 
introduction of an industrious population into the wilderness. 
The explorer must be no half-instructed blunderer, to overlook 
some things, mistake others, and give an unintelligible descrip- 
tion ol all, or the main object of his labours will be thrown away. 
In fact, he must be a specially constituted individual in mind, 
body, and education, who can perform successfully the task of 
investigation in the country among the hills of the South Island 
of New Zealand. To judge from Mr. Haast's book he is sur- 
prisingly adapted to the task which he undertook in all respects. 
In person and temper he has the qualities which we have de- 
scribed ; he is, moreover, a competent surveyor, an experienced 
geologist, and an educated observer of nature in all her aspects. 
His own narrative is the best evidence how fortunate a choice 
the Province of Nelson made in appointing him to the duty of 
exploring her terra incognita. Written as it is by a German in 
the English language, the diction itself indicates the man of 
education and high mental ability ; while the simplicity of the 
narrative proves, even to those who may not know the man, that 
his report is neither garbled nor high coloured, but may be ac- 
cepted with thorough confidence as trustworthy in all its details." 
The extraordinary success of this enterprise induced the then 
Canterbury Provincial Government to offer to Dr. Haast the 
position of Provincial Geologist. Accepting the offer, he com- 
menced work by similarly investigating the topography and 
mineral resources of the western ranges of that province. This 
work was carried to a successful issue, and the result of the work 
is given in Prof. v. Haast's Report of the Geology of the Provin- 
ces of Canterbury and Westland. This volume of some 500 
pages is the crowning point ol Prof. v. Haast's work, and has 
been favourably received, not only by the press of Australasia, 
but also by a large number of scientific periodicals of Europe and 
America, the testimony as to the excellence of the work being 
absolutely unanimous. Years before the publication of this com- 
plete report, the detached account of these explorations attracted 
considerable attention in Europe. Sir R. Murchison, chief of the 
Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, in his presidential 
address to the Geographical Society, in 1864, speaks as fol- 
lows ; — " The third paper is a most important account of the 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 115 

highly interesting journeys of the Provincial Geologist, Dr. Haast, 
of whose deeds I was led to augur most favourably in conse- 
quence of the high character which he brought with him from 
Vienna, as testified to me in a letter from my eminent friend, M. 
von Haidinger, Director-General of the Austrian Geological 
Survey." At another meeting he said — " He was proud to pre- 
side upon an occasion when a gentleman who was a Geologist by 
profession had proved himself to be a good Geographer, and had 
shown how intimately the subjects of Physical Geography and 
Geology were united : Dr. v. Haast's labours were worthy of all 
commendation." Such testimony as this, from England's 
greatest geologist, will show the value of the work to those of our 
readers whose geological knowledge does not enable them to 
judge of this remarkable book for themselves. To geologists no 
such testimony is needed ; the work is enough in itself. The 
marvellous mass of geological detail, and the breadth and com- 
pleteness of the generalisations as to the stratification and the 
mode of formation of those vast mountain ranges, their subse- 
quent carving and denudation by ice and water, the evidence of 
a glacial epoch similar to that which produced the striae and 
boulders of Europe ; the account of the nature of Canterbury's 
rivers, and the formation of its plains, all testifying to the in- 
dustry and acuteness of observation of Prof. v. Haast. Perhaps 
to the geologist the most interesting account of all is the de- 
scription of Banks' Peninsula, which is shown to be a most singu- 
larly perfect specimen of vulcanism, demonstrating in a most re- 
markable manner the nature and mode of formation of dykes. 
The highly disturbed and contorted nature of the volcanoes of 
Europe gives only ground for speculation instead of the clear 
demonstration Dr. Haast has proved to exist in the undisturbed 
extinct volcanoes of the peninsula. 

In recognition of his researches, the Royal University of Tub- 
ingen created him a Doctor of Philosophy in 1862. He was made 
a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1867. Some fifty academies and 
learned societies in various parts of the world have elected him a 
fellow or honorary, or corresponding member. The Emperor 
of Austria has conferred upon him a patent of hereditary nobility, 
and a number of sovereigns in Europe have sent him their orders, 
and Her Majesty has lately created him C.M.G. 

Dr. v. Haast was appointed Professor of Geology to the 
Canterbury College, New Zealand University, "in 1876, and in 
1880 he was elected a member of the Senate. During his explora- 
tions as Provincial Geologist he commenced the formation of the 
Canterbury Museum, which although so young has now attained 
such proportions as to be classified by two naturalists so dis- 
tinguished as Dr. Otto Finch and Prof. Ward of New York, by 
one as the twelfth and the other the thirteenth in the whole 
world, and by every one who is able to judge is considered the 
first museum of the Southern Hemisphere. The entire collec- 
tion consists of over 1 50,000 labelled specimens, thousands of 
which are of great rarity and value, and many are quite unique, 



1 16 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Were the museum the only work Dr. v. Haast could point to, it 
would be a monument of his labours and render him deserving 
of the gratitude of the people of New Zealand. 

A.W.B. 
[The portrait of Dr. v. Haast which accompanies this article 
was taken by Messrs. E. Wheeler and Sons, of Christchurch, and 
printed by the Autotype Co., in London. — Ed.] 



NOTES ON INSECT LIFE. 

BY ALEX. PURDIE, M.A. 



Bedellia sommileutella, Stt. 

Larvae miners in the leaves of the common native Convolvulus, 
whose leaves they greatly disfigure. When very young, the larvae 
are quite buried in the substance of the leaves, but when older 
they live in a web on the underside of the leaves and have only 
the anterior segments covered. Length of larva a little over 
one-fifth of an inch. Body tapering to each end. General 
colour dark glossy green. Lateral stripe glossy white, bordered 
above and below with brownish red. In some the whole dorsal 
surface down to the lateral stripe is green. The pupae were 
suspended among threads in the top of the jar in which the larvae 
were kept. / 

Several of the imagos sent to Mr. Meyrick for identification 
were returned with the note that if they were.really B. somnulen- 
tclla their larval habits should be as follows : — '* Larva 16-legged, 
greenish, varied with reddish, with white tubercules, mining 
blotches in the leaves of various species of Convolvidtis and 
Ipomcea ; pupa naked, angulated, suspended from threads." From 
the agreement between this .and my own description I have no 
doubt that the imago is really B. somnulentella. Its habits have 
already been described fully by several European and American 
authors, but for the convenience of workers who have not access 
to these works I give the above descriptions. 

Pyralidina. 

Scopula quadralis, Dbld. 

Larvae on Urticaferox, at Forbury, in October. Length about 
half-an-inch, resembling in form the larvae of the common Tortri- 
cidce. Colour pale green. Above there is on each side a distinct, 
sub-median, longitudinal, white stripe. Head light coloured, 
with dark spots at the side. Below, the general colour is a paler 
green. The larvae live singly in a small web on the underside of 
the leaves, and can readily be detected by the holes eaten through 
the leaves. 

Geometrina. 

Ilippolyte rubropunctaria, Dbld. 
Larvae loopers, feeding on Haloragis alata. Length a little 



NOTES ON INSECT LIFE. 117 

over half-an-inch, very stout about seventh, eight, and ninth seg- 
ments. General colour light green, often quite suffused with 
purplish brown. Dorsal line white, edged with dark brown, 
sometimes incomplete. Lateral line white-edged, above with 
dark brown or red. There are four small black dorsal tubercles 
on each segment, the posterior pair in each segment being fur- 
ther apart than the anterior pair. In some a reddish-brown, 
median ventral stripe is present. Some of the larvae are quite 
green, the markings being almost obliterated. 

The genera Lylobara and P seudocoremia are very interesting, 
but at the same time very puzzling, on account of the 
amount of variation between the sexes, and for some time back 
I have been seeking the larvae of the various species in order to 
define more certainly the species from varieties. The habits of 
P. lupinata have been known for several years, and while on an 
excursion to Lake Wakatipu in February of this year I was 
fortunate enough to find larvae which proved to be those of P. 
productata and P. melinata. Now that the habits of the larvae 
are known, it will be simply a matter of time to settle the confu- 
sion that has hitherto existed in these two genera. Subjoined 
are the descriptions of the larvae : — 

Lylobara productata, Walk. 

Larva, a looper about nine-tenths of an inch in length, feed- 
ing on a fine-leaved Tutu iCoriarid). General colour reddish- 
brown, with fine, light-coloured, longitudinal striations. Dorsal 
stripe darker. Sides wrinkled. Lateral line lighter than the 
ground-colour. A male emerged from the chrysalis towards the 
end of March. 

P seudocoremia lupinata, Feld. 

(Its caterpillar was described by Prof. Hutton in Vol. XII. of 
the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, but his descrip- 
tion is too general to serve for identification). Larva, a looper 
beaten from Leptospermum ericoides ; length about an inch; 
general colour a mixture of blackish and greyish brown. There 
is a light brown, irregular, interrupted dorsal stripe, very narrow 
except on the eighth segment, where it widens between two 
small dorsal prominences. There are four small black marks on 
each side of the dorsal stripe, and also a subdorsal dark band. 
The lateral band is irregular, interrupted, and white. Beneath, 
the colour is dark, except a very distinct white median, longitu- 
dinal stripe edged with black. 

P seudocoremia melinata,, Feld. 

Larvae, loopers, beaten from the N. Z. Broom {Carmichcelid) , 
about four-fifths of an inch long. Colour dull green, with darker 
longitudinal striation, much resembling the stems of their food- 
plant ; sometimes yellowish at the junction of the segments. 
Below paler, with a median white stripe. One had a light dorsal 
stripe interlined with dark green. In the younger larvae the 
dorsal striations were very distinct. Three females emerged in 
the house in March. One variety, as often happens in L. pro- 
ductata, had the central belt of the forewings well defined. 



I iS JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Drepanodcs murifcrata, Walk. 

Larva a looper, beaten from an undergrowth of Aristotelia and 
Carpodetus. Length about nine-tenths of an inch. General 
colour light grey. Dorsal area and sides darker than the ground 
colour, the dorsal area being margined with black dots. 



UNIVERSITY NOTES. 



At the recent session of the Senate of the University, held at 
Nelson, some changes were made in the programme of the Univer- 
sity examinations, of which the following affect the Science sub- 
jects : — 

In the Matriculation Examination the subject Elementary 
Physics has been split up into two subjects, one being Elementary 
Mechanics and the other being Elementary Physics, comprising 
Heat, Light, and Electricity. 

In the Examination for Junior Scholarships the definition of 
the subject Elementary Biology has been amended by striking out 
the Anatomy of the Crayfish and particularising more closely the 
requirements of the examination in Botany. We believe this is a 
change which will be welcomed both by schools and examiners. 
The following is the amended definition : — 

i. The Morphology, Histology, Physiology, and Life- 
History of — Saccharomyces, Bacteria, Protococcus, 
Closterium, Spirogyra, Pemcillium, Mucor, Saproleg- 
nia, Peziza, Agaricus, a Fucoid, Nitella (or Chara), 
Marchantia, a Moss, a Fern, Pinus and the Bean Plant. 
2. The general Morphology and classification of flowering 
plants, with special reference to the following natural 
orders : — Orchideae, Liliaceae, Gramineae, Polygoneae, 
Scrophularineae, Boraginese, Ericinese (including Epac- 
rideae), Compositae, Rubiaceae, Umbelliferae, Onagraceae, 
Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Caryophylleae, Cru- 
ciferae,and Ranunculaceae ; modifications of roots, stems, 
leaves, etc., to different purposes ; parasitism ; ferti- 
lisation of flowers ; and modes of dispersion of seeds. 
In the B.A. Examination the regulations respecting Natural 
Science have been materially modified — ist, by the striking out of 
Anatomy and Physiology ; and, 2nd, by elevating the two subdivisions 
of Natural Science, namely Geology and Mineralogy and Biology from 
the rank of alternative to that of distinct subjects. The effect of 
the latter change is that a candidate will be at liberty to take up 
two subjects in Natural Science, instead ot being restricted to one 
as heretofore. 

The Senate considered a scheme of a curriculum for the new 
degree of B.Sc, and also a scheme for remodelling the curriculum 
tor the degree of B.A., and adopted the following reports : — 
"Report of the Committee of the whole Senate on the Course in Science. 

" The Committee recommend to the Senate the adoption of the 
following scheme : — 



UNIVERSITY NOTES. 



119 



" 1. Candidates for Matriculation who are intending to proceed 
to a degree in Science shall, before they are admitted as students 
to the University, be required to pass in not less than seven of the 
subjects prescribed under the Statute " of Matriculation." 



1. 

2. 

3- 

4. 
5- 

6. 

7. 



9- 

10. 
11. 
12. 

14. 



(compulsory) 

(do.) 

(do.) 

(do.) 

(do.) 



English 
Arithmetic 
Algebra 
Euclid 

French or German- 
Latin 
Greek 

One ot the following : — 

8. French, German, or Italian (not being that taken as a 
compulsory subject) 
History 
Geography 
Mechanics 
Elementary Physics 
Elementary Chemistry 
Elementary Biology 

" 2. A sound knowledge of the five following subjects shall be re- 
quired from all candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Science : — ■ 
1. Mathematics 
Physics 
Chemistry 
General Biology 
Latin or English or ^German or French 

" 3. Besides these five compulsory subjects, every candidate 
for the degree of Bachelor of Science shall pass an examination in 
one of the tollowing groups of optional subjects : — 

Pure Mathematics 

Applied Mathematics 

Heat, Electricity, and Magnetism, 

or Sound and Light and Heat 

Inorganic Chemistry 

Organic Chemistry 

Chemical Technology or Mineralogy 

Geology 

Mineralogy and Petrography 

Palaeontology 

Systematic Botany 

Vegetable Physiology 

Vegetable Morphology 

Palaeontological Botany 

Systematic Zoology 

Animal Morphology 

Animal Physiology 

Embryology 

Human Anatomy 

Animal Physiology 

Outlines ot Physiology of the Nervous 

Psychology [System 

Logic 

Ethics 



1. Mathematics 

2. Physics 

3. Chemistry 



4. Geology 



5. Botany 



6. Zoology 



7. Anatomy 



8. Mental Science- 



120 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

11 4. In each of the following compulsory subjects, namely, 
Physics, Chemistry, and General Biology, every candidate for the 
degree of Bachelor ot Science shall be required to pass a practical 
examination. 

" 5. In each of the following optional subjects, namely, Physics, 
Chemistry, Geology, Botany, Zoology, and Anatomy, the candidate 
for the degree of Bachelor of Science shall be required to pass a 
practical examination. 

11 6. The scope of the examination in all the subjects should be 
defined accurately and at length. In the compulsory subjects the 
standard should be the same as that prescribed for candidates 
for the degree of Bachelor of Arts. In the optional subjects the 
standard should be considerably higher. 

11 7. All candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Science shall 
be required to keep terms at an affiliated institution, and shall also 
be required to go through a prescribed course of practical work 
in each of those science subjects in which a practical examina- 
tion is required. 

11 8. The examination in four of the compulsory subjects shall 
constitute the first examination for the degree of Bachelor of 
Science, and shall be taken at the end of the second or any subse- 
quent year. The examination in the optional subject and in the 
remaining compulsory subject, which must be either Physics or 
Chemistry or General Biology, shall constitute the second exami- 
nation for the degree of Bachelor of Science, and shall be taken at 
the end of the third or any subsequent year. Provided that the 
optional subject which is taken by anj candidate as part of the 
second examination for the degree of Bachelor of Science shall 
not be the same subject or a special branch of the same subject as 
that which is taken by him as part of the same examination. 

" 9. The degree of Doctor of Science shall be given for special 
excellence in single subjects, and the general regulations relating 
to this degree shall be somewhat similar to those of the London 
University, except that an original thesis shall be required instead 
of a practical examination. 

11 10. No candidate shall present himself for the examination 
for the degree of Doctor ot Science, until at least three years after 
passing the second examination for the degree of Bachelor of 
Science. 

"11. The subjects for the practical examination in Natural 
Science shall be set by the ordinary examiners. 

" 12. The examiner shall be requested in each case to set two 
or more alternative subjects, one or more to be selected by the 
Supervisors. 

" 13. The practical examinations shall be held at the affiliated 
Colleges, and each shall be conducted by two supervisors, one of 
whom shall be the teacher of the subject in the affiliated College, 
the other a qualified assessor to be appointed by the Chancellor. 

" 14. The supervisors shall, whenever necessary, furnish to the 
examiners a report on the candidates' practical work, such report 
to be forwarded along with any notes of results, &c, which the 
candidate may be required to make." 

The Committee also recommend — 

" That the resolutions of the Committee on the subject of prac- 
tical examinations in Science apply to the practical examinations 



UNIVERSITY NOTES. 121 

in the subjects of Physical Science, Chemistry, and Natural 
Science, as prescribed in the Statute ' of the Degree of Bachelor 
of Arts.' " 

The Committee further recommend — 

" i. That Mathematics be no longer a compulsory subject lor 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

" 2. That candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Arts should 
pass in at least six subjects, five of which should be compulsory, 
as follows : — 
i. Latin 

2. Greek, or English, or French, or German. 

3. and 4. Any two of the following — A. One language other 

than Latin and the language selected under 2. B. 
Pure Mathematics C. One of the following sciences : 
Physical Science, Chemistry, or Natural Science, as 
defined for the degree of Bachelor ol Arts. 

5. Mental Science, or History and Political Economy, or 

Jurisprudence and Constitutional History. 

6. Mechanics and Hydrostatics, or any other subject as de- 

fined for the degree of Bachelor of Arts not taken as 
one of the compulsory subjects." 

These recommendations, however, have not yet been embodied 
in the Statutes, being reserved for further consideration by the 
Senate* So far as the curriculum for the B.Sc. degree is concerned, 
the proposed scheme appears to be conceived on the right lines. 
It is obviously based on the course prescribed by the University 
of London, but it has been adapted, not unskilfully, to the condi- 
tions existing in New Zealand. In one respect the scheme is far 
superior to its model. This is in exacting a practical examination 
as well as a theoretical one, in every branch of science. The ar- 
rangements proposed for effecting this purpose seem to be feasible, 
and they are at all events worthy of a trial. The scheme is con- 
fessedly imperfect, in respect of accurate and comprehensive defi- 
nitions of the optional subjects of examination; and it will require 
to be further elaborated in order that it may fit in at all points 
with the other regulations of the University. There is no reason 
to doubt, however, that these matters will receive due attention at 
the next meeting of the Senate. 

The plan proposed for remodelling the curriculum of Arts is so 
inconsistent with the principles on which the scheme just referred 
to has been tramed, that one is surprised that it could have been 
adopted at the same meeting of the Senate. In the B.Sc. scheme 
four subjects out of six are absolutely compulsory. In the B.A. 
scheme now proposed only one subject is absolutely compulsory, 
so that if this scheme should become law all that will certainly be 
known regarding a B.A. of the New Zealand University is that he 
has passed an examination in Latin. Again, in the B.Sc. scheme 
care has been taken that the degree shall represent a wide culture 
not less than special merit in some department of science, every 
candidate being required to pass in a language and in Mathematics, 
as well as in Science. In the B.A. scheme, on the other hand, 
there is neither breadth nor depth, and the degree may be taken 
by candidates who are quite ignorant of Mathematics, or by can- 
didates who are quite ignorant of Science, and who know less Ma- 
thematics than is usually taught at school. We cannot help 



122 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

thinking that the ever-recurring .desire to recast the constitution 
ot the University on lines which vary in every successive year is 
greatly to be deprecated, as indicating an empiricism alike unusual 
and unbecoming in the governing body of a University. The pre- 
sent B. A. degree of the New Zealand University has in the last 
ten years succeeded in attaining to a recognised value both in the 
colony and at home, and it would be unwise on the part of the 
Senate to apply the sponge to its present regulations in the view 
of starting afresh, even if the existing curriculum were as inferior 
as it seems to us to be superior to the one by which it is proposed 
to displace it. 



GENERAL NOTES. 



Auckland Institute and Museum. — The Annual Re- 
port of this Institution for 1883-84, recently published, shows that 
good work is being done in our southern Naples. Great credit 
is due to those who have guided the destinies of the Auckland 
Institute since its origin, in that without any endowments or 
government grants they have succeeded in acquiring landed 
property, a museum building in which to exhibit and store their 
collections, and a remarkably good little library. The valuable 
bequest made by the late Mr. Edward Costley of one-seventh 
of his property, and which is estimated to be worth over ^"10,000, 
together with an endowment of land granted lately by the Govern- 
ment, will soon put the Council in the possession of ample funds 
for carrying on their work. The list of papers read at last 
season's meetings shows that the members take a considerable 
amount of interest in scientific work. Many of these papers are 
valuable additions to our knowledge of the natural history of the 
colony. Useful features in the report are the list of periodicals 
which are for circulation among the members, and the list of 
additions to the library. — Ed. 



University of New Zealand— Honours in Science — 
The thesis sent in by Mr. A. Purdie, M.A., at the examinations 
of November last, and which gained first-class honours, was a 
remarkably able one. The Examiner in Natural Science remarks 
on Mr. Purdie's work : — " Deserves the highest honours. Research 
paper most admirable." The subject chosen for the original 
thesis was the anatomy of certain mussels commonly found on 
our coasts (viz., Mytilus latus, M. edulis, and M. magellanicus ) 
and the work seems to have been done in a most thorough and 
conscientious manner. As the paper will probably be published 
in the Trans, of the N.Z. Institute, we shall shortly give a sum- 
mary of the chief points in it. — Ed. 



Acaena Huttonii, Brown. — Under the above name a sup- 
posed new native plant from the Upper Ashburton was described 



GENERAL NOTES. 1 23 

by Mr. R. Brown at a meeting of the Canterbury Philosophical 
Institute, held on May 3, 1883. I find, however, on examination 
of a living plant, presented to our garden by Mr. Brown, and of 
a dried specimen received from Professor Hutton, that the plant 
is really the well-known Burnet, Sangidsorba minor, Scopoli 
(Poterium Sanguisorbce> Linn.), which is a native of Europe, and 
frequently sown with grass seeds on dry sheep runs. Of course 
it can only be regarded as a naturalised plant. 

J. B. Armstrong. 



Mr. S. H. Cox, assistant geologist to the Geological Survey 
of New Zealand, has been appointed Instructor in Geology, 
Mineralogy, and Mining, in the Technical College, Sydney, N. 
S.W. During the last ten years Mr. Cox has done admirable 
geological work in almost all parts of New Zealand ; of which 
his surveys of the Hokanui Hills, the north-west part of the 
province of Nelson, the Hawke's Bay district, the Thames gold- 
fields, and the country between Auckland and Whangarei, will 
always remain in evidence. While congratulating Mr. Cox on 
his new appointment, we cannot conceal from ourselves the great 
loss geological science in New Zealand will sustain by his de- 
parture. 

PSEPHOLAX TIBIALIS (female) AND P. CORONATUS (male). — 
I have recently discovered that the above insects described as 
separate species in Captain Broun's Manual of New Zealand 
Coleoptera are merely the male and female of one species ; coro- 
natus being the former, and tibialis the latter. I had long been 
of opinion that this was the case, as the distinguishing points in 
the two described species were eminently sexual in their charac- 
ter; and, added to this, when at Palmerston North last winter, I 
frequently came across P. coronatus and tibialis in the same bur- 
rows. The accuracy of this impression, however, I have now 
conclusively proved. Having recently captured a specimen of 
each species, I confined them together in a wooden box ; after a 
short period copulation ensued, the insects remaining in connec- 
tion for upwards of two hours. The female subsequently com- 
menced tunnelling a burrow in the box doubtless for the pur- 
pose of depositing her fertilised eggs. I have the two specimens 
now preserved in my collection. I would suggest that the name 
tibialis be sunk as a synonym, andP. coronatus of White retained. 
The propriety of the name will not be affected by the fact of 
the coronet of spines being only manifested in the male, as extra 
developments of this nature are always more extravagant in this 
sex where evolution is invariably more dominant. 

Geo. Vernon Hudson. 
Karori, Wellington, 10th March 1884. 



Torpedo Ray. — Since last I wrote respecting the breeding 
habits of this fish some more interesting information on the 



124 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

subject has been supplied by a correspondent writing- from Napier, 
who under date of December 30, 1883, says : — " Another torpedo 
was brought me the other day which I skinned : attached to each 
lobe of the liver, and in a fold of the peritoneum were a lot of 
round gelatinous bodies. They did not appear to be in a sac, but 
each ball was attached to the surrounding membrane, and they 
varied in size from a pea to a small marble ; there was no apparent 
connection with the other organs." 

In a subsequent letter received this month, the same gentleman 
informs me that he had succeeded in tracing che gelatinous bodies 
above-mentioned to their connections, and found them to be eggs. 

I have to record the discovery at this place of a new and 
exceedingly beautiful species of Argonaut. The shell is semi- 
transparent, and much more fragile than either A. nodosa Solander 
or A. gracilis lately described by Mr. T. W. Kirk ; from both of 
these species it also differs in many important particulars. The 
new one will shortly be described and named, and the type 
specimen placed in the Colonial Museum at Wellington. 

Portland Island, 25th March, 1884. C. H. ROBSON. 



Earthquakes. — A sharp shock of earthquake was ex- 
perienced at about 6 50 p.m. on April 1 ith, over the whole region 
on both sides of Cook's Strait, and as far south as Christchurch. 
In the absence of more exact information, we give the following 
telegrams which give a general idea of the range of the seismic 
disturbance. All are dated 12th April. — 

Wellington. — The sharpest shock of earthquake felt here for 
years occurred at ten minutes to seven last night. It set all the 
fircbells ringing. It was preceded for several seconds by a loud 
rumbling noise, with slight vibration. The seismometer at the 
Museum records the following in regard to the earthquake : — A 
sharp jerk from N.N.E., with two circular movements outward, 
and displacement to the south, at 6.49 p.m. ; duration, one second. 
After five seconds' interval was longitude E. and W.fjzVj undulation 
lasting fifteen seconds, with slight final displacement towards the 
east. 

GrcymoutJi. — A sharp shock of earthquake was felt last 
evening at seven o'clock. The motion seemed to be from north 
to south. 

Masterton. — A smart shock of earthquake was felt here at ten 
minutes to seven last evening, accompanied by noise. 

Lycll. — A smart shock of earthquake was felt here at 6.50 
last evening lasting ten seconds. Direction, S.E. to N.W. 

Fielding. — A sharp shock of earthquake was felt here at 6.53 
last night. 

Nelson. — A very severe shock of earthquake was experienced 
here at ten minutes to seven o'clock last evening. It lasted fully 
ten seconds, the direction being from north to south. It com- 
menced with a violent shake. No damage was occasioned 
excepting that some glassware was broken in a private dwelling 



GENERAL NOTES. 125 

Westport. — A very severe shock of earthquake was felt here 
at 6.47 last evening. It lasted over a minute : the direction being 
east and west. No damage was occasioned. 

Christchurch. — A smart shock of earthquake was felt here at 
ten minutes to seven last night. 

Blenheim, — A severe shock of earthquake was felt here at 
6.50 last night. It lasted seven seconds, and the direction was 
from north to south. No damage is reported, but the audience 
in the Wesleyan Church, who were awaiting the service of song, 
were greatly alarmed, several ladies rushing to the door. 

Hawera. — A severe shock of earthquake was experienced at 
6.50 last evening. The direction was N.E. to S.W., and was 
preceded by a loud rumbling noise ; duration estimated from 
20 sec. to 30 sec. It commenced with a prolonged slight shaking 
and then a heavy shock, and finished with slight shaking. No 
damage was done. 

On April 16th a slight shock was experienced in Wellington 
at 6.27 a.m., which travelled in a direction N.E. to S.W. The 
same shock is recorded from Blenheim as occuring at 6.20 a.m. 

Again on April 25th., a sharp shock accompanied by a rum- 
bling noise was felt at Wellington at 11.55 a - m - The seismome- 
ter recorded a slight twisting movement from S.W., displacement 
to N., followed by a moderate E. and W. undulation. The same 
shock was felt but only slightly at Blenheim at 11.53 a - m - 

On May 1st a slight shock was experienced at Wellington at 
8.15 p.m. ; direction E. to W. 



Plants Suitable for Cultivation in New Zealand. — 
In our last issue reference was made to this publication. Our 
attention has since been drawn to the fact that in the selection 
made, Baron F. von Mueller's " Select Extra-Tropical Plants " 
appears to have been made extensive use of, but if so without ac- 
knowledgment. An article in the Melbourne Leader closes as 
follows : — " Though the list will doubtless be useful in New Zea- 
land, it might have been more dignified on the part of the 
Government, and would certainly have been of more value to the 
colony, to have imitated those of Victoria, New South Wales, 
India, and U.S. America, in reprinting Baron von Mueller's work 
on " Select Plants." 



What a Museum should be. — The last annual report of 
the curator of the museum of comparative zoology at Harvard 
College, is a document of great value, as setting forth what the 
aims of a museum should be. Instead of lavishing the funds of 
the institution in the erection of a building of great architect- 
ural pretensions, having the usual arrangement of wide halls and 
narrow encircling galleries, and seeking to exhibit all the collec- 
tions for the inspection of an unappreciative public, — a large 
but plain building has been erected in which the greater portion 
of the vast collections are stored where they can be examined by 



126 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

students, while the part allotted to the public contains smaller 
collections carefully arranged with a view to instruction. 

The following enumeration of the contents and uses of the 
rooms is quoted from the report, and gives a good idea of the 
plan adopted. 

Exhibitio?i Rooms. 

Synoptic Room : — Synopsis of the Animal Kingdom, living 
and fossil. 

Five Systematic Rooms : — I. Mammalia, 2. Birds, 3. Fishes, 

4. Mollusca, 5. Radiates and Protozoa ; and their galleries for 
the systematic collections of Reptiles, Insects, and Crustacea. 

Eight (?) Faunal Rooms and Galleries : — 1. North American, 
2. South American, 3. African, including Madagascar, 4. Indian, 

5. Australian, 6. Europeo-Siberian, 7. Atlantic, 8. Pacific. 

Four Rooms for the Palceontological Collections : — 1. and 2. 
Two rooms for the Palceozoic (1. Silurian and Devonian ; 2. 
Carboniferous and Jurassic), 3. Cretaceous, 4. Tertiary. 

The work rooms for the assistants of the museum, and the 
storage rooms, which are also intended as work rooms of their 
special Subjects are distributed as follows, in addition to a large 
receiving room and a general workshop : — 

The Alcoholic Collections stored in the basement occupy 
four rooms devoted to Fishes ; two rooms for Fishes and 
Reptiles ; one room for Birds and Mammals ; one room for 
Mollusca ; one room for Crustacea ; one room for the other 
Invertebrates. 

The Entomological Department is to occupy eventually four 
gallery rooms of the first story. 

The Work Rooms and Storage Rooms of the fifth story are 
filled by collections occupying five rooms devoted to Birds 
and Mammals ; three for skins and eggs ; and two for skeletons ; 
one room for Crustacea ; one room for Mollusca ; one room for 
Fish and Reptile skeletons ; one room for the collection of dry 
Invertebrates (Corals, Echinoderms, sponges, etc.) ; two rooms 
for Fossil Vertebrates exclusive of Fishes. 

The remaining Palasontological collections are crowded into 
four work and storage rooms. 

Two work rooms for the Geological and Lithological depart- 
ment. 

Four rooms are devoted to the Library of the Museum, and 
one room for the office of the Curator. 

There are also a large general Lecture Room ; three 
laboratories for students in Biology ; three laboratories for 
students in Geology and Palaeontology, with two smaller private 
rooms for the Instructors. 

With the Biological laboratories will be connected also a large 
room for an Aquarium for both fresh-water and marine animals, 
and another room for a Vivarium, both of which are in the base- 
ment of the building. 

"In adopting a small unit for the size of our rooms (30 x 40 ft.), 
we deliberately abandoned all attempts at Exhibition Rooms im- 



GENERAL NOTES. 1 27 

posing from their size. We have aimed only to place before the 
public such portions of our collections as shall become instructive ; 
and in our storage and work rooms the appliances for storage 
aim at economy for space, and are intended, while they do not 
neglect the careful preservation of the collections, to give to the 
assistants and students the freest and quickest possible access to 
them." 



Dactylanthus Taylori. — In No. 10, Vol. 1, N.Z Journal 
of Science, I recorded the finding of the above-mentioned 
plant. In the January of this year I again visited the spot to 
endeavour to ascertain, if possible, the mode of attachment to 
the root of the tree on which the plant is supposed to grow. I 
found the tuberous mass uninjured, but no fresh buds or flowers 
had developed to replace those which I removed last Easter. 
After carefully clearing away the surrounding rootlets and rub- 
bish, I cut out of the ground with an old saw a solid cube of 
earth equal to the size'ofabox which I had brought up with me, and 
carefully transferred the plant to the box, packing carefully with 
moss. I then examined the edge of the hole from whence I 
had taken the plant ; I saw a root nearly two inches in diameter, 
from which a gummy, sticky juice exuded. This proved to be 
the continuation of the root of the tuberous mass. Clearing 
away the very loose pumice soil surrounding it I found that the 
root bifurcated about two inches below the saw-cut, one portion 
going one way, the other in an opposite direction. I gave it a 
tug and the portion of root on my right hand side came out of 
the ground, breaking about three feet from the fork. This piece 
was about the same diameter ( J^ an inch) the whole length and 
had remarkably few rootlets. The exterior was soft and gummy, 
having a thin red cuticle. The central portion tough and 
stringy. I then resolved to trace the second or left hand branch 
back as far as necessary. This portion of the root was thicker 
than the other, and went down into the loose pumice soil (which 
consisted of fragments about half the size of a pea), below the 
superficial mass of vegetable soil and roots. Altogether I traced 
it five feet from the fork, and still there was no sign of the end. 
It was now so deep that the labour of moving the soil was too 
great, so I reluctantly left it still going down, down, into the 
pumice which was quite free from any admixture of vegetable 
soil. The root at the furthest point reached was as thick as my 
thumb, and in the whole five feet there were hardly a dozen 
rootlets. I searched the neighbourhood carefully, but failed to 
find any more specimens. — A.H. 



Large Shark. — In the same number of the Journal 
I noticed the occurrence of a large shark [Carcharias) 
in the Napier Harbour ; this month (April) another of the 
same species was killed near the Napier Bridge. It was 
13ft. 8in, long, and more than 12 feet in girth. The 



128 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

tail presented the same pecularity as No. i., the peculiar 
notch in the lower part of the upper lobe and the relative pro- 
portions of the lobes. The upper edge of the caudal fin 
measured 2ft. ioin. from the notch at root, and the lower edge 
2ft. 4in. The distance in a straight line between tip and tip 3ft. 
6in. Two small fins were present close to the tail, one dorsal and 
one ventral. The liver was of incredible size. Several small 
crustaceans were firmly affixed to the tongue and lips, apparently 
closely allied to those obtained from the previous specimen. 
Other fishes taken here lately are — Coridodaxpulliis, Callorhynchus 
australis, and Nolidanus (HeptancJius) Indicus. The fishermen 
also reported capturing a " Swordfish," but unfortunately it was 
not preserved, so I am unable to confirm it. — A.H. 



ANTS. — On Sunday April 6th, I was walking on the hills 
near the mouth of the Petane River, near Napier, when I became 
covered with thousands of winged ants. Little shining black 
fellows formed the bulk of the swarm, but there were many much 
larger with a large fuscous body with dark rings, and a few of an 
intermediate size, black or dark brown. By the two nodes in the 
petole of the abdomen I presume they are Atta antarctica, Sm. 
or Aphenogastcr antarctica, No. 39. of Mr. Kirby's revised list. 
Very few were to be seen on the low grounds, but every spider's 
web and every thistle on the tops of the hills was covered with 
them. A person who has just arrived from Fort Galatea, between 
Taupo and Tauranga, reports dense swarms of flying ants on 
Friday, April 10th ; so that there must have been a general 
swarming about that date. He also says that fowls which fed 
on them suffered severely, and that some died. Although my 
hands and face were covered with them I did not feel any bites 
or stings. — A.H. 



Pure Carminic Acid for Colouring Microscopical 
Preparations. — Since Gerlach first called attention to carmin 
as a colouring matter for histological purposes, many methods 
of preparing the carmin solutions have been published, but so 
far as I am aware none which result in anything but mixtures 
of various carmin salts with undetermined and undesirable im- 
purities, such as fatty matter, tyrosin, sugar, and salts of alkaline 
metals. Of course the coloration produced by these mixtures 
has been sometimes good, sometimes bad, and the solutions have 
easily spoiled or decomposed, while their preparation often re- 
quired considerable time and trouble. Several years ago I 
studied carmin, chiefly from a chemical standpoint, and since 
then I have often wondered why naturalists usually used carmin 
solutions in which water, with some caustic or destructive mate- 
rial added, was the principal solvent. Carmin of commerce, it 
is true, is not readily soluble, even in water, until ammonia, 
borax, or some other aid to solution is added ; but carminic acid, 
the basis of the coloring matter of carmin, has long been stated 



GENERAL NOTES. 1 29 

in the leading chemical dictionaries and hand-books to be readily 
soluble in water and in alcohol. Watts (Diet. Chem., 1872, 1st 
suppl., p. 413) says of carminic acid : " This acid forms a purple 
mass, fusible and soluble in all proportions in water and in alco- 
hol. Sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid dissolve it without 
alteration. It bears a heat of 136 C. without decomposition." 

Earlier still, Watts (Diet. Chem., 1863, V. I., p. 804) says: 
" The fine red pigment known in commerce as carmin is pre- 
pared by treating a solution of cochineal with cream of tartar, 
alum, or acid oxalate of potassium. The fatty and albuminous 
matters then coagulate and carry down the colouring matter 
with them." Now, in preparing most carmin solutions this pre- 
cipitation takes place, and the carmin, having greater cohesive 
(not chemical) affinity for impurities of animal origin than for 
alcohol, its solution is not readily accomplished by that medium, 
nor indeed by water. In preparing carmin solutions for histo- 
logical purposes by some of the published recipes, more than 
one-half of the coloring matter of the carmin is lost in the refuse 
left upon the filter-paper. 

There are two ways commonly in use for preparing carminic 
acid, which term I here use as distinguished from " acid carmin " 
(the cochineal decoction for which Grenacher, Schweigger-Seidel, 
and others have given recipes) and from carmin (the impure 
commercial powder). The first mode of preparation, the one 
which I followed in preparing the acid upon which I have ex- 
perimented is that of Warren de da Rue. Watts, whom I quote 
because he gives clear directions (Diet, Chem., 1863, Vol. I., p. 
804), gives De la Rue's method as follows : — " To separate it 
[carminic acid] cochineal is exhausted with boiling water ; the 
extract is precipitated by subacetate of lead slightly acidulated, 
care being taken not to add the lead-solution in excess ; the 
precipitate is washed with distilled water till the wash-water no 
longer gives a precipitate with a solution of mercuric chloride, 
then decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen ; the filtrate is eva- 
porated to a syrupy consistence, and dried over the water-bath ; 
and the dark purple product thus obtained is treated with alco- 
hol, which extracts the carminic acid." The second mode of 
preparing carminic acid, that of Schaller, is given by Watts 
(Diet. Chem., 1872, 1st suppl., p. 413) as follows : " C. Schaller 
prepares this acid by precipitating the aqueous extract of cochi- 
neal with neutral lead acetate slightly acidulated with acetic acid ; 
decomposing the washed precipitate with sulphuric acid ; again 
precipitating the filtrate with lead-acetate, and decomposing the 
precipitate with sulphuric acid, avoiding an excess ; then preci- 
pitating a third time, and decomposing the precipitate with hy- 
drogen sulphide. The filtered solution is evaporated to dryness ; 
the residue dissolved in absolute alcohol ; the crystalline nodules 
of carminic acid obtained on leaving this solution to evaporate 
are freed from a yellow substance by washing with cold water, 
which dissolves only the carminic acid ; and the residue left on 
evaporating the aqueous solution is recrystallized from absolute 
alcohol or from ether," 



130 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Schallcr's mode of preparation gives purer carminic acid 
than Dc la Rue's, but cither kind is sufficiently pure for histo- 
logical purposes. The precipitation by lead acetate and the dis- 
solving in alcohol free the carminic acid from animal impurities, 
and the consequence is a purer form of pigment than can be ex- 
tracted by any process hitherto employed for the preparation of 
carmin for histological purposes. 

I will here add that carminic acid has been shown recently 
by Liebermann and Van Dorp to be related through nitrococcusic 
acid to trinitrocresol, which has been obtained from coal-tar 
cresol ; thus showing that the coloring matter of cochineal con- 
tains methylated benzine residues. I do not know whether 
carminic acid, ready prepared, is obtainable. Any chemical 
student could easily prepare it by the processes given above. 

It is unnecessary to explain to naturalists the advantages of 
alcoholic solutions of carmin over aqueous ones. The alcoholic 
solution colors preparations much quicker than the aqueous so- 
lution does ; for coloring sections I employ a solution of 0.25 
gram carminic acid to 100 grams of 80 per cent alcohol, and 
leave sections in the solution from two to five minutes. A solu- 
tion of equal carmin strength but in absolute alcohol, can be 
employed ; it has, however, no special advantages, since with 
the 80 per cent, alcoholic solution the sections can be washed 
directly in absolute alcohol, and then put into oil of cloves or 
turpentin. Coloring in the piece before sectioning never takes 
as long with alcoholic carminic acid as it does with ordinary car- 
min solutions, and if it did take long the strong alcohol would 
preserve the tissue from maceration. In coloring pieces of mol- 
lusca, or of other equally slimy animals, the slime should be 
removed beforehand or the coloration will be unsatisfactory, 
because the slime congealing in the alcohol takes up the coloring 
matter, forming an almost impervious colored layer on the out- 
side and leaving the inside of the piece nearly uncolored. 

Some preparations colored in alcoholic carminic acid and 
then put up in glycerin, lost their color in a few months, the 
color seeming to be entirely diffused in the glycerin, while similar 
preparations mounted in Canada balsam retained their color 
perfectly. I do not know if this fading would occur with pre- 
parations colored with alcoholic ammonic carminate, or even if 
this diffusion was not due to some impurity of the glycerin (of 
the purity of which I was doubtful) ; time to test this matter 
further failed. 

An alcoholic ammonic carminate, or ammonia carmin, can 
be prepared at a moment's notice, from alcoholic carminic acid, 
by dropping ammonia drop by drop, and stirring until the entire 
solution changes from its bright red to a purple red. By this 
mode pure alcoholic ammonic carminate can be produced with 
no excess of ammonia, and at any time. As the carminic acid 
can be preserved dry without decomposition, and dissolves 
quickly in alcohol, one can carry the ingredients of a carmin 
solution in the vest pocket without inconvenience. 



GENERAL NOTES. 131 

In making and using carminic acid pure alcohol and distilled 
water give the best results, because a portion of the carminic 
acid is converted to carminates by the salts of impure water. In 
making alcoholic ammonic carminate this precaution is not as 
necessary, because the color of the carminates produced by the 
impurities of the water is so nearly like that of ammonic carmi- 
nate. Alcoholic carminic acid may be used as Grenacher's car- 
min solution is used, to color sections from which the coloration 
is to be afterwards partly extracted by very dilute hydrochloric 
acid, leaving nuclei red. Another way to use carmin solutions, 
which is specially applicable to alcoholic carminic acid, is to pre- 
cipitate the carmin in the tissues by some salt, the carminate of 
the base of which gives a desired coloration. I have found, for 
example, that specimens hardened for a moment under the cover 
glass with an alcoholic solution of corrosive sublimate (mercuric 
chloride) and, after washing with alcohol, colored in alcoholic 
carminic acid, took a fine coloration of mercuric carminate. 
So, too, specimens colored in alcoholic carminic acid can 
be changed by a few moments' treatment with a very dilute 
alcoholic solution of lead-acetate or cobalt nitrate to a 
beautiful purple. With lead-acetate used as above a double 
coloration is sometimes produced, but I have not examined suf- 
ficiently these colorations to accurately describe them. Cupric 
and other salts, used as above described, have not given me very 
favourable results. Sometimes salts in the tissues of the animals 
themselves change portions of the carminic acid to purple car- 
minates, giving a double coloration without further treatment. 

Picric acid added to alcoholic carminic acid in extremely 
small quantities (best in a dilute alcoholic solution, testing the 
solution on specimens after each addition), makes a double alco- 
holic coloring fluid (a so-called picro-carmin). I have been un- 
able thus far to determine the proportion of picric acid required 
for this solution, having in every case added an excess. All 
different kinds of carmin solutions can be made from carminic 
acid with the advantage of having always uniform strength, of 
being definite mixtures, and of not spoiling as readily as those 
made directly from cochineal. Incompatible reagents with car- 
minic acid are, of course, all alkaline solutions, and nearly all 
metallic salts ; with ammonic carminate, are naturally all acids ; 
with all carmin solutions, are bromine and chlorine. 

I hope later to try some coloring experiments with coccinin, 
ruficoccin, carmin red, and ruficarmin, all of which are derived 
from carminic acid, and of possible value to the histologist. — Geo. 
Dimmock, in " The American Naturalist" for March, 1884.. 



132 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 

THE NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE. 



BY COLEMAN PHILLIPS. 



In the March number of the New ZEALAND JOURNAL OF 
SCIENCE, Mr. G. M. Thomson criticises the constitution and 
working- of the New Zealand Institute. As a journal of science 
is the proper place for such criticism, I venture to reply. Since 
the year 1869 I have watched the working of the Institute, and 
sometimes taken part in its proceedings, and I confess I am 
not so disappointed with it as is Mr. Thomson. 

Mr. Thomson's paper, I regret to say, is full of mistakes, com- 
mitted, I admit, evidently from want of complete information. 
That gentleman quite overlooks the essential feature of the In- 
stitute, which appears to be this : — That the affiliated societies 
manage their own affairs, and spend their own money. The 
Government gives payments by results, in so far that it makes a 
grant to relieve the Societies from the expense of printing their 
Transactions. 

This grant of £500 per annum is alone administered by the 
Board of Governors. The Board has nothing whatever to do 
with the other matters mentioned by Mr. Thomson, viz.: — The 
Geological Survey, the Meteorological Stations, the Colonial 
Laboratory, the Library, or the Museum, for the simple reason 
that none of these things have been handed over to the Board to 
administer. They are administered by the Colonial Secretary, 
and form a department, the principal sections of which were under 
the management of the present Director, Dr. Hector, before the 
Institute existed. It was evidently contemplated by the framers 
of "The New Zealand Institute Act, 1867," that the Board 
might administer these things, but the fact remains that it does 
not do so, as it is thought more advisable to allow them to be 
administered by the Colonial Secretary ; the numerous publica- 
tions which the Department has issued in every branch of the 
service proves how well it has worked. 

Moreover, it must, I think, be admitted that the Geological 
Survey of the Colony requires a museum in which to store speci- 
mens. That a Public Laboratory is absolutely requisite for 
analysis of all kinds, such as are constantly asked for and re- 
quired by the Customs Department re duties, by our police 
magistrates in police cases, and in the matter of adulteration of 
foods, and mineral and soil analysis, as well as toxicological 
(poisons) examinations, will be universally admitted. It has been 
thought expedient to continue these things under the charge 
of the Colonial Secretary, and Mr. Thomson is quite in error in 
supposing that the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Insti- 
tute has anything whatever to do with them. 

The Library of the Institute consists only of exchanges. No 
money has been voted for a library. 



THE NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE. 1 33 

The Meteorological Stations are managed by the Director of 
of the Geological Survey, Dr. Hector, as well as the limited 
means at his command allow. This has been done in compli- 
ance with the late principle of killing the willing horse : that 
when we have a good public servant, to pile the work upon him, 
and to consider his back three times as broad as Providence 
usually designs the backs of humanity for weight-carrying pur- 
poses. 

For all these things Parliament votes a certain sum annually, 
just as it does for any other department of the public service. 
The proper time to make complaint touching the effectiveness of 
their management is when the Estimates are being passed. The 
Director being responsible for their administration, it is absurd 
to suppose that that officer could possibly allow his assistants to 
become what Mr. Thomson wishes them to become) viz., inde- 
pendent of his control. We have at present a very good manager 
in Dr. Hector. Let us be content with being well served. 

The ^"500 granted by Parliament for printing the Transac- 
tions only covers the actual cost of printing. The officers of the 
survey staff all contribute to the work of publishing the yearly 
volume in their spare time, and without any remuneration. Were 
it otherwise, the work could not possibly appear, as the annual 
grant would not be sufficient to meet the expenses. The actual 
cost per page of the Transactions is almost one pound, and the 
volume usually consists of five to six hundred pages. Does Mr. 
Thomson wish to endanger the appearance of the yearly volume ? 
He would find it exceedingly difficult just now to induce Parlia- 
ment to increase the £500 grant. 

It is evident, too, that if the affiliated societies had this 
grant divided amongst themselves, — which, being public money, 
might be so voted, — and attempted each to print their own trans- 
actions, the result would not be a yearly scientific volume, admired 
the world over, and for which exchanges are readily and willingly 
made by the different and learned societies. 

It is also evident that no Board purely elected by the socie- 
ties could, for the present, well administer the small annual grant, 
as Mr. Thomson wishes. Jealousies would be certain to arise, 
and it is very doubtful whether the representatives would meet 
in Wellington when required. For although it is quite true, as 
Mr. Thomson says, that the Board of Governors only met twice 
in 1 88 1 {vide Vol. XV.), yet this appears to have been an excep- 
tion, as the former volumes show that the meetings usually num- 
ber from three to six. Nor does it appear from the minutes how 
much of the real work of the Board in selecting papers is done 
without formal meetings. I think, therefore, in the present state 
of the Colony, it would be unreasonable to expect a dozen gen- 
tlemen to make special journeys to Wellington four or five times 
in the year from all parts of the Colony to look after a matter 
which, in my opinion at least, appears to be very fairly attended 
to. Representatives resident in Wellington, or residing therein 
for a good portion of the year, would have to be chosen, there- 



134 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

fore the Board of Governors would remain very much as it is. 
The three members who are now elected nearly always reside in 
Wellington, and fairly represent the affiliated societies. 

I must be allowed to say that I think the use of the words 
"democratic community " and " representatives by election " by 
Mr. Thomson rather out of place in a scientific paper of any 
kind. Nothing, to my mind, is more objectionable than the ex- 
treme democratic tendencies of the Colony as it is, and if we 
are to have the evils resulting therefrom — I allude more parti- 
cularly to the low standard of education shown by the generality 
of our public men — forced upon the New Zealand Institute, time 
it will be for the work of the Institute to cease. Before I could 
concur in the advisability of a Democratic Institute I should 
prefer to see our Members of Parliament show a greater know- 
ledge of history, a greater acquaintance with those time-honored 
principles of government which public men should possess.* I 
should, therefore, be sorry to see the principle of " representatives 
by election " applied, in the fullest degree, to the Board of 
Governors of the New Zealand Institute, as advocated by Mr. 
Thomson, whose next and proper step would doubtless be the 
election of our Law Judges, a plan followed in the United States 
of America with the most disastrous results. 

At the present time the Board of Governors of the New Zea- 
land Institute consists of the Governor, the Colonial Secretary, 
six nominated members, and three elected members. As soon 
as the time arrives for Parliament to hand over to the Board of 
Governors the powers contemplated by the Act of 1867, and as 
soon as the funds of the Branch Societies come more fully to be 
administered by the Central Board, I shall be quite willing to 
meet Mr. Thomson half way in this matter of election, and I 
would be prepared to reduce the number of nominated members 
and enact a proportionate increase in the number of elected 
members. Such a concession should be deemed amply sufficient. 
The history of the Royal and other scientific societies at Home, 
proves how advantageous for good has been the practice of the 
Crown independently nominating gentlemen to control the ex- 
penditure of, and public grants to, these societies, especially dur- 
ing their infant stage. Mr. Thomson says that " scientific bodies, 
perhaps above all others, are impatient of official control." It 
appears to me that quite the opposite has been found the case. 
English scientific bodies owe a very great deal to official control. 

Mr. Thomson may rely upon it, that if the principle of elec- 
tion is carried to the fullest extent, pushing energetic men of 
inferior attainments will secure their own election, whilst good 
men will remain in the background, not caring to trouble them- 
selves to contest the point. 

I think we may almost leave well alone. The Board of 
Governors is fairly nominated and elected. The 1867 Act is a 

* I am acquainted with an instance of a lately elected M.H.R. who, to qualify 
himself for his duties, read through the whole of the published " Hansards," think- 
ing that a proper foundation. 



THE NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE. 1 35 

little faulty perhaps and confusing, but I see no gain in amend- 
ing it. (The Statute Law of the Colony is sufficiently bulky and 
useless as it is, but what can we expect when our Members of 
Parliament use " Hansard " for purposes of study). The volume 
of Transactions appears at the mere printer's cost, the whole of 
the preparatory and editorial work being done gratuitously. The 
manager of the Institute, Dr. Hector, is actually the director of 
a Government department, and was so before the Institute was 
started. If Mr. Thomson thinks that the Colonial Secretary 
should no longer have the control of these particular depart- 
ments, constantly referred to by our mine managers, police 
magistrates, customs officers, and sailors, it will be well for him 
to move or get moved in Parliament that the Board of Governors 
of the New Zealand Institute relieve that Minister, and we 
shall then see whether Parliament thinks it advisable to grant 
his request. Whilst I firmly believe in the necessity of curtailing 
the work and power of the Central Government, yet in this par- 
ticular matter I think we had better leave well alone. In my 
opinion the Colony is not ripe enough for the change contem- 
plated, and I hope Mr. Thomson will agree with me in thinking 
so, and admit his partial misconception of the facts. There are 
really few truly scientific yet good all round men amongst us, 
and I think we expect a very great deal from them and treat 
them very shabbily as regards money matters. I have a per- 
sonal friend, a truly scientific man in his own particular branch, 
who finds it almost impossible to obtain employment in the 
public service. I think, therefore, we should leave matters as 
they are for some time to come with respect to the New Zealand 
Institute. 

Dry River, Wairarapa, April 25th, 1884. 

[I cannot undertake here to reply fully to Mr. Phillips' criti- 
cisms and strictures, but will only refer to a few points, and trust 
that the matter will receive further examination from other 
members of the affiliated societies. My paper is not so " full of 
mistakes " as Mr. Phillips imagines, nor do I overlook the essen- 
tial feature of the Institute, seeing that my information is drawn 
chiefly from the Act itself, and that as a member of the Council 
of the Otago Institute for the past nine years, and as hon. secre- 
tary for three or four of these years, I have a pretty good idea 
of the working of the Institute. However, I can leave the Act 
to speak for itself. There the duties of the Board of Governors 
are specified in so many words, and the fact that the Board does 
not do more than administer the grant of £500 voted by Govern- 
ment for the publication of the Transactions, does not alter the 
case that they have certain duties allotted them which they 
never get the chance of attending to. 

Mr. Phillips seems to think that I am opposed to the Colonial 
Museum, Public Laboratory, and the other scientific departments 
which are under the management of Dr. Hector. Nothing could 
be further from my thoughts or expressed opinions. It is just 
because I, in common with all others who have the scientific in- 



136 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

terests of the Colony at heart, wish to see these institutions in a 
more thriving state that I have written what I have. 

Regarding Dr. Hector's having too much work put on his 
shoulders, my article particularly goes to prove that, but I 
am the first to admit that he is one of the most all-round 
men in the Colony ; and I also think that under any other the 
whole affair would have collapsed long ere this. It is just his 
ability to keep so many tangled threads in his hand, that has 
enabled scientific matters to progress as well as they have done. 
But as these departments under his care have increased, no in- 
crease has been made in the power of management, and though 
Dr. Hector may manage them well, it is not likely that anyone 
who succeeds him will. 

My democratic tendencies are not so strong that I admire 
the existing state of things in matters political, but I don't think 
that there is any danger of the condition which Mr. Phillips dreads 
so much coming to pass in our scientific societies. The demo- 
cratic politician does not trouble himself with Science ; he is 
generally satisfied to pose as a working man's hero. But when 
I am called upon to subscribe money to any object, I decidedly 
desire to have a word in the management of that money, and the 
Act of the New Zealand Institute certainly specifies what is to 
be done with a portion of the funds of the affiliated societies, 
and with the papers read at their meetings, and therefore ought 
to give them a considerable voice in the management of these 
specified funds. 

My reason for writing on the New Zealand Institute was 
simply that I thought the time had come for a radical change in 
its constitution, and I expressed myself accordingly. The matter 
is now before the scientific public of the Colony, and I have no 
doubt that if others think as I do, the affiliated societies will 
take up the question and ventilate it further. If they do not, I 
shall be quite content to act as Mr. Phillips advises, and leave 
well alone.— G.M.T.l 



REVIEW 



7 he Lazv of Heredity : a study of the cause of variation and the 
origin of living organisms* By R. W. Brooks (Baltimore). 
Jaeger is quoted by Semper as saying that there has been 
enough Darwinist philisophising, and that it is now time to sub- 
ject the numerous hypotheses to the test of investigation. 
While this is undoubtedly true, some hypotheses are necessary ; 
and even incomplete and erroneous ones may be of great service 
by offering a series of definite problems for solution, instead of a 
chaos of facts. " An honest attempt to reason from the pheno- 
mena of nature can hardly fail to result in the discovery of some 

* Critique from Science, Vol. III., p. j<s<s. 



REVIEW. 137 

little truth." This is the key note of the book before us, which 
is therefore worthy of very careful consideration, however unsatis- 
factory it may prove to be as an explanation of the great prob- 
lem of heredity. 

The theory proposed in this book is a modification of Dar- 
win's hypothesis of pangenesis, reconstructed with a view of 
avoiding the many difficulties in the way of that hypothesis. 
Brooks's theory, very briefly stated, is as follows : — 1. The union 
of two sexual elements gives variability ; 2. In all multicellular 
organisms the ovum and the male cell have gradually become 
specialised in different directions ; 3. The ovum has acquired a 
very complex organisation, and contains material particles of 
some kind corresponding to each of the hereditary species 
characteristics ; 4. The ovarian ova of the offspring are the 
direct and unmodified descendants of the parent ovum ; 5. Each 
cell in the body has the power of throwing off minute germs. 
During the evolution of the species, these cells have acquired 
distinctive functions adapted to the conditions under which they 
are placed. When the function of a cell is disturbed through a 
change in its environment, it throws off small particles, which 
are the germs or ■' gemmules " of this particular cell. 6. These 
germs may be carried to all parts of the body, and penetrate to 
an ovum or to a bud ; but the male cell has acquired a peculiar 
power to gather and store up germs. 7. When the impregnation 
occurs, each gemmule impregnates that particle of the ovum 
which will give rise in the offspring to the cell corresponding 
to the one which produced the gemmule, or else it unites with a 
closely related particle, destined to produce a closely related cell. 
8. In the body of the offspring this cell will be a hybrid, and 
tend to vary. 9. The ovarian ^ova of the offspring inherit the 
properties of the fertilised ovum directly, and the organisms 
to which they give rise will tend to vary in the same manner. 
10. A cell which has varied will continue to throw off gemmules, 
and so cause variations in the corresponding parts of the bodies 
of descendants, until a favourable variation is seized upon by 
natural selection, n. The ovarian ova will directly inherit the 
selected variation, and will transmit it as an hereditary race 
characteristic without the agency of gemmules. 12. The occur- 
ence of a variation, but not its precise character, is due to the 
direct action of external conditions. 

These positions Professor Brooks endeavours to establish by a 
great number of facts, taken almost exclusively from Darwin. 
He first combats the view that sexual elements play similar 
parts in reproduction, and the objection seems to be well taken ; 
though, when he says that it cannot be shown that either sex 
may transmit any characteristic whatever, he pushes his objection 
too far, as is demonstrated by a multitude of facts in the breed- 
ing of domestic animals. 

Having stated the theory, the author devotes a large part of 
his book to the evidence in its favour. From the study of hybrids 
he concludes that hybrids and mongrels are highly variable; that 



138 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

the children of hybrids arc more variable than the hybrids them- 
selves ; and that, from the evidence of the reciprocal crossing in 
the case of hybrids, variation is caused by the influence of the 
male. The evidence from variation is then considered, showing 
that variation is more common in sexual than in asexual repro- 
duction (in plants at least) ; that changed conditions cause varia- 
tion, not directly, but in subsequent generations ; that specific 
characters are more variable than generic ; that parts excessively 
developed in males are more variable then parts especially de- 
veloped in females. Professor Brooks next takes up the very 
complex subject of secondary sexual characters, and shows from 
various kinds of evidence that the male is more variable than the 
female, and that the male has led the way in evolution, while the 
female has followed. One of the most important aspects of the 
hypothesis the author considers to be the manner in which it 
removes objections to the theory of natural selection, by showing 
that large numbers of animals vary similarly and simultaneously, 
and so give an opportunity for natural selection to come into 
play. 

Now, how far can this ingenious and ably supported hypo- 
thesis be regarded as a permanently valuable contribution to 
science ? One great objection is apparent at the very outset, 
— that the author has not gone to nature for his facts, but has 
taken them almost entirely from Darwin's works, as he candidly 
says. This must necessarily impair the value of his conclusions. 
The whole work bears the stamp of being merely an ingenious 
attempt to supplement Darwin's hypothesis, and rearrange his 
facts, and might have been written by one whose knowledge of 
biology had been drawn almost entirely from Darwin's books. 
The objection which Mr. Lewis made to pangenesis holds equally 
well against this hypothesis. " The hypothesis is thus seen to be 
one wholly constructed out of suppositions, each and all of which 
may be erroneous, every one of them being necessary to the 
integrity of the scheme." Thus the existence of gemmules is a 
supposition ; that cells throw them off when disturbed is a sup- 
position ; that the male cell has acquired a special power of 
gathering and storing these germs is a supposition. Scarcely a 
single proposition of the hypothesis can be regarded as in any 
way proved. Then, again, some of the apparently simple as- 
sumptions really involve a number of others, equally without 
evidence. Thus, when it is said that the ovarian ova, being the 
direct descendants of the fertilized egg, inherit its peculiarities, 
we have no explanation offered for what is perhaps as great a 
mystery as the main problem itself. The ovarian ova are derived 
from the fertilised ovum through an immense number of inter- 
mediate cells, most of which become indifferent epithelium. We 
must, then, assume that the gemmules are all segregated together, 
and transmitted unchanged from cell to cell till they finally reach 
the ovarian ovum, — surely a very forced supposition. 

The evidence by which Professor Brooks endeavours to sup- 
port his hypothesis is by no means convincing : usually all that 



REVIEW. 139 

can be said of it is, that it does not contradict the view. In spite 
of his evident candour, the author has not always resisted the 
temptation of straining his points to the uttermost limit, often 
preferring a far-fetched and doubtful explanation to an obvious 
one close at hand, as in the case of the zebra and niata hybirds, 
on p. 130. The statement that the peculiarities of the niata 
breed ol Paraguay cattle are probably due to a reversion to the 
type of Sivatherium will be an amusing one to paleontologists. 

Then it is not at all clear from the evidence presented, that 
this hypothesis will account more satisfactorily for the greater 
development of the male in those species in which the sexes 
differ than does Darwin's theory of sexual selection : for admit- 
ting Professor Brooks's doctrine, that each individual inherits all 
the characteristics of the species, and that the female function 
prevents the development of the male characters (though they 
may appear when that function is destroyed), it is plain that those 
characters are either incompatible with the female function or use- 
less to the female, and hence there is no reason why she should 
acquire them ; while their presence in the male, to which they 
are of obvious advantage, is in most cases to be accounted for by 
sexual selection. On the other hand, it is obvious that all the 
complex apparatus of uterus, placenta, and similar organs must 
have originated with the female. We cannot agree with Pro- 
fessor Brooks, that the presence of mammae in the male is an in- 
dication that the mammary function was originally a male 
characteristic, any more than that the presence of rudimentary 
stridulating organs in female Orthoptera shows that these were 
first acquired by the female. Why should Professor Brooks 
adopt exactly opposite explanations for exactly parallel cases ? 

Propagation of cells by means of gemmules is not only purely 
hypothetical, but, apparently at least, opposed to what we know 
of the mode of cell-formation. Cells arise only by division of 
some pre-existing cell, and never seem to arise spontaneously, 
as would very probably be the case it their propagation by gem- 
mules were at all common. Nor does the process of impregna- 
tion, as actually observed, lend support to the new hypothesis ; 
for the head of the spermatozoon coalesces with the nucleus of 
the ovum, apparently without loss of bulk, f or in any way indi- 
cating an emission of gemmules. The influence of the male ele- 
ment seems rather to consist in modifying the action of the egg- 
nucleus. 

Mr. Conn's very obvious objection (given on p. 294), that in 
many cases unfavourable conditions would not act upon certain 
cells, causing them to emit gemmules, but would result in the de- 
struction of the animal, seems entitled to more weight than the 
author is inclined to give it. Any hypothesis that fails to account 
for so large and important a class of facts cannot be called com- 
plete. 

Want of space compels the omission of many other objec- 
tions, as well as the considerations of Professor Brooks's views 
on reversion, natural selection, and the intellectual differences 



140 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

between men and women. But, in spite of all that has been 
said, Professor Brooks is entitled to the thanks of all students of 
biology for his clear statement of the problem, and the many 
suggestive fields for investigation here opened. The student of 
heredity will find in this book just what he needs to give him a 
clear conception of how the problem is to be attacked. The 
book is one of remarkable ability. The way in which apparently 
disconnected series of phenomena are brought together and 
shown to be special cases of one general principle, is indeed 
masterly. Even if every single proposition of the hypothesis 
should prove to be without foundation, and the hypothesis en- 
tirely untenable, Professor Brooks must always be credited with 
having made a most important step in advance. Assuming that 
the problem of heredity is at all capable of solution, some such 
preliminary clearing of the field is a necessity. If different ob- 
servers will devote their energies to following up the various 
lines of inquiry which Professor Brooks has so ably suggested, 
we may be sure of most valuable and fruitful additions to our 
knowledge. To use Mr. Lewis's words, " Even should the hypo- 
thesis prove a will-o'-wisp, it is worth following, if we follow cir- 
cumspectly, for it hovers over lands where we may find valuable 
material. As an hypothesis, it so links together wide classes 
of facts that it may be a clue to great discoveries." 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 



PHILOSOPHICAL INSTITUTE OF CANTERBURY. 

Christchurch, 3rd April. 1884. — R. W. Fereday, Esq., President, 
in the chair. 

New member — Mr. Grayson. 

Mr. Blair read a paper on " Technical Education," which 
he first remarked was highly necessary in trades and professions. 
The lack of it in England had been shown by Exhibitions, and it 
was seen that museums and schools were needed to remedy the 
defect. In an interesting account of the science and art classes 
established after the great Exhibition, he mentioned that in 1884 
they cost ^410,690, and that through them all classes of the nation 
had opportunities for instruction of the best kind. Mr. Blair's 
concluding remarks were on the methods to be pursued in render- 
ing technical education more popular, and many interesting details 
of the British, South Kensington, and other Home Museums were 
given. 

Mr. A. W. Purnell, who had prepared a paper on the same 
subject, which, however, covered different ground, began by re- 
marking that the recent discussions on the Public Library reminded 
people that twelve years ago the Provincial Council had provided 
for the endowment of a School of Technical Science. No such 
school had been founded, nor had attempts been made in that 
direction, and he thought it was time to try to get technical schools 
in Christchurch. Examining our present system of education, he 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 141 

showed that it was literary — and literary only. This was a serious 
evil, for the bulk of the male pupils were destined for manual labor. 
Did one of them show exceptional ability, he would get a scholar- 
ship and then take his degree, which gained, he would find him- 
seli fit only for the already overcrowded professions, or for clerical 
work, in which his very attainments would handicap him heavily. 
Our secondary education was at fault. Something more than 
literary culture was required, and he asked that schools for tech- 
nical education might be opened, degrees to be obtainable in them 
which would confer a distinction equal to that conferred for literary 
attainments. Something of the kind was really needed, for the 
apprenticeship system of England had, in this country, fallen intode- 
suetude, and that, too, at a time when greater demands for skill and 
knowledge were being made on the craftsmen. Our workmen 
would soon be exposed to the competition of highly trained men 
from the schools of England and the Continent, and would cer- 
tainly be beaten under the present system. Mr. Purnell described 
what had been done in England, Japan, Sweden, the United States, 
and on the Continent, where even Russia has recognised what the 
New Zealand Government had overlooked — the fact that the per- 
manent success of manufactories is dependent on the technical 
knowledge of the workmen. Technical ought not to be confounded 
with scientific education. A pupil should get as much science as 
he needed in his trade, and no more. School lees should be low, 
and the lecturer advocated the application of a part of the endow- 
ment set apart for secondary education to the support ot the 
technical schools. Our High Schools and Colleges were an eye- 
sore to the working classes, who felt they had no share in them, 
and he would be glad to see some of the minor ones replaced by 
technical schools. Workmen formed the mass of the community, 
and the only way to keep them contented was to raise their status, 
and to dispel the idea that an artisan must leave his own work in 
order to rise in the world. The working classes had a right to de- 
mand a change in our educational system ; for the first object of 
education was to fit boys and girls for their future work, and this 
had been almost lost sight of. 

Dr. von Haast pointed out that the School of Art and the 
Museum went a long way to furnish the opportunities asked for. 
He challenged Mr. Purnell's remarks as requiring that the son of an 
artisan should needs be an artisan himself; whereas it was a fine 
point in our social system that a man with brains could rise to any 
position. 

Mr. Hogben regarded special knowledge as dearly bought if 
the mind was to be cramped for want of general knowledge. The 
training of the artisan should not interfere with the training of the 
man. He thought the educational importance of museums was 
underrated, and gave some instances of their value. 

Dr. Bakewell was in favour of an agricultural training for our 
young men, to get them on to the soil and away from the town. 
We in towns were all non-producers, and dependent on the farmers 
and runholders. As for literary culture, he knew nothing more 
valuable. He who had it might be reduced to the greatest poverty, 
but would find solace and relief in the pages of the Classic poets. 

Mr. H. R. Webb, though a Governor of Canterbury College, 
could not agree with Dr. von Haast. Enough had not been done 



142 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

for technical education. In answer to Mr. Hogben, he under- 
stood Mr. Purnell to propose that boys should receive rudimentary 
general education before their technical work. The question, 
11 What shall we do with our sons ?" had to be faced. They could 
not all go to Lincoln. At present very few would tackle trade ; 
they didn't like it. They would rather become teachers, clerks, 
or lawyers. He could not agree with Dr. Bakewell ; for the town 
population of New Zealand was largely engaged in manufacture. 

Professor Hutton deprecated rash interference with existing 
methods. If the policy of the Board of Governors were examined, 
it would be found to have closely followed that pursued in England. 
Drawing was the first requisite, and the School of Art was the 
most creditable institution in the colonies. It would be a pity to 
cripple it. Let the School of Art be firmly established, and then 
when more money was available other objects could be pursued. 
Then there would be plenty of time to consider what they should 
do. 

Mr. Murphy urged the importance of teaching agriculture in 
the primary schools. Were this done they would not find fifty-six 
applicants for a single clerkship, as had lately happened. There 
was room for 50 pupils at Lincoln College, yet it only contained 
30. New Zealand would be something more than an agricultural 
country, for already her implements, coaches, and woollens beat 
those imported. 

Messrs. Blair and Purnell briefly replied to their critics, the 
latter remarking that he would venture to prophesy that there 
would soon be a great outcry against the expenditure on High 
Schools and Colleges, which were practically not open to the 
working classes. 

The Chairman announced that next meeting a paper would be 
read on the Electric Light. 



Christchurch, May 1st, 1884. — R. W. Fereday, Esq., President, 
in the chair. 

New Members — Messrs. Ringwood and E. McConnell. 

The President announced that Dr. R. von Lendenfeld had 
resigned his position as member of the Council, owing to his re- 
moval to Sydney, and that Professor J. von Haast had been 
appointed by the Council to fill the vacancy. 

Papers— Mr. Ringwood read a paper on " Red Sunsets " in 
which he stated that the " after glow " observed at sunset during 
the past seven months was due to the presence of volcanic dust 
in the upper regions of the atmosphere. This dust had been pro- 
jected into the atmosphere by the volcanic eruption at the Island 
of Krakatoa, though perhaps the remarkable sunsets observed in 
England sooner than at other parts ot Europe may have been due 
to dust from an eruption in the Alaska group of islands. He 
traced the first appearance of the remarkable sunsets from Kraka- 
toa, to the Seychelles, Gold Coast, Brazil &c. showing that the 
dust cloud when projected into the higher strata of the atmosphere 
had been left behind by the rotatory motion of the earth and hence 
appeared to have travelled westward at a mean velocity of 87 
miles per hour. Spectrum analysis had shown that the " after 
glow" was due to the presence of dust in the atmosphere, not to 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 143 

moisture; moreover this dust had been collected at various places 
far distant from Krakatoa, and found to be volcanic and of the 
same nature as that from Krakatoa itself. As an illustration of the 
act that such fine dust can be projected to great altitudes by vol- 
canic eruptions, he quoted an account by Whymper of an eruption 
at Cotopaxi where dust particles less than one twenty-five thousandth 
part of a grain were shot out to great heights and afterwards blown 
as tar as Chimborazo. Probably this dust was kept suspended in 
the atmosphere because it was charged with the same kind of 
electricity as the earth and was hence repelled by it. As a proof 
of the stupendous magnitude of the eruption, he stated that the 
report had been heard over an area 5000 miles in diameter — in 
Ceylon, Saigon, North and Central Australia — and that about 
half of the island had been blown clean away, leaving a vertical 
cliff and forming a fresh island about seven miles distant. This new 
island could not be due to an upheaval, because the sea bottom 
around had not been raised, but even somewhat lowered. An 
atmospheric wave which had passed four times round the earth had 
also been caused by the eruption. 

Dr. Haast agreed with Mr. Ringwood as to the eruption being 
the cause of the red sunsets, but thought that the disappearance 
of a part of the island was more probably due to a fault, and the 
appearance of a fresh island to an upheaval. An examination of 
the locality b} a competent geologist would soon settle this point. 

Professor Hutton could not understand the great speed with 
which the dust cloud must have travelled. He thought it too 
great to be due to any terrestrial cause. The phenomena must 
however be due to something in the Earth's atmosphere, otherwise 
they ought to be seen at mid-day as well as in the evening, and 
he was inclined to believe that they were caused by cosmical dust 
that had been caught up by the earth. 

Mr. Maskell asked if red sunsets had not been observed before 
the eruption of Krakatoa. 

Mr. Ringwood in reply said that similar sunsets had been 
recorded after other volcanic eruptions, at Vesuvius, the Andes, 
&c, but he did not know of any seen recently which could not be 
referred either to the eruption at Krakatoa, or to that at Alaska. 



LINNEAN SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Sydney, 26th March, 1884.— C. S. Wilkinson, Esq., F.G.S., 
F.L.S., President, in the chair. 

New member — Mr. J. F. Fitzhardinge. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. " On Plants which have become naturalised in New South 
Wales," by the Rev. W. Woolls, Ph.D., F.L.S. In this paper the 
author not only deals with various importations, whether inten- 
tional or otherwise, of new and often injurious weeds, but also 
with the general and deliberate destruction of the native Flora, 
especially in timber. He also points out that many of our most 
valuable trees, as for instance the Myall (Acacia pendula), are dying 
out in consequence of the want of any kind of protection for the 
young plants. They are produced in abundance, but eaten down 
as fast as they grow. The paper contains a complete account 
of ail the exotic Mono- and Di-cotyledom known in the Colony. 



144 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

2. The Australian Hydromedusa, by R. von Lendenfeld, Ph.D., 
Part I. It is proposed in this paper to describe a series of new 
species of Hydvomcdusa of our shores. As most essays on the Hy- 
dromedusa dwell exclusively either on the Hydroid Zoophytes or on the 
Medusa, and as this course is not in accordance with our present 
view of zoological classification, a new classification oi the Hydro- 
mcduscB is proposed. The classification is marked out in the pre- 
sent paper. The present paper forms a Prodromus of a system of 
the Hydroid Zoophytes and Craspedote Medusa, which will be used and 
marked out in detail in subsequent papers. 

The order of the Hydromcdusoe is here divided into five Sub- 
orders and twenty-one families. 

3. " The Scyphomedusce of the Southern Sea," by R. von Len- 
denfeld, Ph.D., Part II. This paper is a continuation of the paper 
read at the last meeting of the Society, and contains a description 
of all the species of the third order of the Scyphomedusce, the Cubome- 
dusce, which have been described from the South Sea. 

4. " On some Fossil Plants from Dubbo, N. S. Wales," by the 
Rev. J. Milne Curran, F.G.S. This paper, which was illustrated 
by specimens in an extraordinary state of preservation, and 
mounted for the microscope, is a very careful essay towards the 
determination of the (so-called) Hawkesbury beds at Dubbo, and 
names or describes as belonging to that formation the following 
forms, viz.: — Sphenopteris crebra, S. glossophylla, Neuvoptevis austrdlis, 
Thinfeldia odontopteroides, T. media, Alethopteris Currant, A. conciuna, 
Merianopteris major ; and a Conifer, Walchm milneana. Of new 
species Mr. Curran names Odontoptevis macrophylla (Alethopteris), (Pe- 
copteris) australis, Hymenophyllipes dubia, Podozamites sp., and one 
conifer set down doubtfully as Walchia piniformis. 

The President remarked that this paper was an important con- 
tribution to the Geology of N. S. Wales. Several of the fossils 
described from the Dubbo formation were indistinguishable from 
some which he had collected from the shale beds interstratified 
with the Hawkesbury Sandstone at Sydney and near Mount Vic- 
toria ; they also exhibited the same remarkable state of preserva- 
tion. He had no. doubt the Dubbo beds, from which Mr. Curran 
had obtained his specimens, belonged to the Hawkesbury forma- 
tion. 

Mr. Ramsay exhibited a fine collection of Marine animals in 
illustration of the new and perfect methods of mounting and pre- 
serving specimens in use by Senor Lo Bianco, at Dr. Dohrn's Zoo- 
logical Station, Naples. Among the exhibits were Trachypterus 
tocuia, Torpedo ocellata, Pennavia Carolinii, Endendviunt ramosum, Zoobo- 
bryanpellucidum, Pennatida phosphor a, A utidon rosacea, Chromodoris elegans, 
Pleurophyllidea lineata, Pyrosoma elegans, Cestus veneris, Rhysostoma 
puhno, and many other beautiful preparations. 

The President exhibited a portion of the lower jaw of a Dipro- 
todon which had been found near Armidale by Mr. W. M. Harris. 
It was interesting to note the occurrence of the remains of this 
gigantic extinct marsupial on the summit of the Great Dividing 
Range, as well as on the low-lying plains of the Darling District. 






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CONTENTS: 

Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, 1883, Vol. XVI. By the Editor ... 
Diamond Mines of South Africa. By Captain F. W. Hutton 
Distribution of Terrestial Crustacea. By Chas. Chilton, M. A. 

Notes on New Zealand Frost Fish. By W. Arthur 

On a New Genus of Butterfly from New Zealand. By Arthur G. Butler, F.L.S., &c 

Larvae of New Zealand Geometrina, &c. By Alex. Purdie, M.A. 

List of Geometrina collected nearDunedin, &c. By Alex. Purdie, M.A. ... 
General Notes — ... ... ... ' 

Larva' of Allocharis marginata ("Sharp; — Dermestes Introduced— Semiapterous Lepidoptera — 
Orocrambus, Sp— On the '1 ransport of Small Erratic Bouidtrs— N. Z. Diptera-Note on 
the occurrence of English Butterflies in New Zealand — On an abnonna:ly-coloured speci- 
men of Petroica aibirrons (Gray) — On Rhipidurze of New Zea and— Recent Microscopical 
Work on Vegetable Tissues — Coprosnia ba^eriana — The Shark abroad — Earthquakes — 
Royal Society of Tasmania — Descriptions of two new shells from New Zealand- 
Lomaria puruila, Raoul. 

Meetings of Societies — ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Auckland Institute — Philosophical Institute of Canterbury — Otago Institute — Linnean Society of 
New South Wales — Royal Society of New South Wales. 



145 
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1 ., No. 3, JULY, 1884. 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE NEW 
ZEALAND INSTITUTE, 1883, Vol. XVI. Wel- 
lington, May, 1884. 



The sixteenth volume of the " Transactions " is now being 
issued to the members of the affiliated societies. The work is 
fully up to the standard size, containing as it does some six 
hundred pages, and it is illustrated by forty-four plates. Zoolo- 
gical papers occupy the lion's share of the allotted space, pro- 
bably because the field to be worked out is larger than that of 
almost any other branch, or at any rate more within the grasp 
of the average worker. In this subject the systematic papers of 
Mr. Meyrick on Lepidoptera, of Mr. Maskell on Coccidae, of 
'Prof. Hutton on Mollusca, and of Messrs. Chilton and Thomson 
on Crustacea and Pycnogonidae, are all valuable additions to our 
knowledge of the New Zealand Fauna. 

Mr. Meyrick's first paper, entitled " Descriptions of New Zea- 
land Micro-Lepidoptera," deals with the family CEcophoridae 
alone, of which 55 species, belonging to 14 genera are described ; 
while some 12 already described species, but of doubtful identifi- 
cation are dealt with in an appendix. The most generally inte- 
resting point in connection with this family is the remarkable 
number of endemic forms which it presents. Mr. Meyrick finds 
very little connection between the species of New Zea- 
land and those of Australia, and in the absence of more 
complete knowledge of the Lepidoptera-fauna of Polynesia 
and South America, is inclined to refer the origin of our 
forms to a very distant period of time. From the circumstances 
under which Mr. Meyrick's collections were made, it follows 
that the list of species cannot be by any means complete, but 
this and his two preceding papers form a valuable compendium 
to anyone beginning to work up this group. In the same 
author's " Monograph of the New Zealand Geometrina," a total 
of 90 species (of which 30 are new) belonging to 41 genera are 
described, while some 28 doubtful species are referred to in the 
appendices, together with some remarks on the larvae of dubious 
species. The present state of knowledge of the relationships of 
this group is too fragmentary yet to be of much value, but the 
general conclusion arrived at is on the whole similar to that ar- 
rived at in the case of the CEcophoridse, namely that the larger 
genera are old forms which have had time to undergo great 
specific development, while the smaller genera appear to have 
Australian or South American affinities, and to be of much more 
recent introduction. Both Mr. Meyrick's papers have brief diag- 
nostic tables of genera and species, which will greatly aid in the 
identification of specimens. In this connection we would refer 
our readers to Mr. Purdie's notes in the present issue. 



I46 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Mr. Potts and Mr. Fereday each contribute a short entomo- 
logical paper to the volume. 

Mr. Maskell's paper on the Coccidae describes a number of 
new species of this little-known group of insects, and proposes a 
new classification of the section Lecanidse. On the merits of the 
paper we cannot speak, as Mr. Maskell is probably the only per- 
son in New Zealand who knows anything about Coccidse, but the 
work done testifies to the author's care and observation. The 
paper is illustrated by two plates. 

Mr. H. B. Kirk's paper on the Anatomy of one of the New 
Zealand Calamaries, Sepioteuthis biliueala, is worthy of notice as 
being the only anatomical paper in the volume. It is very gra- 
tifying to find one of our younger naturalists going below the 
surface in his investigations. The external characters of the sub- 
ject are first fully described, then the cartilages of the head, neck 
and fins ; a short account is given of the muscles ; and finally 
the viscera, nervous system, and sense organs are described more - 
or less at length. The work appears to be well done as far as 
the rough anatomy is concerned, but it is to be regretted that the 
author did not go a little further in his examination of some of 
the parts. For instance, no attempt seems to have been made 
to inspect the vascular system, and in the description of the re- 
nal organs no mention is made of the true renal sacs, or of their 
openings into the mouth's cavity, only the glandular outgrowths 
of the vena cava being noticed. The histological observations 
are undoubtedly the weakest part of the paper : it gives no infor- 
mation as to the minute structure of a sense organ to say that it 
<l shows interlacing fibres under the microscope " ; or as to that 
of a gland, to describe it as composed of " loose fibrous tissue 
interspersed with yellow concretions." The six plates illustrat- 
ing this paper are drawn with scrupulous care. 

Prof. Hutton contributes four papers on Mollusca. The first of 
these, on "Some New Zealand Land Shells," deals chiefly with the 
dentition of a large number of species, and adds 26 new species. 
The plates illustrating this paper are, unfortunately, very rough in 
execution. There is also a feature in regard to them which is cer- 
tainly an inexcusable error of the lithographer's. In the table giving 
the explanation of these plates the enlargement of the figures is 
given, but a comparison of plates X. and XI. shows that in re- 
ducing the original drawings by photography, no fixed standard 
has been adopted. The reduction is different in these two plates. 
The same blunder was made in some plates in Volume XV., and 
care should have been taken that it did not occur again. Fol- 
lowing this paper is a " Revision of the Land Mollusca," on a 
natural classification. The knowledge of the group is confessedly 
imperfect, but this paper, and the same author's " Revision of 
the recent Rhachiglossatc Mollusca," are extremely useful, as 
bringing together in a compendious form the descriptions and 
synonymy of all the known species. A large field of work still 
lies before conchologists in determining the affinities of our mol- 



THE NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE. 147 

lusca ; but it is evident that the systematic work must be care- 
fully undertaken first, before generalisations are attempted. 

Every year's " Transactions " contains additions to our list of 
Crustacea. The present volume adds some eighteen or nineteen 
species, chiefly contributed by Mr. Chilton. As figures of all the 
new forms are given, future identification is rendered compara- 
tively easy. Little progress has yet been made in working out the 
distribution of our Crustacea,* but there are at present one or two 
large systematic investigations being carried out — particularly 
those on the collections made by the " Challenger" — which ought 
to simplify this line of research very considerably. 

Mr. Urquhart's paper " on the habits of Earth-worms in New 
Zealand," is an example of a kind of paper of which we have far 
too few in the "Transactions." Very few persons have the lei- 
sure to go into detailed or systematic research, but many could 
undertake the kind of work shewn in this paper ; and, provided 
they show the same careful and patient observation, could add 
materially to our knowledge. Mr. Urquhart's observations were 
led up to by Darwin's work on earth-worms, and he promises a 
second paper, in which an attempt is to be made to show the 
sense of direction possessed by worms. 

Prof. Parker contributes three ichthyological papers, the last 
of them, " On a specimen of the great Ribbon Fish," conveying 
much information on the morphology of the fishes belonging to 
the pelagic genus Regalecus. The same author's paper ■' On the 
structure of the head in Palinurus, with especial reference to 
the classification of the genus," is an able contribution to the 
natural classification of one group of the Crustacea. The Crus- 
tacea are now becoming an almost unmanageable division of the 
Arthropoda, on account of the immense number which are being 
continually described, and an author must specialise in them as 
in some other groups, if he hopes to do good work. 

Ornithological papers are becoming scarcer in our " Transac- 
tions " from year to year, but there are still a few communicated 
from time to time, chiefly by Dr. W. Buller, or through his means, 
while Dr. Haast gives one short paper on the Red Phalarope in 
the present volume. But there are still many interesting ques- 
tions which require to be settled, and it is to be hoped that some 
united action will be taken by those interested in ornithology to 
obtain information on them. These relate inter alia to the peri- 
odical movements of many of our species, and the causes of these 
movements ; and this not only for those species which — like the 
cuckoos — migrate beyond the islands, but also for others which 
appear to change their location with the supply of food. In 
regard to Sccloglaux albifacics, or Laughing Owl, one of the spe- 
cies named in Dr. Buller's paper " On some rare species of New 
Zealand Birds," we would just remark that it is questionable 
whether the bird is so extremely limited in its occurence as is 
supposed. Some time last year a specimen was obtained in the 

* See, however, a paper " On the Distribution of Terrestrial Crustacea," by 
Mr. Chilton, in the current number of this journal. — Ed. 



148 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

bush at Ravensbournc, near Duncdin, and sold to a local taxi- 
dermist as a very large " More-pork " ; while a trustworthy 
informant tells us that it is commonly heard — though rarely seen 
— in the Strath-Taieri and adjoining country. It is to be hoped 
that this is the case, as the type is an interesting one. 

Only one short paper descriptive of some new fishes is 
contributed by Dr. Hector. We can only express our regret, 
which must be shared in by everyone who knows him, that such 
an amount of departmental work is thrust on the Director of the 
N Z. Institute by the Government, that no time is left him for 
original research. The present Government certainly deserve 
the thanks of the country for their economical management ; 
but in many cases — as in the one in point — they sacrifice heads 
of departments by their economical tendencies. 

The botanical papers in this volume are very unequal in value. 
The first, entitled "A further Contribution towards making known 
the Botany of New Zealand," is by Mr. W. Colenso, We pro- 
bably only express the opinion of every botanist in the colony 
when we say that Mr. Colenso's contributions lose most of their 
value from the utterly unnecessary detail into which he goes. 
With a keenness of observation which must commend itself to 
everyone, he yet seems utterly to fail in grasping the prominent 
features which serve to distinguish species from one another. 
The writer of this note was once before under the necessity, 
when treating of New Zealand ferns, of ignoring a number of 
Mr. Colenso's species, and this chiefly because the descriptions 
given by him of new species were so vague that it was next to 
impossible to detect their distinguishing features. In the volume 
before us more than twenty species of flowering plants, and over 
thirty cryptogams are described for the first time ; but when an 
author describes a new species, and says it has affinities with 
such and such species, but differs from them all and possesses 
characters which those species have not — that arc better seen 
than described in words — (the italics are our own), we mistake 
much if botanists will not refuse their assent to these new crea- 
tions of the author. It is perhaps worthy of note that in all his 
papers contributed to the last four volumes of " Transactions," 
Mr. Colenso has never recorded the occurrence of new genera in 
the New Zealand flora, but he has added numerous species of 
already known genera, founded on characters (apparently largely 
of habit) such as sy^tematists attach little or no importance to. 
We regret to have to speak thus plainly and disparagingly of 
one who is a veteran in our little scientific world ; but it is just 
in scientific matters, above all others, that we should speak out 
our minds, and we have been somewhat long-suffering in this 
matter of new species of plants. 

Mr. Kirk has several short papers containing descriptions of 
new plants ; and, in connection with what has just been said, it 
is to be noted that his diagnoses arc brief and concise, so that 
where error occurs it is rendered comparatively easy of detec- 
tion. At the same time Air. Kirk's species have hitherto stood 



THE NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE. 149 

the test of examination remarkably well. Numerous well-exe- 
cuted plates accompany these papers, signed " M. L. Kirk, del" 
Happy the man who can draw on the members of his own 
family for assistance with pen and pencil ! Mr. Buchanan has a 
few papers with brief descriptions of new species of plants, 
some of which are illustrated by lithographic plates ; and also a 
short paper on " Campbell Island and its Flora." Dr. Knight 
continues his studies on the Lichens of this country, and in the 
paper before us deals with 24 species, many of them new. Three 
plates accompany this paper. Mr. Cheeseman makes still further 
additions to the New Zealand Flora ; but themost elaborate botani- 
cal paper in the volume is certainly his "Revision of the N.Z. spe- 
cies of Carex." The number of species of this and many other 
genera has greatly increased since the publication of the " Hand- 
book of the New Zealand Flora," some twenty years ago, and it 
is only by means of such papers as this of Mr. Cheeseman's, and 
that of Mr. Kirk on Carmichaelia, that collectors are enabled to 
identify many of the species they find. And in this connection 
it is to be hoped that no great period of time will be allowed to 
elapse before provision is made for the publication of a new 
Flora of New Zealand. The " Handbook " has been out of print 
about two years, and a work brought out now would command 
such a sale as would nearly recoup the expense of publication. 
A recommendation was sent up last year from the Otago Insti- 
tute to the Governors of the New Zealand Institute on this sub- 
ject, but apparently no notice of the matter was taken ; at least 
no reply was ever received in Dunedin, and the annual report 
contains no reference to it. 

One short but useful article by Mr. J. A. Pond, on " The 
Pottery Clays of the Auckland District," is the sole contribution 
to the volume under the heading Chemistry. It has always been 
a matter of wonder that so little original work has been done in 
this science in the colony, especially seeing that for so many 
years chemical laboratories have been in existence in connection 
with Canterbury College and Otago University. There certainly 
are not the means here for carrying out many of the researches 
which are being prosecuted in Chemistry in the large and expen- 
sively furnished laboratories of Europe, but there is still room for a 
great deal of special work. We hope the establishment of a 
chair of Chemistry in Auckland will stimulate the study of the 
science throughout the colony. The Geological papers are also 
few in number, partly due no doubt to the fact that the work 
done by the Geological Department is published separately. 
The miscellaneous papers are few in number in this year's 
volume ; they consist of a second paper by Mr. W. Arthur, " On 
the Brown Trout introduced into Otago " ; " Some Remarks 
upon the Distribution of the Organic Productions of New Zea- 
land," by Mr. W. L. Travers; "On Sorghum Experiments," 
by Mr. Justice Gillies ; and one on the " Law of Gavelkind," by 
Mr. Coleman Phillips. Mr. Travers' paper is an appeal to natu- 
ralists to work out, if possible, the causes which have led to the 



150 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

differences between many North and South Island species of 
plants and animals. One point to which special reference is 
made is the distribution of Peripatus. This is stated to be con- 
fined to New Zealand, Chili, and the Cape of Good Hope ; but 
at least two species are found in Trinidad, one having recently 
been described in the " Zoologischer Anzieger," by Dr. J. v. 
Kennel. The object of Mr. Phillips' paper is to refute the advo- 
cates of land-nationalisation, and to show how without their 
assistance we may prevent the accumulation of large landed pro- 
perties. His criticisms on the method of perpetual leasing, 
though no doubt just on his hypothesis, seem to be directed 
against some system other than the one proposed by Mr. Wal- 
lace. When he speaks of the state " selling and re-selling" the 
leases, the kind of lease he is thinking about must be more akin 
to the pastoral lease than to the so-called perpetual lease, which, 
whatever its name may be, is really a freehold burdened with a 
special land-tax. In another passage he lays stress on the diffi- 
culty of dispossessing the tenants when once settled on the land. 
" In New Zealand," he says, " being a hilly country, we shall find 
that the people will become independent and cling to their land 
in spite of any laws that the Government may pass to the con- 
trary." This may be true, and no doubt the advocates of nation- 
alisation hope it will prove so, inasmuch as their object is to put 
" perpetual " holders on the land. If the author means that the 
occupants will refuse to pay their rent or land tax, it may be 
observed that there is wo a priori reason for supposing that per- 
petual leasers will be less honest than other people, and that in 
case they should prove to be so, there can be no doubt that the 
strongest pressure will be put upon them by other tax-payers 
whose burdens must be increased by their defalcations. The 
system suggested as an improvement on that of nationalisation 
is the old Saxon one, known as Gavelkind, and still existing in 
the county of Kent. The advantage of this system is that it 
prevents the accumulation of large landed properties by com- 
pulsorily dividing a man's land at his death among his sons. It 
seems to us rather hard that no provision is made for the daugh- 
ters, but the author of the paper is of a different opinion. "There 
is no necessity " he tells us " to divide the land among the female 
children of a family, as in a properly regulated state the males 
should support the females." Unfortunately, New Zealand is 
so far from being properly regulated that we prefer the existing 
law, under which, in cases of intestacy, landed property,like move- 
ables, is divided among all the children. But, apart from this 
question of justice, we have the contention that the compulsory 
division of the land would place more workers upon it. In cases 
where estates had grown too large, their division might result as 
anticipated, but what would happen when they were too small ? 
What, for instance, would become of a farm of three hundred and 
twenty acres divided by say five in the first generation and 
twenty five in the second ? Gavelkind, so far as its operation 
ma)- be traced in France, Germany, etc., where somewhat similar 



THE NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE. I 5 I 

systems obtain, results either in the land being cut up into such 
minute portions as would in New Zealand soon reduce to bank- 
ruptcy anyone who attempted to cultivate them, or else in one 
member of the family buying the others out, in which case the 
subdivision of the land, of course, does not take place. Though 
we cannot agree with the views advocated in this paper, we can 
speak most highly of the varied reading exhibited in it, and the 
careful manner in which the arguments are set forth. 

The volume concludes as usual with the Annual Report of 
the New Zealand Institute. In a letter published in our last 
issue, Mr. Coleman Phillips says that the Board of Governors of 
the New Zealand Institute have no duty to perform beyond that 
of publishing the Transactions out of the sum annually voted by 
Parliament for the purpose, and that the other departments pre- 
sided over by the Director are quite distinct, and are directly 
under the control of the Colonial Secretary. The publication 
of the annual report is itself a refutation of this statement. After 
dealing with the number of members in the affiliated societies, a 
balance-sheet is given, which, indeed, only professes to show the 
cost of printing the annual volume, but which most certainly is not 
the balance-sheet of the New Zealand Institute. Then follow 
reports on the Museum, the Geological Survey and its publica- 
tions, the Libraries (three, in number), Meteorological Stations, 
the Observatory, and the Colonial Laboratory. If the manage- 
ment of these various institutions is not under the superintend- 
ence of the Board, then why are they reported upon ? If it is 
under the Board, then a full balance-sheet should be published. 
In either case an annual blunder has been perpetrated, and all 
interested in the Institute should see that the present anomalous 
condition of things comes speedily to an end. 

A considerable number of printer's errors appear in the 
volume, in some cases far more than even an average Colonial 
printer should make, but there is no list of " addenda et corri- 
genda." This might be very much overcome if proofs were sent 
to authors, for final revision, in every case where time would allow 
this to be done. Such a course would be more pleasing to 
authors — some of whom do not write in the most legible of 
hands, — it would materially reduce the labours of the editor and 
his assistants, and would further relieve them of responsibility. 

Ed. N.Z. Journal of Science. 



THE DIAMOND MINES OF SOUTH AFRICA* 



BY CAPTAIN F. W. HUTTON. 



The present paper is only a compilation of observations made 
by others, but it may be of some interest to members of the 
Society. 

Head before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, June 5, 1884. 



152 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

The diamond mines of South Africa lie in a vast, undulating, 
arid plain, through which the Vaal River meanders sluggishly. 
It is treeless, except near the river. There are a few hills, but 
none of them are more than 400 or 500 feet in height. Local 
depressions, mostly without any outlet, are common, and are 
called " Pans." Some of these pans are two or three miles in 
length, but generally they are smaller. They are quite sterile, 
owing to the quantity of salt impregnating the soil. The plain 
has evidently been subject to great denudation, and is covered 
by a fine sand-drift a few feet in thickness, below which there is 
usually a tufaceous limestone of varying thickness and purity. 
The origin of this limestone has been explained as due to the 
rapid evaporation, which takes place after heavy rainfalls, bring- 
ing to the surface the lime which has been dissolved out of the 
underlying rocks. 

The fundamental rock of the plains is shale with vegetable 
remains, probably of triassic age, and is known as the " Karoo 
beds ;" but from the geological structure of the western part of 
the continent, there is reason to think that beds of gneiss and 
other schistose rocks underlie the Karoo beds at some unknown 
depth. The shales are horizontal, except where locally disturbed 
by the intrusion of eruptive rocks. These eruptive rocks are 
numerous, chiefly in the form of dykes, which stand out above 
the surface of the plain, and form the ridges and hills. There 
are, however, some old volcanic " pipes " formed of softer 
materials. The rocks are for the most part dolerite and gabbro, 
sometimes altered into serpentine, but two or three exposures of 
augite-andesite are known. There are no acidic rocks. 

Diamonds were first found in 1867 m the alluvial gravels of 
the Vaal, and between that year and 1871 they were traced for 
about 230 miles along the banks of the river, and for 70 miles 
down the Orange River below its junction with the Vaal. By 
far the greater quantity, however, were obtained in the middle 
Vaal. In 1870 the mother-rock of the diamonds was discovered 
in Du Troit's pan, about 15 miles east of Pneil, on the middle 
Vaal, and the " river diggings " were very soon abandoned for the 
" dry-diggings." De Beere's and Bulfontein were discovered the 
same year, and Kimberley in 1871. These four are all near to- 
gether, within a radius of two or three miles, and from that day 
to this no mines of any importance have been found, except two 
small ones in the Orange Free State, about 60 miles distant. 
This is the more remarkable, as for thousands of square miles 
the geological conditions appear to be similar. 

There is, of course, nothing extraordinary in the discovery of 
diamonds in alluvial deposits. It is on the dry-diggings or mines, 
that all the interest concentrates ; and it is these alone that I 
shall describe. 

The Kimberley mine is in the pipe of an old volcano, the 
upper portion ol which has been removed by denudation. In 
form it is an ellipse of about 1000 feet by 600, and it covers an 
area of ;il Diit nine or ten acres. Originally it appears to have 



THE DIAMOND MINES OF SOUTH AFRICA. 1 53 

been slightly higher than the surrounding country, but now it 
has been excavated for a depth of 300 feet or more. The walls 
of the mine consist entirely of yellowish shales lying on dark 
carbonaceous shales, with thin streaks of coal, and much pyrites. 
The shales are horizontal, but their edges are turned up where 
they are in contact with the eruptive rock of the mine itself. 
This eruptive rock is a breccia of very peculiar character. The 
matrix is a green, or yellowish-green rock, composed of serpen- 
tine and hydrated bronzite, and may be considered as an altered 
olivine-enstatite-rock. It contains angular fragments of shale, 
and more rounded " pebbles " of various eruptive rocks, such as 
olivine-enstatite-rock, gabbro, dolerite, and augite-andesite, as 
well as grits and small fragments of gneiss. The diamonds are 
found only in the serpentinous rock, and are absent from all the 
included fragments. They are usually imperfect, portions ap- 
parently having been broken off. Along with them occur other 
minerals, such as garnet, magnetite, ilmenite, and bronzite. It 
will be noticed that this diamond-rock differs altogether from the 
diamond-rock of Brazil, which is a crystalline schist called Itaco- 
lumite, formed of quartz-grains and talc. 

The walls of De Beere's mine are dolerite, except the north 
side, which is shale overlaid by about 50 feet of gabbro. In Du 
Troit's pan mine the south wall is shale, the rest is formed of 
dolerite. Both are volcanic pipes, and the diamond rock in each 
is the same as at Kimberley mine. Many other undoubted pipes 
have x been opened and prospected near Kimberley, but they have 
been abandoned as unremunerative, although some diamonds 
were obtained. 

The rock is blasted at the bottom of the mine, and broken 
into small pieces. It is brought to the surface in buckets run- 
ning on wire ropes that stretch from the brink of the mine to 
each claim. It is then spread out on the ground, watered, and 
and exposed to atmospheric action. When disintegrated it is 
washed, and the diamonds are picked out. 

We now come to the important question, What is the origin 
of the diamonds ? 

That the whole mass of rock in the pipe has flowed upwards 
from below is proved by the upturned edges of the shales in con- 
tact with it ; but as the edges of the fragments forming the 
breccia are not fused, we cannot suppose that the temperature of 
the rock was very intense. This, together with the altered and 
hydrated condition of the rock itself, make it probable that it 
was largely mixed with water, and that it flowed upward from 
the expansive force of super-heated steam at a great pressure. 
The occurrence of pieces of gneiss, as well as many minerals, 
with the diamonds, suggests the idea that all of them may have 
been derived from metamorphic rocks lying at great depths below 
the surface, and the broken character of the diamonds has also 
been mentioned in support of this hypothesis. But, however 
good this latter point may be to prove that the diamonds were 



154 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

not formed in their present position, it does not necessarily follow 
that they have come from a very great depth. 

On the other hand, the occurrence of carbonaceous shale in 
the walls of the mine, and the fragments of the same rock found 
in the diamond breccia itself, offer a ready explanation of the 
origin of the carbon from which the diamonds were formed ; and 
the undoubted fact that Kimberley mine, which is surrounded by 
shale, is much richer than any ot the others, gives additional 
weight to this hypothesis. It has indeed been supposed that 
hydro-carbons derived from the shales, when under great pres- 
sure and at a red heat, may have been decomposed by metals 
and the carbon set free. And as there would also be present 
compounds containing nitrogen, derived from the decomposed 
vegetable matter, the carbon under these conditions would crys- 
tallise in the form of the diamond. 

This is a point which future exploration may settle. For if 
the second hypothesis be true, diamonds will cease when the car- 
bonaceous shales have been passed through. 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF TERRESTRIAL 
CRUSTACEA 



BY CHAS. CHILTON, M.A. 



The distribution of terrestrial Crustacea is a subject which 
appears to have attracted little or no attention from naturalists 
as yet. I can find no mention of it cither in Darwin's "Origin 
of Species " or in Wallace's " Island Life." This is, of course, 
by no means to be wondered at. There have been, and still arc, 
so many problems to be solved in connection with larger and 
more prominent groups of the animal kingdom, that naturalists 
have had plenty to occupy themselves with ; and, besides, our 
knowledge of terrestrial Crustacea is as yet too limited to allow 
of any very general conclusions being arrived at. Still the sub- 
ject is one of great interest, and will ultimately be of importance 
for testing and confirming the conclusions drawn from the study 
of other groups regarding the origin of the fauna of any country, 
and it is rather in the hope of drawing the attention of others to 
the subject than of doing anything to dispel the ignorance sur- 
rounding it, that I am now writing. 

There arc terrestrial species belonging to the Amphipoda as 
well as to the Isopoda, but the former are few, and are found 
only in a few countries, so that my remarks will be applied chiefly 
to the Isopoda. The terrestrial Isopoda are commonly known 
as woodlicc, carpenters, &c, and belong to the genera Oniscns, 
PorcelliOy Armadillo, &c. The great difficulty in accounting for 
their present distribution lies in the absence of any known means 
of dispersal. In this they resemble the landshells, but their case 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF TERRESTRIAL CRUSTACEA. I 55 

appears even more hopeless. Most of the freshwater Crustacea, 
such as Daphnia, Cyclops, &c, lay eggs which may be dried, and 
thus blown by the wind to great distances, or they may adhere 
to the feet of aquatic birds, and by this means be carried from one 
place to another. None of these means of dispersal, however, 
can be of any use with the terrestrial Isopoda. They live in 
places very similar to those inhabited by land shells — that is to 
say, in damp situations under dead leaves, sticks, &c. ; some 
species being found in open country, others only in the bush. 
They have no great powers of locomotion, for they are small, and 
can only creep from one place to another. They cannot live in 
water, and though they lay eggs, they carry them about in an 
incubatory pouch under the body until the young, which at birth 
usually resemble the adult animals, are hatched. This is, at least, 
given as the general rule. I know that it is the case with Por- 
cellio graniger, Ouiscus pwictatus, and Philougria rosea. Hence 
it would appear that arms of the sea, snow covered ranges of 
mountains, or even large rivers, would be barriers which could 
only be crossed by occasional lucky accidents. It is, indeed, a 
matter of surprise that they should be so widely distributed in 
the same country. Porccllio graniger, for instance, appears to be 
found in all parts of New Zealand. Oniscus punctatus is found 
at Dunedin, and is also widely distributed in Canterbury, and 
Philougria rosea I have taken in several widely separated situa- 
tions in Canterbury. Probably floods are the means of aiding 
in their dispersal to a certain extent, and I can give what appears 
to be an example of this. Cicbaris rugulosus is a species which 
seems to be common in the bush in some parts of Canterbury. 
I have taken it both at East Oxford and at View Hill. I have 
never seen it outside the bush, except in one place at Eyreton, 
and this was under some river-bed logs that had been brought 
from the Waimakariri for firewood. In the bush it is often found 
on the under surface of logs, and I think some living specimens 
must have been adhering to some of these logs on the banks of 
the river, and thus got washed down during a flood. The logs 
have now all been burnt, and the little colony appears to have 
died out, for I did not succeed in finding any when I searched a 
short time ago. Possibly in the same manner terrestrial Isopoda 
may sometimes be carried across the sea, but this would, I fancy, 
very rarely happen. I have not made any experiments, but I 
imagine they very soon die in sea-water — they do not live long 
in fresh water — and it would only be by creeping into some cre- 
vice in the upper part of the log that they could escape from the 
salt water. Want of food would be another difficulty, for as they 
always seem active, I don't suppose that they could live for very 
long without food, as some land shells do. 

In Mier's " Catalogue of the Stalk and Sessile-eyed Crusta- 
cea of New Zealand," nine terrestrial species of Isopoda are put 
down to New Zealand. Of these I know only Armadillo specio- 
sus, Cubaris rugulosus, and Porcellio gra?iiger. Since the publi- 
cation of the Catalogue, Mr. G. M. Thomson has added Oniscus 



156 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

punctatus, and I have added Philougria rosea. Of these all 
appear to be peculiar to New Zealand, except Porcellio graniger, 
which is also found in Tasmania and at Melbourne (Haswell's 
" Catalogue of Australian Crustacea," p. 280), and Philongria 
rosea, which is found in England. The latter is a most remark- 
able case ; so far as I can tell from the figure and description 
given by Spence Bate and Westwood, the New Zealand speci- 
mens do not differ in any character of specific importance from 
those found in England. Hence at first I thought it must have 
been introduced ; but this can scarcely be the case, for I have 
taken it in abundance at Christchurch and Eyret^n, in the bush 
at East Oxford and at View Hill, and in South Canterbury at 
Rangitira and Kakahu, near Temuka. An animal of such feeble 
powers of locomotion could scarcely have spread so far in such a 
short time. 

In considering the close resemblance between the terrestrial 
Crustacea of widely separated countries, the question forces itself 
upon us — Have all terrestrial species arisen from one marine an- 
cestor, or have those of one country arisen quite independently 
of those of other countries — the resemblances being the result of 
similar conditions ? Suppose the marine ancestor of the terres- 
trial Isopoda to be widely spread and to inhabit the shores of, 
say, New Zealand and England, and that in each case certain 
animals began gradually to leave the sea and make their home 
on the land, at first keeping within reach of the spray, as Ligia 
still does, but afterwards leaving the sea altogether, would not 
the new conditions in which these animals would be placed, being 
practically the same in both countries, produce in each case the 
same effect, so that the variations which would be preserved 
would be the same in the two cases, and hence the animals, al- 
though arising independently from the same marine ancestor, 
might so far resemble one another as to be placed in the same 
genus, or even in the same species ? We know that this is true 
to a certain extent at any rate, for the terrestrial Amphipoda and 
Isopoda have without doubt arisen independently, and yet in both 
the inner antennae have become very small — rudimentary in the 
Isopoda, nearly so in Amphipoda, — and in both the mandible 
has lost its palp. If this principle admits of wider application, 
we may perhaps be able to understand the resemblance between 
the terrestrial Crustacea ol widely separated countries without 
having to fall back upon means of dispersal at present unknown. 
I am quite aware that the explanation I have advanced is not 
new. It is pretty much the same as the "convergence of charac- 
ter" insisted upon by Mr. H. C. Watson (see "Origin of Species," 
p. 100) ; but while he contends that the descendants of two dis- 
tinct genera may converge into one, I think the case of the ter- 
restrial Crustacea shows that the descendants of the same genus 
may in two countries independently give rise to the same new 
genus. 

The Isopoda appear to have got a start of the Amphipoda, 
and to have taken to a terrestrial life much sooner, for they 



NOTES ON THE NEW ZEALAND FROST-FISH. 1 57 

are more widely found, and they have evidently had time to 
divide into several genera. The marine form from which they 
sprung appears to have become extinct, and to have left no 
marine descendant at all near the line of direct descent. I have 
lately taken a marine Philongria at Coogee Bay, near Sydney, 
New South Wales, but it resembles terrestrial species of Philou- 
gria so closely that I am rather inclined to consider it a terres- 
trial form that has returned to the sea — something like the seals 
among the mammals — than one that has always lived in it. The 
Amphipoda appear to be only now developing terrestrial forms, 
and a splendid series could be made out of existing species from 
JVzcea, living wholly in the water, through Allorchestes, &c, which 
live in rock-pools, tut can walk and live on land with great 
agility, Talorchestia, &c, living just above high-water mark, and 
only occasionally splashed with salt water, to species of Orchestia 
a^d lalitrus, such as O. Sylvicola, which live far away from the 
sea. 



NOTES ON THE NEW ZEALAND FROST-FISH. 

The habits of this singular fish are so long in being discovered 
that any scraps of information which may be obtained from time 
to time become correspondingly precious. Were the fishermen of 
our coasts, however, accustomed to a more careful examination 
of the specimens they procure, a great deal more knowledge 
might soon be within our possession. It was with much interest 
then that the writer read Dr. R. v. Lendenfeld's remarks in the 
N.Z. JOURNAL of SCIENCE for May of this year on this fish. 
From his researches this observer deems it probable that the 
Frost-fish during winter, which is also assumed to be its breed- 
ing season, draws into shallow water, as compared with the great 
depths it had previously frequented, for the purpose of spawning. 
That this habit results in such a reduction in the pressure of the 
water as causes an expansion of the air bladder, so great as to 
rupture that organ, thus causing the death and stranding of the 
fish. Another discovery of interest is his report of the full ovaries 
and milts at the same period. 

Dr. v. Lendenfeld's theory is so far a good and ingenious one, 
and he infers a certain amount of corroboration as due to the 
fish having never been netted, nor any small fish ever seen. But 
the theory is hardly consistent with itself, or it requires further 
proof, and is quite at variance with facts known to other 
observers. 

First, then, as to the theory. The discomfort to which the 
fish would be subjected at the first portion of its ascent from as- 
sumed great depths towards shallow water, would instinctively 
cause it to return to those depths long before it had lost all con- 
trol over its air bladder. Or, supposing the bladder to be dis- 
tended to the bursting point, then the fish would float belly up- 



158 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

pcrmost before it got stranded, which is not its manner of com- 
ing ashore, as I shall presently show. And, granting that death 
results from the rupture of the air-bladder after spawning, then 
I should expect that the specific gravity of the fish would thereby 
become more than before spawning, and its body sink and decay 
rather than come ashore fresh as it always does. 

Now, as to the known facts. In Professor Hutton's " Cata- 
logue of New Zealand Fishes," p. 109, Dr. I lector remarks : — "It 
is most commonly found cast up after cold frosty nights on sandy 
beaches that are exposed to the long roll of ocean swell, and is 
not in this country obtained by any kind of fishing." Mr. C. H. 
Robson, in the Trans, of N.Z. Institute, Vol. VIII., p. 218, says 
that he has repeatedly found Frost-fish deliberately swimming 
on shore. That he has turned their heads seawards again, but 
they nevertheless have come back and swam up high and dry on 
the beach. And enquiries I have instituted among the fisher- 
men who live at Purakanui have elicited the following observa- 
tions : — These fish not only come on shore during frosts, but 
they are cast ashore during heavy tides when there is no frost ; 
also on the termination of frost when the thaw commences. They 
have also come or been washed on to the rocks during the sum- 
mer at Purakanui, as in December. When seen to come first on 
the beach they try to bite their tails ! A frost-fish was netted on 
the Groper Reef in February, 1882, and several others have been 
so netted during the summer seasons, but the precise dates were 
not noted. The fish from the Groper Reef was found in the net 
when it was drawn ashore, but the net had been cast in three or 
four fathoms of water. No information was in possession of 
these fishermen as to the time or locality of spawning, and they 
had never seen roe in any fish ; neither could they tell the ordi- 
nary depth of water frequented by Frost-fish. But as to the 
young, they had seen several ranging from three to fifteen inches 
in length ; while the adult fish feeds greatly on sprats, which it 
follows close in shore, even among the surf. 

Giving equal value to the evidence of the different authorities 
I have quoted, leaves the question of the stranding of Frost-fish 
still very much in obscurity as to its reason or cause. More 
continued observations and examinations are necessary before 
the mystery can be explained. There seem, however, to the 
writer to be reasons enough for believing that this fish is always 
on the coast or following in the wake of the shoals of sprats vvhich 
come south in the end of summer and return by the beginning 
of winter. Neither docs its large eye necessarily determine it as 
a deep-sea form — as very small eyes, or even none at all, are 
quite as distinctive features of such forms. 

W. Arthur. 
Roslyn, June 16th, 1884. 



ON A NEW GENUS OF BUTTERFLY FROM NEW ZEALAND. 1 59 



ON A NEW GENUS OF BUTTERFLY FROM 
NEW ZEALAND* 



BY ARTHUR G. BUTLER, F.L.S., F.Z.S., ETC. 

At a meeting of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, 
New Zealand, held on the 30th November, 1883, Mr. R. W. 
Fereday read the " Description of a Species of Butterfly new to 
New Zealand, and probably to Science," to which he gave the 
name of Genus (?) helmsi ; this species he referred to the Nym- 
phalidce, but he did not venture to assign it to any group of that 
family. 

As Mr. John D. Enys, who is now in England, has brought 
over the type specimen of this butterfly for my examination, 
with the request that I will determine its position and name the 
genus, I have great pleasure in doing so. The genus being a 
new one, and greatly resembling the genus Dodona, of Hewitson, 
both in form and general coloration, I propose to call it Dodonidia, 
gen. nov. This genus, as indicated by Mr. Fereday, belongs to 
the great family Nymphilidce (sub-family Satyrincz), and although 
it corresponds most nearly in form with Corades (a New World 
genus), it appears to me to be more closely related to the Australian 
genera Argynnina and Geitonmra, from the former of which (apart 
from its different form) it chiefly differs in theshape of the discoidal 
cell of the secondaries, which is acutely pointed instead of trun- 
cated, owing to the length and obliquity of the disco-cellular vein- 
lets. The body, inclusive of palpi and antennae, corresponds 
closely with that of Argynnina; the style of coloration of the 
wings is most like that of A. lathoniella ; the primaries are trian- 
gular, but with the apex and external angle obtusely rounded 
off ; the costal margin is nearly straight, slightly incurved before 
the middle, and very slightly convex from apical third ; the outer 
margin is nearly straight, rather oblique, slightly convex at apex, 
and incurved at external angle to meet the inner margin, which 
is also nearly straight ; costal vein extending to apical third ; 
sub-costal five branched, the first branch only emitted before the 
end of the cell, the second, third, and fourth at about equal dis- 
tances beyond the cell, the fourth- and fifth forming an almost 
equal fork to apex and outer margin ; upper radial emitted from 
anterior angle of the cell, lower radial near to upper, so that the 
upper disco-cellular (which is mangled) is of about one-third 
the length of the lower disco-cellular ; the latter is slightly arched 
and oblique ; median nervules about equi-distant ; submedian 
vein running rather near to inner margin ; secondaries elongate 
triangular, subcaudate, and evidently internally lobed at anal 
angle (these wings are, however, much injured); costal margin 
strongly lobate close to base, so as to commence with almost a 

*Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist, for March, 1884, p. 171. 



160 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

rectangle, nearly straight from the angle to the apex ; outer 
margin slightly convex, and sinuous, or elongate-sigmoidal to 
the extremity of submedian branch (but unfortunately this 
part of the wing is chipped away); costal vein arched, with well- 
defined pre-costal veinlet projecting into the lobate sub-basal 
angle ; sub-costal branches and radial emitted at equal distances, 
their points of emission forming an unbroken oblique line with 
the lower disco-cellular veinlet, which is about four times the 
length of the upper ; second and third median branches emitted 
slightly nearer together than the first and second. Type — D. 
helmsii, Fereday. 

Douonidia Helmsii. 

Genus? helmsii, Fereday, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1884. Paparoa 
Range, near Grey mouth, South Island, about 1200- 1 500 feet 
(R. Helms). Type in Canterbury Museum. 



LARV^ OF N.Z. GEOMETRINA, &c. 



BY ALEX. PURDIE, M.A. 



Mr. Meyrick, at the close of his Monograph of the N.Z. Gco- 
mctrina, just published in the Transactions of the N.Z. Institute, 
gives descriptions of the larvse of some N.Z. Geometrina as given 
by Professor Hutton, at the same time questioning whether the 
species had in all cases been certainly identified. Having been 
working at this branch of the subject for some years now, I have 
thought it well to publish here the results of my own observa- 
tions on the different stages of our Geometrina. I also take this 
opportunity to express my personal indebtedness to Mr. Meyrick 
for the valuable work he has done among our Lepidoptera. 
After being so long harrassed by the incompetence of previous 
workers, and the consequent accumulation of synonymy, it is a 
relief to find the investigation of our Lepidoptera in the hands 
of one so equal to the task as Mr. Meyrick has proved himself to 
be, and it is to be hoped that he will speedily turn his attention 
to the other groups yet untouched, as, for instance, the Noctuina, 
a group wherein revision is sorely needed. In this paper there 
will sometimes be occasion to refer to descriptions of larvie pre- 
viously published by me in this journal, and, to avoid repeating 
the descriptions in such cases, a reference to the number and 
page of the journal containing them will be given. 

Hippolyte rubropuuetaria, Dbld. — Larva green, often suffused 
with purplish-brown, about 13 mm. long, feeding on Haloragis 
alata. Larvae found in April. (See Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. XVI. 
p. 60, and N.Z. Jour. Sc, May, 1884, p. 1 16.) 

Epipkryne undosata, Feld. — Larva about 13 mm. long, feed- 
ing on the Ribbon wood (Plagianthtis betulinns). Ground colour 
green, dorsal and lateral stripes white. Dorsal stripe interlined 



LARVAE OF N.Z. GEOMETRINA, ETC. l6l 

with short black dashes, a dark blotch about the ninth segment. 
The dorsal and lateral stripes may be margined with purplish- 
red. Underside green. Larvae found in April. 

Eurydice cymosema, Meyr. — Larva beaten from Myoporum 
latum or from Coprosma. Colour brownish-grey ; about 24 mm. 
long. Each of the segments swells somewhat towards the pos- 
terior end, thus producing an irregular outline. A dark inter- 
rupted dorsal stripe, very indistinct. A dark tubercle on each 
side of the ninth segment. Under side similar to upper side, 
with some median dark markings. Larva in March. I have 
parted with the moth bred from this larva, and so am not per- 
fectly certain as to its being this species. 

Pasiphila biliueolata, Walk, (muscosata, Walk.)— Larva about 
12 mm. long. Colour brownish ; surface very rugged ; body 
tapering somewhat towards the head. Two pair of small dorsal 
tubercles about the middle, the posterior pair being larger. Ob- 
lique lateral dark markings faintly seen on the dark ground 
colour ; below lighter. I have beaten this larva from Aristotelia, 
from Leptospermum ericoides, and from a mixed growth of 
bramble (Rubus) and Muhlenbeckia. Larva in December and 
January. 

Var. A. {inexpiata, Walk., charybdis and calida, Butl.) — 
Larva smooth, green, about 10 mm. long ; an indistinct dorsal 
and sub-dorsal stripe of darker green ; underside green, with a 
light ventral stripe ; head yellowish. Formed small rough 
earthen cocoons on the surface of the earth. The food-plant is 
Myoporum laetum. Larvae in March. (See N.Z. Journ. Sc, 
March, 1882, p. 95.) Regarding the varieties or species belong- 
ing to the genus Pasiphila, I shall write in another place ; it is 
enough here to remark that the difference between these larvae 
seems to indicate that at least two species have been included 
by Mr. Meyrick under the name bilineolata. 

Asthena schistaria, Walk. — Larva about 12 mm. long ; feed- 
ing on Leptospermum ericoides. Colour green, with a darker 
green dorsal stripe ; lateral stripe white, edged below with 
purplish-red. A white sub-dorsal line may also be present. 
Below green. Larvae in December and January. The form de- 
scribed by Walker as subpurpureata is the typical form about 
Dunedin. 

Scotosia gobiata, Feld. Larva about 22 mm. long, greyish- 
brown with a rough prominent dorsal tubercle about the ninth 
segment. There are sometimes other smaller tubercles. An 
easily recognised larva, feeding on various species of Coprosma. 
Larvae in January, March, and May. 

Cidaria similata, Walk. — Larva about 25 mm. long, cylindri- 
cal. Back a dull deep green ; lateral stripe reddish-white, edged 
below with a darker colour ; ventral side lighter green, with four 
parallel white or yellow lines close together, extending from the 
forelegs to the prolegs. Outer side of prolegs white. There are 
traces of a median dorsal stripe of brownish-red on the anal 
segments. Beaten from Coprosma. Larvae in January. I am 



162 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

not quite certain as to the identification of the species, as the 
median belt of the forewings is much more distinctly defined, 
and the colour is a duller green than is usual in C. similata. 

Lyrcea alectoraria, Walk. — Larva large, about 25 mm. long. 
General colour bright green or yellowish green: Lateral line 
yellow ; legs purplish-red ; below darker green. The anal seg- 
ment is produced backward into a short pointed conical projec- 
tion, and about the last segments there are traces of a purplish 
red median dorsal line ; the ventral side between the prolegs is 
suffused with purplish-red. There is some variation in the depth 
of colour of this larva ; one from the broadleaf was much yel- 
lower, and had a yellow dorsal stripe. Beaten from the broad- 
leaf and from Veronica salicifolia, in April. 

Zylobara productata, Walk. — Larva reddish-brown, about 22 
mm. long. Beaten in February from a fine-leaved Tutu (Coria- 
rid). (See N.Z. Journ. Sc, May, 1884, p. 117.) 

Mr. Meyrick's forecast as to the colour of the hindwings in 
the female is mistaken, for a female I bred out exactly resem- 
bles the male, and has ochreous hindwings. 

Pseudocoremia lupinata, Feld. — Larva about 25 mm. long ; 
dark greyish-brown, variously marked ; feeding on Leptospermnm 
ericoides. Larva in January. (See N.Z. Journ. Sc, May, 1884, 
p. 117.) 

Pseudocoremia mehnata, Feld. — Larva about 20 mm. long ; 
dull green, with darker longitudinal striations. Beaten from N. 
Z. Broom {Carmichaelid) in February. There must be some 
other commoner food-plant, as the moth is common everywhere 
even where the N.Z. Broom is not to be found. (See N.Z. Journ. 
Sc, May, 1884, p. 1. 17.) 

Barsinc panagrata, Walk. — Larva about 23 mm. long, some- 
what cylindrical, and of uniform diameter. The larva? seem as 
variable as the wings, or else my descriptions must refer to dif- 
ferent stages. Some are green, with a purplish-red subdorsal 
line a little to each side of the middle of the back, and with no 
median dorsal line ; there are some black dashes about the 
seventh, eighth, and ninth segments ; underside whitish-green. 
Others had the dorsal surface brown, with indistinct markings. 
This larva is recorded by Professor Hutton as on Aristotelia, but 
I have got it very commonly from the pepper-tree (Drimys), 
whose leaves are usually found mutilated by its attacks. Larva 
in December and January. 

Declaim floccosa, Walk.— Its larva is very distinct and easily 
recognised. When full-grown it is fully 30 mm. long, tapering 
gradually from anal segment to head, and of a marled reddish- 
brown colour. In transverse section it is nearly an exact semi- 
circle, the ventral side forming the diameter, and the skin is pro- 
duced into lateral fringes, which are usually pinkish-red. The 
dorsal surface is mottled with various indistinct tracings, and 
much resembles the bark of Aristotelia. There arc twelve legs, 
and the underside is greenish, often suffused with pink. There 
is a small prominence bearing two raised points on the twelfth 



LIST OF GEOMETRINA COLLECTED NEAR DUNEDIN, ETC. 163 

segment. The larva is somewhat common on Aristotelia race- 
mosa. In the younger stages the larvae are cylindrical, and have 
not the characteristic semicircular outline in section or lateral 
frinee. I have found these larvae also on Hawthorn. Larvae in 
December and April. 

Drepanodes muriferata, Walk. — Larva light grey, cylindrical, 
about 22 mm. long. Beaten in February from an undergrowth 
of Cartiodetus and Aristotelia. (See N.Z. Journ, Sc, May, 1884, 
p. 118.) 

In the preceding notes only the time when the larvae nearly 
full-grown were found is given, as the time of emergence of 
moths from the chrysalis under the artificial conditions of a 
breeding-cage and the warmth of a house may differ much from 
the natural time of appearance of the moth. I shall be glad to 
assist any wishing to begin the stud y of the life-habits of our 
Lepidoptera, either by advice as to the best methods of obtain- 
ing or rearing larvae, or by naming so far as I can any larvae or 
moths sent to me. This branch of Entomology is a most inte- 
resting one, and one that requires lor its pursuit no elaborate or 
expensive apparatus ; while those who choose to spend on it a 
little money may make the breeding-cage for the larvae an ob- 
ject that may claim a place in a drawing-room beside the aquaria, 
and the observation of the inmates of the former will be found 
to be equally interesting with that of the latter. 



Noctuina. — Erana graminosa, Walk. — Larva large, light 
green. A median dorsal and also a subdorsal line on each side, 
white, somewhat wavy. Several rows of small black tubercles 
bearing hairs. Below green. This larva can readily be recog- 
nised by its habits. It frequents the young shoots that spring 
from the lower part of the trunk of the Melicytus. Larvae in 
February and April. — OTAGO UNIVERSITY. 



LIST OF GEOMETRINA COLLECTED NEAR 
DUNEDIN, &c. 



BY ALEX. PURDIE, M.A. 



Very little is known as yet regarding the distribution of the 
various species of Lepidoptera in New Zealand, and this has 
probably resulted in part from the difficulty collectors have 
hitherto had in naming their captures. Now that Mr. Meyrick's 
labours have enabled us to determine with certainty the species 
belonging to several groups, Geometrina among others, it is very 
desirable that collectors in different parts of the Islands should 
publish local lists, by comparison of which some idea may be 
gained both as to the prevalence of any species and also the ex- 



164 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

tent of its distribution. Another matter worthy the notice of 
entomologists is the time of appearance in the imago stage, for 
it is well known that different species of moth appear at different 
seasons, hence all notes of captures are worthy of record. Col- 
lectors ought to make it a custom to note both time and place 
of capture in the case of every species in their cabinets. There 
are two ways of doing this, one is to have a series of numbers 
one of which is attached to each insect and an entry with num- 
ber corresponding made in a diary ; another method, perhaps 
easier, is to have very small squares or circles of paper on which 
the date and place are printed in very small letters, these slips 
being placed on the pins below the insect. One great advantage 
of the latter plan is that the information is always found to- 
gether with the insect it refers to. The following list lays no 
claim to be exhaustive ; it is simply a record of the species of 
Geometrina I have collected about Dunedin, and it is very 
meagre in regard to information as to times of appearance, the 
notes upon the months in which the captures were made being 
gathered from casual jottings in my diary. I hope this coming 
season to work out this matter more fully, and shall be glad of 
any information bearing upon it from any collectors. There is 
added to the Dunedin list, a list of the species captured in a trip 
to Lake Wakatipu in February of this year. 

Geometrina collected around Dunedin. 

Acidalia rubraria y Dbld. 

Hippolyte rubropunctaria, Dbld. — Common where Haloragis 
alata is found. 

EpipJiryne undosata, Feld. — Common everywhere round 
Dunedin where the Ribbonwood grows. 

7 hyone abrogata y Walk. 

Panopcea verriculata, Feld. 

Eur y dice cymoscma, Meyr. 

Harpalycc mcgaspilata, Walk. — Common everywhere in bush. 

Harpalyce humeraria, Walk. — Not uncommon up the Leith 
Valley. 

Stratouice catapyrrha, Butl. — I caught a male in Green 
Island on the Main South Road, making short flights and then 
settling on the roadway. There is a female in the Otago 
Museum, but no locality is appended. These two specimens 
are of the smallest size of the species, being only about 16 mm. 
in expanse. 

Elvia glaucata, Walk. — Common up Leith Valley. 

Pasipkila bilineolata, Walk. — Common in bush. 

Tatosoma agriouata, Walk. — Common on mossy tree-trunks. 

Asthcna scliistiria, Walk. — Common among Manuka scrub. 

Scotosia g-obiata, Feld. — Common. 

Scotosia deltoidata, Walk. — Common. 

Epyaxa rosearia, Dbld. — Common. 

Epyaxa semifissata, Walk. — Common. 

Cidaria rixata, Feld. — Common alongside the beds of creeks. 



LIST OF GEOMETRINA COLLECTED NEAR DUNEDIN, ETC. 165 

Cid. purpurifera, Frdy. — Common up the Lcith Valley. 

Cid. similata, Walk. — Common everywhere in bush, often on 
mossy tree-trunks. 

Cid. arida, Butl. — Found up Leith Valley, and also at Rifle 
Range, Pelichet Bay. 

Larentia prcefectata, Walk. 

Lar. clarata, Walk. — Common on hills. 

Lar. beata, Butl. — Common in bush. 

Lar. cegrota, Butl. — Common at light. 

Lar. helias, Meyr. — Saddle Hill and Leith Valley. 

Lar. cinerearia, Dbld. — Common everywhere. 

Pasithca brephos, Walk. — Common on hills. 

Lyrcea alectoraria, Walk. — Not uncommon. 

Zylobara productata, Walk. — The male is very common on 
tree-trunks. 

Psendo cor ei nia lupinata, Feld. — Common among Manuka 
scrub. 

Pseudocoremia melinata, Feld. — Common everywhere. 

Boarmia dejectaria, Walk. — Often found at rest on trunks of 
broadleaf. 

Barsine panagrata, Walk. — Common up Leith Valley. 

Declanafloccosa, Walk. — Common. 

Declaim crassitibia, Feld. 

Atossa niveata, Butl. 

Stratocleis gallaria, Walk. — Leith Valley. 

Stratocleis cinerascens, Feld. — Leith Valley. 

Azelina fortiuata, Gn. — Leith Valley. 

Drepanodes muriferata, Walk. — Leith Valley. 

Times of Occurrence. 

I have captured the following species in the following 
months : — 

November — Scotosia gobiata, Epyaxa semifissata, Boarmia 
attracta, and Stratocleis gallaria. 

December — Harpalyce megaspilata, Tatosoma agrionata, Epy- 
axa semifissata, Cidaria rixata, Cidaria purpurifera, Cidaria 
similata, Larentia beata, Boarmia dejectaria, Declana floccosa, 
Stratocleis cinerascens. Azelina fortiuata. 

January — Harpalyce megaspilata, H. /turner aria, F'asiphila 
bilineolata, Cidaria pur pur if era, C. arida, Larentia Jielias, Bar- 
sine panagrata, Stratocleis gallaria, S. cinerascens, Azelina for- 
tiuata. 

February — Hippolyte rubropunctaria, Larentia Oigrota. 

March — Stratonice catapyrrJia, Epyaxa semifissata, Larentia 
beata, L. cinerearia, Boarmia dejectaria. 

April — Asthena schistaria, Cidaria similata, Lyrcea alectora- 
ria, Zylobara productata, Pseudocoremia lupinata, Barsine pana- 
grata. 

These months form the entomologist's chief collecting sea- 
son, the other months not being very productive. It is not pos- 
sible to make any generalizations upon the above imperfect 



1 66 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 

record, as the fact of my having made many captures in one 
month and few in the next may show simply that I had less 
time for collecting in one month than in the other. 

The following is a list of species collected in the course of a 
trip to Lake Wakatipu in February of this year : — 

Invercargill — Scotosia deltoidata. 

Oueenstown — Asthena schistaria, Scotosia gobiata, S. deltoi- 
data, Arsinoe subockraria, Cidaria rixata, C. purpnrifera, Laren- 
tia da rata, L. beata, L. cinerearia, Pasithea brephos, Pseudocore- 
mia lupinata. 

Kin loch, at the head of Lake Wakatipu — Epiphryne undosata 
(very white) ; Epyaxa semifissata, Arsinoe subockraria, Cidaria 
purpnrifera, Larentia beata (a fine variety with bright green 
ground colour, and narrow, deep, black markings on the fore- 
wings), Lar. cinerearia, Zylobara productata. 

Mount Bonpland, in the wide shingly basin just below the 
glacier — Epyaxa oropJiyla (female), Larentia cataphracta (male) 
a distinct and handsome insect, Lar. clarata, Lar. beata, Pasi- 
thea brephos, Statira hectori. 

The captures in other groups are not yet worked out, and so 
are reserved for another paper. 



GENERAL NOTES. 



Larva of Allocharis Marginata, Sharp. — While 
searching for larvae of Lepidoptera along the side of a creek on 
Mount Bonpland in February, the leaves of several Veronicas 
(salicifolia among others) were found to be much attacked by 
some larvae. The larvae were short and stout, coiling up when 
touched, and in outline resembled the larvae of the Ladybird 
( Coccinella). Length between 10 and 15 mm. Colour, dark 
purplish-brown, underside lighter. These larvae were feeding in 
great numbers, quite exposed, on the surface of the leaves, and 
many plants had most of their leaves disfigured with the 
withered blotches produced by the larvae. They turned to pupae, 
a few at the surface of the earth among the debris of the food 
plant, but most under the surface, and the beetle emerged not 
long after. Captain Broun, who kindly named this and some 
other beetles for me, says that it is very probably Allocharis 
marginata, Sharp, but the specimens were somewhat crushed in 
transit by post. ALEX. PURDIE. 



DERMESTES Introduced. — The following instance will 
show how readily many noxious insects may be introduced from 
other countries. Some time ago a box of geological specimens* 
for Professor Ulrich was brought to the University from Aus- 
tralia. The box was a kerosene case, and the specimens were 
wrapped singly in newspaper. There was no other material in 



GENERAL NOTES. 1 67 

the box than the stones and the very liberal wrappings of news- 
paper, yet this box was swarming with a species of beetle. They 
were by hundreds, both in pupa and perfect state. Judging 
from their situation that these strangers were not likely to prove 
useful colonists, some were bottled, the rest burnt. Captain 
Broun, after examining some specimens gives their names as 
probably Dermcstes vulpirms, Fabr. The Dennestidce are noted 
pests. " The larvae of this tribe devour dead bodies, skins, lea- 
ther, and almost any animal substance, and are exceedingly 
destructive to books and furniture." — Treasury of Natural His- 
tory. The larvae in this case must have fed on the paper, and 
were probably in the egg state when the box was packed, but 
how they came to be in such numbers is rather puzzling. The 
publication of this note may induce any persons receiving such 
a consignment to take prompt measures of repression with the 
visitors. Some useful insects might come over in such a way, 
but the probability is that all such comers mean no good. 

Alex. Purdie. 



Semiapterous Lepidoptera — Gymnobathra sarcoxan- 
THA, Meyr. — There is one case of a semiapterous female with 
which Mr. Meyrick was not acquainted when he published his 
paper on the N. Z. CEcophoridce, namely the female of Gymno- 
bathra sarcoxantha, Meyr. The wings of the male of this species 
are from 16 to 19 mm. in expanse and broad withal, while those 
of the female are from 13 to 16 mm. and narrow, and the bulky 
abdomen of the latter makes the difference seem greater. The 
wings of the female are so much reduced that the posterior and 
outer edges form one scarcely broken curve, nearly correspond- 
ing to the costal curve, and giving the wings a lanceolate out- 
line with a very acute apex. The hindwings are similarly re- 
duced, being even more acute than the forewings, and it is 
doubtful whether the female is at all capable of flight when dis- 
tended with eggs. There is one point of considerable interest 
when taken into account with the reduction of the wing. This 
species, if disturbed on any bush, at once drops to the ground, 
the female always and the male generally ; and the thought at 
once suggests itself that the semiapterous condition of the female 
may be a direct result of the disuse of the wings. It would be 
of interest to know whether in any other case, reduced wings 
have been found together with this peculiar habit of dropping to 
the ground when endangered. This species may be got abun- 
dantly among the plantations of Coniferse about the Dunedin 
Public Gardens, where it may be readily found in March by 
shaking the pines and collecting the moths that fall. 

Alex. Purdie. 



OROCRAMBUS, SP. — Among my captures near the Mount 
Bonpland Glacier in February last, were four specimens of a 



1 68 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

black moth that at first I was puzzled to locate. Having re- 
cently had to examine the Otago Museum collection, I found 
there a moth without any note of locality, named by Mr. Mey- 
rick as Orocrambus tnelampetrus, Meyr., probably a manuscript 
name, as I cannot find any such name in his published papers. 
On comparing my specimens with this they were found to be 
the same or a closely allied species. The Museum specimen is 
brownish-black, with a transverse greyish band near the end of 
the cell of the forewings ; my specimens have the forewings a 
deep glossy black, with no trace of markings. Hindwings grey- 
ish black. This species was tolerably common, flying freely, 
rather too freely to make many captures, among the shingle near 
the snow, and it was rather curious to find so near the pure white 
snow, numbers of a black butterfly (Percnodaimon plutd), and 
this black moth. The expanse of this Orocramfais is from 24 to 
26 mm., and its outline when at rest reminds one somewhat of 
such as Pcedisca among our Tortricina. Alex. Purdie. 



On the Transport of Small Erratic Boulders. — On 
the fine sandy beaches of the southern coast of the South 
Island bordering on Foveaux Straits, very large numbers of 
quartz boulders running up to about lib. in weight may be seen. 
They do not appear to be connected with the local rocks, but 
have probably descended the great rivers like the Waiau, and 
have been thus swept out into the Strait. They are brought 
ashore in large numbers by ascidians, sertularians, and seaweed. 
The ascidians bring up the larger specimens. They attach 
themselves to the boulders when young, and when they grow 
large exercise a considerable floating power upon them, thus 
lifting them off the bottom. In this way the boulders are driven 
ashore. I have noticed considerable banks of these little erratics, 
with their floats in all stages of decay, attached to them, lying 
on the beaches. On examining the brown coal exposed in the 
seam 18 feet thick worked at the Fernhill Colliery at Green Is- 
land, near Dunedin, I found exactly similar boulders embedded 
at various depths in the coal. These are indications that this 
bed of coal has been formed under the sea. It seems highly 
probable that while the coal was in process of formation these 
boulders occasionally dropped from decaying ascidians, which, 
rooted to them, were bearing them in this manner towards the 
shore. F.R.C. 



N. Z. l)irn:k.\.— Baron Osten Sacken, of Hans Mai, Hei- 
delberg, Germany, wishes to work up the Diptera of New Zea- 
land, and would be happy to correspond with collectors in dif- 
ferent parts of the country. -He would especially like to get the 
Crane-flies or Daddy-long-legs {Tipulidce), and would describe 
them at once. The best way to prepare the insects is to pin 
them immediately after catching. The pins must be insect pins 
about an inch and a half or an inch and a quarter in length, and 



GENERAL NOTES. 169 

the fly placed at about one third of the length of the pin from 
the head. Boxes may be sent to the care of the Secretary of the 
Entomological Society, Chandos Street, Cavendish Square, Lon 
don. Small flies may be placed between folds of linen and sent 
in a box by post, direct to Baron Osten Sacken. The address 
and stamps should be on a luggage label tied to the box, and 
not on the box itself. 



Note on the Occurrence of English Butterflies 
in New Zealand. — During the summer of 1881, 1 observed in 
the Botanic Garden several butterflies which at first sight I took 
to be the "New Zealand Red Admiral" (Pyrantels gonerilla), 
but as one of them settled near, I felt convinced that it belonged 
to a species distinct from the beautiful insect which we recog- 
nise by that name, and which for several seasons past has been 
so plentiful in Wellington. The differences of the markings are 
very noticeable, as is seen at a glance when the two species are 
placed side by side. I managed to capture one specimen. On 
examination it proved to be the " English Red Admiral/' or 
" Alderman Butterfly," which, though presenting a general re- 
semblance to our New Zealand species, is nevertheless quite dis- 
tinct ; and is known to English entomologists as Vanessa ata- 
lanta. 

I made several trips to the Gardens in the hope of obtaining 
more specimens, but although on two occasions examples were 
seen, contrary to their habit in the old country, they proved so 
exceedingly shy that capture was impossible. However, speci- 
mens were procured of another English species. It belongs to 
the same genus as the last, and, if smaller, is yet very remark- 
able for the beauty of its colours. In England it is known to 
the general public by the name of the " Small Tortoise-shell," 
and to the scientific world as Vanessa urticcB. 

These butterflies are too well known to all who have lived 
long in England to need any description here, and for those 
who have not been so fortunate, there happily exist good des- 
criptions and drawings in various works of reference in our 
libraries. They are merely noticed now so that what is believed 
to be the first appearance of English species in New Zealand, or 
at least in Wellington, may be placed on record. 

The importation of plants and seeds from various countries 
is now so extensive that it is almost certain numerous insects, 
some useful, some injurious, will be brought into the Colony. In 
order, therefore, that the noxious forms may be more speedily 
detected, and that confusion may not hereafter arise in our 
" lists " and " catalogues," it is important that the appearance in 
a district of any uncommon or foreign form should be carefully 
noted. T. W. KlRK. 



On an Abnormally-Coloured specimen of Petroica 
ALBIFRONS (Gray), Myioscopus albifrons (Gml.). — May 19, 



\yo JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

1884 ; on top of the range of hills above Ohinitahi, two robins 
had been observed in company several days during last week ; 
they were very familiar, flying to the woodcutters' fire when the 
men took their meals, picking up crumbs, waiting till logs were 
rolled over, or stones turned up by the logs or working-bullocks, to 
pick up insects and worms. One of these was abnormally coloured ; 
the following is a description of its very interesting state of 
plumage. (The other bird presented no difference from the ordi- 
nary plumage) Forehead, crown, hind-head, white interspersed 
with slatey-black ; nape white, with a few feathers marked with 
slatey-black ; irides black ; ear coverts black mottled with 
white ; hind-neck slatey-black ; back white, with one or two 
black feathers ; rump white ; tail coverts white ; tail dark brown ; 
wings dark brown ; carpal plume white ; scapulars white ; chin, 
throat, and fore-neck white, mottled with slatey-black ; breast 
white, stained partially with creamy-yellow ; abdomen white, 
with a few slatey-black feathers ; under tail coverts white ; tibial 
plumes white ; ridge of upper mandible pale flesh ; lower man- 
dible flesh ; tarsus flesh ; toes yellowish ; claws horn-colour, 
rather dark. T. H. POTTS. 



On Rhipidur^e of New Zealand. — Anyone who has had 
for the past few years opportunities of observing the life and 
habits of birds in this district must have noticed that the con- 
dition of the Fly-catcher family has undergone some noteworthy 
changes. In an early volume of the Trans, of the N.Z. Institute.* 
I noted the inter-breeding of the two species, R.flabellifera with 
R. fuliginosa. In 1869, the date on which that paper was written, I 
looked upon the "union-nest" asof comparatively rare occurrence; 
very considerable change has taken place since that time. In the 
Manual ol the Birds of New Zealand, recently printed and 
published by Government, no mention is made of this fact, yet 
it is one that seems to be all-important in the lives of the fly- 
catchers. We are becoming familiar with unexpected changes 
of habits in our birds, and certainly the family under considera- 
tion deserves attention. At the present time I believe union- 
nests arc more common than those of cither the pied or the black 
species ; those of A', flabcllifcra arc next often met with ; while 
those of A. fuliginosa seem to be the rarest. For the last three 
or four years the two recognised species have become inextri- 
cably intermixed. Who shall say which is really a pure R.fla- 
bellifera, or which is a legitimate fuliginosa? Will this question 
have to be referred to the cabinet ornithologist for solution ? In 
the wilds of nature the two so-called species, with their cross- 
bred descendants, feed together, breed together, live together — 
Quis separabit f may indeed be asked of this three-ply union. 
The mixed progeny docs not assist us out of the difficulty, as 
may be gathered from the following notes : — 

Jan. 5, 1879. — Union nest with three young birds. Appa- 

* Trans. N.Z. Institute, Vol. II., p. 64. 



GENERAL NOTES. 171 

rently they should be classed as R. fuliginosa. Nov. 2, 1881. — 
Another union-nest with four young of R.flabellifera, if outward 
appearances are to be trusted. 

Apriland May are capital months for observing the graceful 
evolutions and gyrations of these pretty and familiar birds, so 
ornamental and so useful in our gardens. In the former month 
the young cocks make their early attempts to sing, and very 
persevering are their endeavours to improve ; like the young- 
males of many other species, at first they are low-voiced. Every 
fine day in May they make the most of sunshine, frequenting tree 
tops in numbers ; perhaps as many as twelve or fourteen toge- 
ther may be counted hawking small flies or other insects. Whilst 
thus working for their livelihood, they twirl round or dart forward 
hither and thither, their swift motions and changes of position 
always pretty and graceful, and it takes a very dull person to pass 
by the scene of their aerial flights without notice. In dull or misty 
weather they keep near the ground ; I have seen them flitting 
over stones and drift-wood left uncovered by the tide. One of 
the very latest to retire to roost, it is almost dusk when the last 
feeble twitter sounds through the plantations. Notwithstanding 
the stealthy prowling cat, I do not think the numbers are de- 
creasing at present. 

May 19. — Have noticed R. fuliginosa (?) with and without the 
the white spot or aural plume. 

R. fuliginosa cannot be looked upon as a rare bird in some 
parts of the North Island ; in the neighbourhood of Woodville, 
about the wooded banks of the Manawatu, it has frequently 
been seen, often in company of R.flabellifera. T. H. Potts. 



Recent Microscopical Work on Vegetable Tissues.— 
From an article under this heading written by the Editor of 
The Victorian Naturalist, we extract the following remarks, 
which are of very considerable importance : — " Vegetable physi- 
ology has gained as much from the adoption of micro-chemical 
methods as it had previously from the use of high powers of the 
microscope. Double or multiple staining has attained a high 
degree of perfection, but as Dr. Ralph points out this is not a 
chemical re-action at all, and is usually a mere staining of the 
cell walls of particular tissues, and not of their protoplasmic con- 
tents. In search of re-agents which should produce a direct 
chemical effect, evidenced by change or production of colour, 
Dr. Ralph has found one which is remarkably active, neutral 
molybdate of ammonia. In a paper read before the Victorian 
Microscopical Society in January last, he gave an account of its 
action on 120 genera of plants. He carefully prepares the solu- 
tion of the salt by adding excess of ammonia to the molybdic 
acid, and getting rid of the excess by evaporation. In placing a 
drop of this liquid on the slide and drawing it under the cover, 
tissues of certain plants mounted in water immediately show the 
cell contents tinted with various shades of orange, from palest 
yellow to deepest red orange. But all plants are by no means 



172 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

alike in their reception of the re-agents, nor are all tissues in the 
same plant. Dr. Ralph has classified his plants according to the 
readiness with which they are acted upon, some giving- a decided 
re-action, others a partial or moderate, and a third group no re- 
action at all. Among the last appear to be most of the Mono- 
cotyledons experimented on, but Hedychium and the Banana 
fruit gave most marked results, some of the constricted vessels 
of the latter taking an almost startling blood-red hue. The 
members of Myrtacere and Proteaceae examined all gave positive 
results. Of 120 genera, 30 were unaffected, 62 gave a full, and 
the remainder a partial re-action. Dr Ralph is hopeful that 
with more extended experiments, ordinal or generic characters 
may be recognised. He suggests the trial of the re-agent in 
demonstration of pollen-tubes in style-tissues, and of the hyph?e 
of endophytal and epiphytal microfungi. 



COPROSMA BAUERIANA.— A paper on the glands of thi s 
plant was read by Mr. Walter Gardiner at the meeting of the 
Linnean Society of London, on 20th December last. These 
glands are externally well developed and very typical. The so- 
called stipular body is placed immediately behind each leaf, and 
in the young condition the stipule arches over the leaf, and the 
glands with which it is provided secrete copiously a mucilagi- 
nous fluid, which bathes and surrounds the young leaf structure 
As to the development of the glands, they arise as protrusions 
of the stipule parenchyma, which are covered by an epidermis. 
Each epidermal cell then rapidly grows out at right angles to 
the protuberance. In Coprosma the glands are situated on the 
sides of the stipules, but it more usually occurs in other genera 
that they are distributed over the inner face of the base of the 
stipular organ. — Nature, 3rd Jan., 1 



The Shark Abroad. — The following passage occurs in an 
account, by one of the party, of an exploring expedition into the 
Kimberley District, Western Australia, during the course of last 
year: — " In one of the pools in the Margaret River, fully 350 
miles from the coast, a shark 5 feet long was captured. This 
caused us to doubt our knowledge of natural history, as before 
we had been under the impression that sharks could only exist 
in salt water. F.R.C. 



EARTHQUAKES. — Two shocks ol earthquake were experienced 
in Wellington on 5th June. The first occurred at 2.58 a.m., and 
was somewhat sharp, causing the bells of the Post Office clock 
to ring ; a second but slighter shock occurred at about 11.50 
a.m. The first shock was also felt at Greytown (Wairarapa), 
and lasted about five seconds. There was neither rumbling 
noise nor perceptible oscillation, but considerable upward move- 
ment. 



GENERAL NOTES. 1 73 

On June 10th a slight shock was experienced at Christchurch 
at 11.30 p.m., and early on Wednesday, the nth, another was 
felt, but no exact observations appear to have been made of 
either. On 12th June two sharp shocks were reported from Ox- 
ford. 

On 27th June a slight shock was felt in Dunedin at an early 
hour in the morning, but unfortunately no recording apparatus 
appears to be kept in the city, and, therefore, no exact informa- 
tion on the subject is attainable. 



Royal Society of Tasmania. — The Papers and Proceed- 
ings of this Society for 1883 form a pamphlet of about 80 pages. 
The original papers are few in number and short. Messrs. E. T. 
Higgins and W. F. Petterd contribute the following : — (1) Des- 
cription of new Tasmanian Animals," {Polorous rztfzis, Antechi- 
nus moorei, Mtts pachyurus, and M. castaneus) ; (2) "New Species 
of Tasmanian Antechini and Mus " (A. concinnus, A. moorei var. 
assimilis, M. tamarensis, and M. leucopus) ; (3) " Description of 
a new Cave-inhabiting Spider (Iheridion troglodytes), together 
with notes on mammalian remains from a recently discovered 
cave in the Chudleigh District " ; and (4) " Description of a 
new species of Mus, [M. tetragoniirus), with a list of the terres- 
trial animals of Tasmania." Mr. R. M. Johnston contributes 
" Notice of recent additions to the list of Tasmanian Fishes," 
(includes two species, Olistherops brozvnii, n.sp., and Hoplegna- 
tJius conwayii (?) Rich). 



Descriptions of Two New Shells from New Zea- 
land, BY PROF. F. W. HUTTON. — Acclis (Rissopsis) hyalina, 
nov. sp. Shell elongated, thin, hyaline, white or brownish, darker 
at the apex, smooth, polished ; the apex blunt. Whorls 5 or 6, 
rather flattened, the suture well marked. Aperture ovate, acu- 
minate posteriorly ; columella smooth, slightly recurved an- 
teriorly. Length O" I inch. Habitat: Stewart Island. 

Rissoina anmdata, nov. sp. — Shell ovate, smooth, brown or 
purplish, often with a paler band just below the suture. Whorls, 
5, slightly rounded, the suture well marked. Aperture rounded, 
continuous in the adult. Length 0*08 inch. Habitat : Auck- 
land. The operculum has an internal calcareous process. 



LOMARIA PUMILA,Raoul. — This much desired species escaped 
observation by collectors for many years. There existed an idea 
that it might be discovered somewhere in the neighbourhood of 
Akaroa ; and I asked a lady friend living there to search for it. 
In 1879 I was delighted with the receipt of a piece of the long 
lost fern, which was procured on the side of a rather steep spur 
on the south side of Church Valley, Akaroa. In the spring of 
1882 I went over the habitat, but owing to fires it had entirely 
disappeared ; the only vestige of ferns being some depauperised 



1/4 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

plants of L. proccra growing almost in a small creek. L.pumila 
has since that date been found on the hills near Akaroa, and one 
specimen was discovered at Ohinitahi last year. It is a fern that 
may be overlooked without much difficulty. 

This desirable plant is very easy to cultivate, both under glass 
and also in the outdoor fernery. I have seen quite a large patch 
of it thriving luxuriantly in a cool green-house ; out of doors I 
have grown it the past two years. It does best with plenty of 
air, yet must have shelter. T. H. Potts. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES 



AUCKLAND INSTITUTE. 

Auckland, June gth, 1884. — H. G. Seth Smith, Esq., President, 
in the chair. 

New members — Prof. Aldis, Dr. Bond, Messrs. A. Kidd, W. C. 
McDowell, D. Nolan, and C. Ring. 

The President read an inaugural address, from which we learn 
that " since the annual meeting held on the 25th February last, the 
sum of ^"7000 has been paid by the executors ot the late Mr. 
Edward Costley to Messrs. Aickin, Peacock, and myself, as the re- 
presentatives of the Institute, being the first instalment ot the 
amount of probably ^"12,000 which is estimated to be the share of 
this Institute in Mr. Costley's estate The sum already paid over 
has been invested upon good security by your representatives. 
Small portions of the landed endowment of the museum have been 
sold, and the sum of about £1000 has been accumulated in the 
hands of the Government from this source. I cannot refrain from 
repeating the expression of opinion contained in the annual report, 
that " the management of the endowment would have been far 
better placed in the hands of the Council of the Institute, as the 
body most directly interested." The sum of £\2 has been paid to 
the Institute as a grant under the provisions of the Public Libraries 
Subsidies Act, and an order for books to that amount has been 
despatched." 

I Papers — 1. " Notes on a bird called Malau," by Rev. S. W. 
Baker. The bird Malau was stated to be found only on the little 
island Ninafou, to the northward of Tonga. It is confined to the 
immediate vicinity of a deep crater-like lake. In the light soil 
surrounding the lake it excavates tunnels sometimes six feet in 
length, and in them deposits its eggs, which are sometimes as many 
as twenty in number. The bird does not sit upon the eggs, but 
leaves them to be hatched by the heat of the sun. The young 
birds are fully fledged when they emerge from the egg, and take 
care of themselves without any assitance from the parent birds. — 
Mr. Cheeseman stated that Mr. Baker's bird was a species of 
mound-builder called Megapodius Pritchardii. A specimen was 
in the Museum, presented some years ago by the late Captain 
Rough ; and a coloured drawing would be found in the " Proceed- 
ings of the Zoological Society " for 1864. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 1 75 

2. " A decade of new species of Feroniidas," by Capt. T. Broun. 
In this paper Captain Broun gave descriptions often new species 
oi ground beetles, discovered by Messrs. T. Chalmer and S. W. 
Fulton, in Otago. 

PHILOSOPHICAL INSTITUTE OF CANTERBURY. 

Christchurch, 5th June, 1884. — R. W. Fereday, Esq., President, 
in the chair. 

The President regretted to announce that Mr. M. W. Maskell 
had resigned his position as Hon. Treasurer of the Institute, on 
account of his approaching departure for Wellington. A vote of 
thanks to him, proposed by Mr. H. R. Webb and seconded by 
Mr. E. Robson, was carried by acclammation, and fittingly acknow- 
ledged by Mr. Maskell. 

Papers — 1. " The Diamond Mines of South Africa," by Pro- 
fessor F. W. Hutton (see p. 151). 

In the discussion which followed, Professor Hutton, in answer 
to Mr. E. Ford, said that no geologist could say with certainty 
that diamonds would not^be found in a particular country, but he 
did not think they would ever be found at Alford Forest or Mount 
Somers, as the igneous rocks there had not been subjected to any 
change. They were more likely to be iound in country where 
there were slate rocks with dykes, and where the volcanic rocks 
had been denuded from the surface. 

2. " The fresh water shells of New Zealand belonging to the 
family Limnaeidae," by Professor F. W. Hutton. The following 
new species are described : — 

Limncea (Ampliipeplea) arguta. — Shell globosely ovate; aperture 
occupying three quarters of the entire length of the shell ; inner 
lip reflexed over the umbilicus. Length 0-3 inch. Hab. Christ- 
church. 

Limncea ampulla. — Shell ovate ; aperture rather more than half 
the entire length ; inner lip not covering the umbilicus. Length 
0.4 inch. Hab. Arthur's Pass. 

Limncea leptosoma. — Shell ovate, acuminate above ; aperture 
two-thirds the entire length ; inner lip callously reflexed over the 
umbilicus. Length 0.47 inch. Hab. Wellington. 

Limncea tenella. — Shell small, oblong ; aperture less than half 
the entire length ; inner lip not covering the umbilicus. Length 
0.18 inch. Hab. Christchurch. 

Limncea pucilla. — Shell small, oblong; aperture half the entire 
length ; inner lip covering the umbilicus. Length 016 inch. Hab) 
Auckland. 

The other species admitted are Limncea tomentosa (Pfeiffer), Buli- 
nus antipodeus (Sowb.), B. variabilis (Gray), B. tabulatus (Gould), B. 
mcesta (Adams), and Planorbis corinna (Gray). The dentition ofL. 
ampulla, L. tomentosa, L. arguta, and B. mcesta are also figured. 



OTAGO INSTITUTE. 

Dunedin, 10th June, 1884. — A. Montgomery, Esq., Vice-Presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

New members— Mr. R. N. Twopeny and Miss Dalrymple. 

Papers — 1. " On Moa remains from the Mackenzie Country 
and elsewhere," by Mr. F. R. Chapman. 



176 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

The paper treated principally of several " finds " of gizzard 
stones, which the author had carefully collected, each set compris- 
ing the whole of the pebbles from a single gizzard. A number ot 
sets were exhibited varying in weight from 8oz. to over 5lbs. The 
localities in which these were collected or noticed were: — 1. A 
flat on the left bank of the Waitaki; 2. the shore of Lake Te- 
kapo ; 3 Colac's Bay, beyond Riverton ; and 4. Lake Manapouri, 
whence three sets had been sent by Mr. Mitchell of Manapouri 
Station. Mr. Chapman also mentioned having found small groups 
of similar stones on the Moorhouse Range on the western side of 
the Tasman River, at heights varying from 1500 to 5000 feet above 
the sea level. The pebbles were generally hard white quartz worn 
smooth. In sets apparently from a small species of Moa they 
varied in size from a grain of millet to a small hazel nut, and in 
the large sets they were very much larger, eight selected from the 
largest set weighing a pound. In nearly every instance they were 
found along with bones, and in one case they lay in a close group 
in the middle of a small tolerably perfect skeleton, the tracheal 
rings lying upon the mass of pebbles. 

Mr. Chapman also exhibited a fragment of Moa bone, one of 
several found in the heap of debris encircling an extensive Maori 
quarry at Gray Hills Station, in the Mackenzie Country. This 
had evidently been broken by human hands. He also exhibited a 
small Moa bone from Porirua, near Wellington, showing the marks 
of cutting instruments, presumably flint or obsidian knives. 

Mr. G. M. Thomson considered that the most interesting ques- 
tion which arose out of Mr. Chapman's paper, and the specimens 
of gizzard stones exhibited before the meeting, was " What did 
the Moa feed upon ?" The Kiwi, which was the nearest living 
ally of the Moa, lived largely, if not exclusively, upon animal food; 
but it was impossible that such a large bird as the Moa could 
obtain a sufficient supply of such food, and it was more probable 
that it depended upon the large succulent plants, such as spear, 
grasses, etc., which were so abundant in the undisturbed country. 

Prof. Parker hoped that ever)- person interested in the know- 
ledge of the natural history of this part of the world would follow 
Mr. Chapman's example, by collecting and noting every fact of in- 
terest of the kind. The biological problems presented to us in 
New Zealand were more numerous and interesting than in any 
other portion of the earth's surface of equal size, and in very many 
cases the evidence required for the settlement of these problems 
was fast slipping away from our grasp. Several interesting animal 
types were already extinct, many others were doomed, and were 
last approaching extinction, and, therefore, every item of informa- 
tion about them was ot interest. 

Mr. Wilkinson asked at what level above the waters of Lake 
Tekapo, the sets of gizzard stones from that locality were found. 
All these Alpine lakes were rapidly cutting down their beds to 
lower levels, and the occurrence of these remains might thus afford 
data as to the probable period at which the Moa existed. 

Mr. Chapman, in replying, stated that the Moa probably fed 
indiscriminately upon all growing vegetation, much as the Ostrich 
does at the present time. With such an apparatus for crushing 
and grinding up its food, it was most likely that leaves of all kinds 
were eaten ; the extraordinary abundance in which it occurred 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 1 77 

favoured this theory. In regard to Lake Tekapo, the terrace on 
which the remains were found was about 12 to 14 feet above the 
surface of the water ; but he did not think this lake was cutting 
down its level at nearly the rate of many other of the Alpine lakes. 
There could, however, be little doubt as to the contemporaneity of 
Moas with the human inhabitants of these islands, and he thought 
that while their extinction was due partly to the destructive fires 
which swept over the open country, it was also perhaps aided by 
the climatic differences which prevailed between the comparatively 
dry east coast, as compared with the humid forests of the west. 

The Chairman announced that on Saturday evening, June 14, 
the first of a series of three popular lectures on " The Physiology 
of the Senses " would be delivered by Professor Scott, to be fol- 
lowed next month by a course of three lectures on " The Psycho- 
logy of the Senses " by Professor Macgregor. 



LINNEAN SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Sydney, 30th April, 1884.— Dr. James C. Cox, F.L.S., Vice- 
President, in the chair. 

New member — M. Harrison, Esq. 

Papers — 1. " On the preservation of tender Marine Animals," 
by R. von Lendenfeld, Ph.D. 

Before placing Medusae, Actiniae, and other delicate organisms 
into spirits it is necessary to treat them with poisonous chemical 
substances so as to harden the tissue and prevent the whole from 
shrinking. The methods employed for this purpose are described. 
It is often difficult to keep animals expanded ; warmth and instan- 
taneous poisoning are recommended for attaining this end. 

2. " The Scyphomedusae of the Southern Hemisphere," Part 
III., by R. von Lendenfeld, Ph.D. 

The numerous large jelly-fish belonging to the Family Dis- 
comedusidae, which have been described from the Southern Hemis- 
phere, are referred to, and short diagnoses, together with com- 
plete references, are given of every southern species. The classi- 
fication used is that of Haeckel. The Medusae studied by Dr. Len- 
denfeld, three of which are introduced to science in this paper, are 
described more minutely. The number of species of Discomedu- 
sidae found was : Adelaide, 1 ; Port Phillip, 3 ; Lyttelton, 1 ; Port 
Jackson, 3. Five of these were described by the author for the 
first time. 

3. "Note on the development of the Versuridae." by R. von 
Lendenfeld, Ph.D. 

The family of the Versuridae, comprising large Rhizostomous 
Medusae, is comparatively rare in the Northern Hemisphere. The 
development has only quite recently been described by Claus, who 
studied the Mediterranean Cakilorhiza. Dr. Lendenfeld has been 
successful in obtaining several young stages of the spotted brown 
blubber, which he has named Stilovhiza punctata, and he has found 
its development very different from anything that has been observed 
hitherto. The eight marginal bodies (organs ol sense) in the prin- 
cipal radii of the first and second order exist in the young larva. 
JBut besides these the larva possesses a greater number of similar 
marginal bodies which become less in number with increasing age. 
Firstly there are 24, then 16, and finally 8. But the umbrella mar- 



I/S JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

gin retains the power of producing marginal bodies ; and if after 
an injury of the margin new margin-flaps are formed, marginal 
bodies are also produced between them. The character of the 
embryonic tissue to form marginal bodies between all flaps, again 
makes it appearance if a new formation of the umbrella margin 
takes place. 

4. " A Monograph of the Australian Sponges," Part II., by R. 
von Lendenfeld, Ph.D. 

A general outline of the Morphology and Physiology of the 
Sponges is given in this paper, and the classification to be used in 
the systematic part of the work is indicated. It is a condensed 
abstract of our present knowledge on the subject, with a few refer- 
ences concerning the main points. The classification differs some- 
what from that of recent authors, and is arranged so as to suit the 
Australian sponges, as well as the European ones. It became 
necessary, therefore, as no one had studied the Australian sponges 
before, to reconstruct the classification. The sponges are con- 
sidered as Metazoa, and forming a Class in the type Coelenterata. 
They are classified as follows : — 

(I.) — Gastraeadae (hypothetical, not forming colonies, and 

without skeleton). 
I. Calcispongiae (calcareous skeleton). 

II. — Myxospongise (no skeleton, canal system much branched, 
ciliated chambers, sometimes scattered siliceous bodies) 
III. — Ceraospongiae (skeleton composed of horny fibre, 
sometimes with scattered siliceous bodies outside the 
fibres). 
IV. — Monacticerae (with Monactinellid spicules within the 
fibres, and often with siliceous bodies scattered through 
the ground substance.) 
V. — Hyalospongiae (originally without a horny skeleton. 
Skeleton consisting of siliceous spicules with four or six 
axes.) 
VI. — Monactihyalae (with a skeleton composed pi Monacti- 
nellid spicules, originally with a horny skeleton). 

5. " The Hydromedusae of Australia," Part II., by R. von Len- 
denfeld, Ph D. 

According to the principles set forth in Part I. of this paper, 
the Hydromedusae are classified in a new manner, and the Austra- 
lian representatives of the first four families in this system are de- 
scribed or referred to. The paper contains descriptions of several 
new and interesting forms, and in every case an abstract of every- 
thing known on the histology of every species is given, with refer- 
ences. The most interesting of the new forms is Eudendvium generate, 
the male polypastyles of which show a great similarity to Medusas. 
They possess four aboral tentacles in the principal radii, and on 
these the spermatozoa reach maturity. These tentacular appen- 
dages are therefore homologous to the radial canals of the Cras- 
pedote Medusas. Some deductions are drawn herefrom, and the 
homology of the parts in Medusas and Polypes described differ- 
ently to the views expressed by Allman and others. The umbrella 
is not homologous to a web between the tentacles of the mouth, 
but between the generative tentacular processes at the aboral pole. 

6. " Revision of the Recent Rhipidoglossate and Docoglossate 
Mollusca of New Zealand," by Protessor F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 1 79 

The synonomy of all the species is fully given, with, in many 
instances, revised descriptions and notes on the dentition where 
known. 70 species are admitted and 38 are rejected as having no 
claim to be included in the New Zealand fauna. 

Nerita atvata is re-named N. saturata, as it is not the N. atrata of 
Chemnitz. 

Polyodonta tubercnlatci (Grey) is identified with Trochus viridis 
(Gmelin). 

Labio covrosa f Adams) with Monodonta melaloma (Menke). 

Diloma mimetica (Hutton) is put into a new sub-genus called 
Latoma. 

Adeorbis (?) petterdi (Hutton, not of Brazier) is made into a new 
genus and species called Minos vimata. 

All the Patellas are put into the genus Patinella of Dall. 

P. magellanica of the Manual of the Mollusca of New Zealand 
is recognised as P. stvigilis oi Hombron and Jacquinot. 

(7) " Notes on Hybridism in the genus Br achy chiton,'" by 
Baron Ferd. von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., &c 
The plant which is the subject of this paper is a beautiful tree of 
40 feet in height and a stem diameter of 1 foot, grown at Fern 
Hill, near Penrith, New South Wales, and is an undoubted hybrid 
between Brachy chiton popidneum and Bmchychiton acevi folium. Like 
most hybrids, the flowers never perfect their seed. 

Mr. Macleay read a letter from the Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, 
Vice-President of the Society, dated from Perak, 27th February 
last, giving a long and interesting account of his proceedings and 
experiences in the Malacca Peninsula. He had examined and 
reported on the rich tin mines of the settlement, and the geologi- 
cal features of the whole territory ; and he had spent some time 
in the investigation of its zoological and botanical productions. 
He had suffered trom an attack of jungle fever, but at the time of 
writing he was convalescent. 

Mr. W. A. Haswell read the following note : — 

" In part 7 of the Transactions of the Linnean Society (Sep- 
tember, 1883), i s a paper by Mr. A. G. Bourne " On certain 
Points in the Anatomy of the Polynoina, and on Polynoe (Lepi- 
donotus, Leach) clava of Montagu," in which occurs the following 
foot-note : — 

" Since this was written Mr. W. H. Haswell, M.A., B.Sc, in 
"A Monograph of the Australian Aphroditea," (Proc Linn. Soc, 
New South Wales, Vol. VII.), has described the segmental organ 
in P. (Antinoe) pvaeclam, and P. (Antinoe) Wahlsi allied to P. pellu- 
cida, Ehlers. That author has also arrived at the conclusion that 
Ehlers has not seen the true segmental organs, but only intestinal 
caeca. He describes the former as opening at the ventral tuber- 
cles, but does not give any figures." 

Now my paper on the above subject, which contained among 
other matter an account of the nephridia or segmental organs of 
Polynoe, was published, not after Mr. Bourne's, as might be inferred 
from the sentence quoted above, but several months before the 
latter was even read. My paper was read in June, 1882, and 
published in August of the same year. Mr. Bourne's was read on 
January 18th, 1883, and published in September of that year. I 
therefore had priority in publication by a year. Moreover, I 
published a paper on the Segmental Organs of Polynoe, in the 



ISO JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Zoologischcv Anzeiger of September, 1882, five months betore Mr. 
Bourne's communication to the Linnean Society was read. What- 
ever credit, therefore, is due to priority of the discovery rests 
unmistakeably with me, and not with Mr. Bourne, and his note 
on the subject is calculated to convey an erroneous impression. 
Mr. Has well also read a note on the claspers of Heptanchus. 



Sydney, 28th May, 1884.— Professor W. J. Stephens, M.A., 
F.G.S., in the chair. 

New Members — G. G. Edelfelt, Esq., and Dr. M. T. O'Connor. 

Papers — (1) " New Australian Fishes in the Queensland 
Museum," by Charles W. D. Vis, M.A. 

This, the first of a series ol papers descriptive of rare and new 
fishes in the Queensland Museum, is confined to the Percidce only. 
Twenty-three new species are described and four new genera, 
viz. : — Herops, allied to Pviacanthus. Homodemiis, a fresh water fish 
approaching Dules. Auristhes, of doubtful affinity, and Hephestus, a 
fresh water vegetable feeding fish resembling Lobotes. 

(2) " The Hydromedusse of Australia," Part III, by R. von Len- 
denfeld, Ph.D. 

The Australian Hydromedusse are here described which be- 
long to the author's family Blastopolypidce. To the species described 
by former authors, which are enumerated with references, several 
new ones are added, some of which are of greater morphological 
interest, particularly Diphosia symmetrica no v. sp., which produces 
perfectly bilateral symmetrical female gonangia. The number of 
species is exceedingly great. As far as some of the sub-families 
of this group are concerned, no other shore is inhabited by any- 
thing like such a number and diversity of forms as ours. 

(3) " On the Geographical Distribution of the Australian 
Medusas," by R. von Lendenfeld, Ph.D. 

The distribution of the Medusse, or at all events of the large 
Rhizostomes, is shown in this paper to be entirely controlled by 
the ocean currents. Consequently where the currents are per- 
manent, the range of a species can only extend in one direction. 

(4) " The Digestion of Sponges, Ectodermal and Endodermal ?" 
by R. von Lendenfeld, Ph. D. 

The earlier experiments, which were made to ascertain where 
the digestive organ of the sponge is situated, showed such different 
results, that the author made a series of experiments on the sub- 
ject two years ago in Melbourne, and was, by the help of these, 
enabled not only to show with a large degree of probability where 
and how the digestion was effected in the sponge which he ex- 
perimented on, but he was also enabled by these experiments to find 
out the cause of the great difference in the results attained by 
former observers. 

The experiments were carried on with Carmine powder, mixed 
with the water of the Aquarium in which the sponge was kept. 

The results the author arrived at were taken up by the recent 
authors on sponges at Home ; and the second part of the question, 
viz., to which Embryonic layer the Epithelia belonged which, ac- 
cording to the author's researches, absorbed the food, was exten- 
sively discussed. The present paper gives an abstract of this in- 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 151 

teresting discussion, and there are also a few additions to the 
author's former statements. 

5. " Remarks on the Coincidence of the Eruption in the Straits 
Settlements and the Red Sunsets," by R. von Lendenfeid, Ph.D. 

In this paper, the author, while recognising the presence of 
dust in the upper regions of air as the cause of the red sunsets, 
and maintaining the intimate connection of these phenomena with 
the great eruption of Krakatoa, does not admit that this dust is 
of volcanic origin. On the contrary, he regards it as cosmic or 
meteoric dust moving in clouds through space in obedience to the 
planetary laws, and in this instance impinging upon the terres- 
trial atmosphere somewhere above Krakatoa. This cloud, 
though consisting of matter in a state of minute subdivision, had 
nevertheless sufficient mass to draw towards it not only the ocean 
water, as evidenced by the protracted period of low water at 
Lyttelton, N.Z., but also so to move and lift the liquid magma, 
which underlies the solid crust, that an eruption at the weakest 
point thereof should necessarily follow. The cloud, in fact, which 
causes the red glow in the evening skies, was the actual cause, and 
not the effect, of the Krakatoa outburst. 

Mr. Macleay said that by the last mail from San Francisco, he 
had received from the author, Professor Garman, of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., a pamphlet, contain- 
ing a description and illustration of a shark of a very remarkable 
form. The fish was 5 feet long, with a diameter of less than 4 
inches, the head was like that of a snake, the mouth large and 
terminal, the teeth resembling those of a snake, and it had only 
one dorsal fin placed opposite the anal. Mr. Garman proposes for 
this Sea Serpent-looking Shark the name of Chlamydoselachus angui- 
neus, and thus characterises the family Chalamydoselachidcs. " Body 
much elongate, increasing in size very little anteriorly. Head de- 
pressed, broad. Eyes lateral, without nictitating membrane 
Nasal cavity in skull separate from that of mouth. Mouth anterior. 
Snout broad, projecting very little. Cusps of teeth resembling 
teeth 01 serpents. Spiracles small, behind the head. One dorsal, 
without spine. Caudal, without pit at its root. Opercular flap 
covering first branchial aperture, free across the isthmus. Intestine 
with spiral valve." The only specimen known, a female, was pur- 
chased from Protessor H. A. Ward, and is said to have been 
brought from Japan. 

Mr. Macleay said he wished to rectify as far as he was 
able at present some unaccountable omissions in the Supplement 
to the Catalogue oi Australian Fishes, just published in Part I , of 
Vol. XL, of the Proceedings. These were — 

Lophotes Guntheri, Johnston. Proc. Roy. Soc, Tasmania, 1882. 

Atherina Tasmaniensis, Johnston. Proc. Roy. Soc, Tasmania, 
1883. 

Olisthevops Brownp, Johnston. Proc. Roy. Soc, Tasmania, 1883. 

Mr. Macleay exhibited for the Rev. T. Wyat Gill a small 
beetle from New Guinea — the firefly of the country — found about 
40 miles East of Port Moresby. It was of the same family as the 
fireflies of Southern Europe, the Lampyridce, though probably a new 
species. Baron Macleay observed that he had noticed in New 
Guinea many other species of this family producing light in the 
same manner. 



1 82 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

ANNUAL MEETING. 

Sydney, 7th May, 1884.— Hon. J. Smith, M.D., President, in 
the chair. 

New members — Messrs. R. B. Baynes, W. A. Haswell, M.A., 
B.Sc , A. M'Cormick, M.B., CM., M.R.C.S.E., and W. W. Mills. 

The annual report, which was taken as read, shows that the 
receipts on general account amounted to ^1013 19s 8d, and the 
expenditure to ^"964 17s gd, leaving a balance of ^"49 is nd. The 
building fund account showed total receipts of ^"444 4s nd, from 
which ^400 had been paid in reduction of the mortgage, leaving 
^"44 4s 1 id in hand. 

The election of office-bearers for the ensuing year resulted as 
follows :— President— Mr. H. C.Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S.; vice-pre- 
sidents—Mr. A. W. Dixon, F.C.S., and Dr. W. Morris; hon. trea- 
surer— Mr. H. G. A. Wright, M.R.C.S.E.; hon, secretaries— Pro- 
fessor Liversidge, F.R.S., and Dr. Leibius, M.A., F.C.S.; members 
of council— Hon. Professor Smith, C.M.G., M.D , M.L.C., Messrs. 
Charles Moore, F.L.S., Robert Hunt, F.G.S., Christopher Rolles- 
ton, C.M.G., W. J. Conder, and P. R. Pedley. 

The retiring President delivered an address describing his 
scientific experiences during a recent visit to Europe. 



Sydney, 4th June, 1884.— Mr. H. C. Russell, F.R.A.S., Presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

New members— Messrs. R. S. Skirving, M.B , CM., F. W. 
Syer, and G. W. Townsend. 

Papers — (1.) " Rain and its causes," by Mr. Edwin Lowe. The 
author advocates, amongst other things, a fair trial of cannon-firing 
to ascertain the truth of its supposed effects in torming clouds and 
causing rain. 

(2.) The removal of bars from the entrance to our rivers," by 
Mr. W. Shellshear, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. 

The removal of bars from the entrance to our rivers is a work 
of national importance, directly affecting as it does the progress 
and trade of the whole group of Australian colonies, and in New 
South Wales especially it is the great step necessary in the develop- 
ment of the abundant resources of our fertile coast districts. A 
paper on this subject may not, therefore, be without interest to the 
members of this society. The coast of New South Wales might 
not inaptly be described as ironbound, the cliffs in most cases ris- 
ing perpendicularly lrom the water, the sea being of great depth 
right up to the shore. It is broken by a few bays and sandy 
beaches, some of the latter being of considerable length ; but deep 
water is invariably found at a moderate distance from the shore. 
The rivers fall into the sea mostly through sandy estuaries ob- 
structed by extensive sand-bars, but in some few instances they 

s into rock-bound inlets of considerable depth, notably in the 
< tse of the Hawkcsbury River. The formation of bars at the en- 
trances of our rivers is mainly due to the action of the waves in 
lifting large quantities ot sand as they pass into shallow water, the 
sand being carried up the estuary by the incoming tide, and is de- 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 1 83 

posited as soon as it is beyond the influence of the waves ; the ebb 
tide, being unassisted by the waves, is unable to cope with the 
incoming sand, and thus we see, when the tide and waves are left 
to themselves, the tendency is to close the entrance altogether. To 
this is to be attributed the deplorable state of our river mouths in 
time of prolonged drought. This point is very forcibly brought 
out in the notes on the Admiralty charts, where it is stated that 
certain entrances are only open after a heavy fresh. The opinion 
that bars are mainly formed by the action of the waves is held by 
many leading authorities on the subject. Mr. David Stevenson, 
F.R.S.E., member of Council Inst. C.E., said (Minutes, Inst. C.E., 
Vol. XXXVI., p. 236): — " It was now thirty years since he pro- 
pounded the theory — and at that time he believed he stood alone 
in holding it — that the bars of the rivers of the United Kingdom 
were due entirely to the action of the sea constantly heaping up 
sand and detritus, and that, but for some counteracting influence, the 
effect of that action would be to form a continuous line of beach 
across the mouths of navigable rivers and estuaries. The counter- 
acting influence to which he referred was that of the tidal and 
river scour. He might say that that theory, now 30 years old, 
had been fully confirmed by his subsequent experience. . . . 
It was further known that those bars were always worst after a 
prevalence of on-shore wind and heavy sea, and were best when 
the river was in flood. . . . The waves were the true ' deposi- 
tors ' of the bar, the river was only an 'excavator,' and there would 
still be all the phenomena of a bar at the mouths of estuaries, 
although the river water did not bring down a single particle of 
suspended matter. . . . If his bar theory, as applicable to tidal 
rivers, was right, it clearly followed that, if the pier heads were 
carried into water of sufficient depth to prevent the waves from 
acting upon the bottom with such force as would throw up sand- 
banks, it would be possible to secure permanently the depth ob- 
tained by extending the piers, because there would be no submerged 
beach thrown by the sea, and the alluvial matter in suspension 
would be carried out with the current." Mr. I. J. Mann, C.E., in 
his valuable paper on thejpmoval of river bars by induced tidal 
scour (" Engineering," \rfl XXVII., p. 108), remarks: — "With 
reference to the bar at the mouth of the Liffey, the author has no 
hesitation in attributing its formation to the combined action of 
waves and current of the flood tide, the former stirring up and- 
keeping in agitation the fine sand of which the bottom of the bay 
is composed ; the lower stratum of the water becomes therefore 
surcharged with sand, which is carried along by the tidal current." 
Sir John Coode, remarking on the formation of bars, says (Minutes;, 
Inst. C.E., Vol. LVIII., p 130): — " They were formed almost en- 
tirely by the sea, some rivers illustrating this in Australia. At the 
Swan River, on the coast of Western Australia, facing the Southern 
Ocean, with very little tide, there was a bar of the worst possible 
description ; while the Yarra, at Melbourne, which discharged into 
a sheltered embayment at the head of Port Phillip, though it had 
a rise of tide precisely the same as the Swan River (about 2 feet), 
had no bar, simply because it was in a sheltered position, and there 
was no heavy wave action to throw up the material to form a bar." 
The same remarks are equally true in the case of the Hawkesbury 
River, the entrance of which is sheltered, and there is therefore no 



1 84 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

bar. The contrary effect is seen in the case of the Richmond 
River, where the entrance is exposed to the wave action ; conse- 
quently a bar obstructs the entrance. We may safely deduce from 
this that in order to cope permanently and successlully with the 
sand, it is necessary to extend artificially the entrance to a point 
where the depth of the water is such that the waves are unable to 
heap up the sand, to make the entrance of such form that the force 
of the waves will be expended before they advance into shallow 
water, and at the same time directing and concentrating the action 
of the ebb tide and upland waters, so that their force may be used 
to the best advantage in combating the mischievous action of the 
waves. Sir John Coode's observations show that the movement 
of the sand from the beach seaward always terminates in about 3^ 
fathoms, and in his works he goes upon the broad principle of 
passing beyond the line of disturbance. (Minutes Inst. C.E., Vol. 
LXX., p. 45.) This demonstrates the advisability, where practic- 
able, of carrying the works out to at least that depth. On dealing 
with the action of waves he says that " the effect of wave action is 
at lease a hundredfold greater than that of the tidal action." And 
if this be so it clearly proves the necessity of breaking the force of 
the waves before they have an opportunity of throwing up sand. 
Mr. Walter Raleigh Brown, M.A., M. Inst. C.E., speaking upon 
the subject, says (Minutes Inst. C.E., Vol. LXX., p. 35): — " In all 
cases ot sand pushing across the mouth of a harbour, the principle 
to be kept in mind, in his opinion, was to concentrate all efforts 
upon one point, in order to keep a clear and deep channel at that 
place.'' Mr. Vernon Harcourt, M.I.C.E., in reply to the discus- 
sion on his paper on "Harbours and Estuaries " (Minutes Inst. 
C.E., Vol. LXX., p. 53), considered that " a harbour should be 
formed with solid piers, starting from the shore at some distance 
apart, and converging at their extremities, which should be carried 
into as deep water as practicable." It may be well at this point to 
examine what has been done in dealing with bar harbours situated 
in similar positions to those on our coasts in other parts of the 
world — that is, bar harbours situated on rapidly shelving coasts. 
The entrance to the Tyne has many points of resemblance to our 
rivers. Upon an examination ot the chart of the Tyne in 1813 it 
will be seen that at that date it was in almost exactly the same 
state as'our principal rivers are at present, namely, nearly blocked 
by a shifting-sand bar, with deep water on either side. A refer- 
ence to a recent chart of the same river shows what a great trans- 
formation has been made in this entrance by the carrying out of 
judiciously planned works. By the construction of the two break- 
waters, starting from the shore at a considerable distance apart, 
approaching each other as they extend seaward into deep water, 
the sand bar has ceased to exist, having been removed by the com- 
bined action of the induced scour and dredging ; the breakwaters 
extending into deep water thus prevent the waves from lifting 
fresh sand, the waves losing their force after they enter on account 
of the widening out of the works, and at the same time the tidal 
scour has been greatly improved by reason of the large area en- 
closed by the breakwaters. The loreshore has only slightly 
advanced, and from the rapidly increasing depth seaward there is 
little danger of any serious trouble from this cause. The entrance 
to the Tees has undergone a somewhat different treatment, the 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 1 85 

river having been taken through the estuary between half-tidal 
groining walls, but these not having proved as successful as the 
Tyne works, it was decided to construct two breakwaters in some 
respects similar to those on the Tyne, one of which has been con- 
structed and the other is in progress, the result so far being most 
satisfactory, for since the completion of the south breakwater, a 
considerable improvement has already taken place, the bar having 
been lowered several feet. The entrance to the Liffey, near Dub- 
lin, is one of the most interesting and instructive examples of the 
successful treatment of a difficult bar. The improvement works 
were commenced in the last century by the construction of the 
great south wall, extending seaward in almost a straight line with 
the river, crossing the low foreshore known as the South Bull 
Sand. The effect of this wall was to fix the direction of the chan- 
nel. Several plans were suggested early in the present century for 
further improving the entrance, and if possible for the removal of 
the bar. Eventually it was decided to construct the great north 
wall, starting some distance up the coast and converging towards 
the end of the great south wall, thus enclosing a great tidal area 
for scouring purposes, at the same time forming, with the south 
wall, a sort of nozzle, directing and concentrating the action of the 
tide on the bar, and likewise protecting the inside harbour from 
the waves. Although these works are placed at great disadvan- 
tage, on account of the shallowness of the sea for some distance 
from the entrance, they have been designed so as to make the best 
possible use of the available scouring power, and their succtss is 
established by the fact that the bar has been lowered to the extent 
of 10 feet. The following figures give a progressive account of the 
effect of these works since their completion : — 1822 — minimum 
depth on bar at low water, 6 feet 3 inches ; depth on bar at stan- 
dard high water, 19 feet 3 inches. 1828 — minimum depth on bar 
at low water, 9 feet 6 inches ; interval 6 years ; rate of increase of 
minimum depth per year, 6*50 inches; increase of minimum depth, 
3 feet 3 inches ; depth on bar at standard high water, 22 feet 6 
inches. 1833 — minimum depth on bar at low water, 10 feet 6 
inches ; interval, 5 years ; rate of increase of minimum depth per 
year, 2.40 inches ; increase of minimum depth, 1 foot ; depth on 
bar at standard high water, 23 teet 6 inches. 1856 — minimum 
depth on bar at low water, 13 feet ; interval, 23 years ; rate of in- 
crease of minimum depth per year, 1*82 inches; increase of mini- 
mum depth, 3 feet 6 inches ; depth on bar at standard high water, 
26 feet. 1873 — minimum depth on bar at low water, 16 feet ; in- 
terval, 17 years; rate of increase ot minimum depth per year, 211 
inches; increase of minimum depth, 3 feet; depth on bar at stan- 
dard high water, 29 feet. An interesting history of the Dublin 
works will be found in Mr. J. J. Mann's paper on "The Removal of 
River Bars by Induced Tidal Scour," published in " Engineering," 
Vol. XXVI, from which paper the above table has been taken. 
Another history will be found in the u Minutes of the Institution 
oi Civil Engineers," Vol. LVIII., in a paper by Mr. J. P. Griffith, 
M. Inst. C. E. From these cases it will be noticed that there are 
certain fixed principles involved in each and all of them. The first 
is that the entrance is fixed at a point in a direct line with the 
direction of the river, and in as deep water as circumstances will 
allow. The second is that the works are so constructed that the 



186 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

force of the waves is dispersed as soon as they pass the entrance, 
on account of the widening out of the works. The third is that 
whilst the flood-tide approaches from all directions, and any 
material it may bring in is deposited near the entrance, as soon as 
it arrives in comparatively still water the ebb-tide and the up-land 
waters having their forces directed and concentrated in a certain 
fixed direction, are therefore able to remove, and carry well out to 
sea, any deposit that may have been left by the flood-tide, and at 
the same time maintaining a straight channel out to sea. Having 
so far endeavoured to bring forward general principles, it is now 
proposed to see how they can be applied in dealing with our rivers, 
and in doing so it must be remembered (to quote the words of Sir 
John Hawkshaw) "that there is nothing more certain than that 
each one must be dealt with according to its own special regime." 
At the entrance to the Hunter River, Newcastle, there is a remark- 
able instance of a natural breakwater, illustrating the advantage 
of protection works (natural or artificial) extending into deep water. 
By referring to the plan of the river taken in 1816 we see a chan- 
nel of three fathoms marked under the lee of a reef extending from 
the mainland to Nobby's Head. But as this reef only afforded 
partial shelter, we find the waves struggling with the tidal current, 
and reducing the width of the channel to very narrow limits by the 
formation of the dangerous " oyster bank." The improvement of 
the reef by the construction of the southern breakwater somewhat 
reduced the " oyster bank," and now the breakwater has been 
extended beyond Nobby's Head. The entrance being thus more 
perfectly protected from the waves, we see a most satisfactory im- 
provement by the widening of the channel and the almost entire 
removal of the " oyster bank," brought about by the comparatively 
undisturbed action of the tidal and upland water scour. At the 
present time the entrance is so far protected by the breakwater on 
the south, and the bay-like line of the coast on the north, that the 
tidal and upland waters have decidedly the best of the situation, 
and thus we see a progressive state of improvement. Although 
this harbour possesses great natural advantages by the position of 
the reef upon which the south breakwater has been built, and by 
the deep water and absence of sand to the south of the entrance, 
it labours under a serious disadvantage on account of the great 
curvature of the river at the harbour, the effect of which, as is 
well-known, is to cause the current to scour out deep holes at cer- 
tains points, and to throw up banks at others, and there is no doubt 
that this action will necessitate a large amount of dredging to keep 
the harbour of uniform depth. In investigating how far the general 
principles set forth above, and illustrated by the works at the Tyne, 
Tees, and Liftey may be applied in dealing with our rivers, it may 
be well to take the Richmond and Clarence Rivers as examples, 
and in dealing with these cases to show how, with modifications to 
suit local circumstances, they may be generally applied to the other 
rivers along our coast. The Richmond River flows through one 
of the most fertile districts of the colony, and is navigable for ves- 
sels of moderate size for some distance from the entrance ; but, as 
is unfortunately the case with most of our rivers, it is blocked by 
a very dangerous shifting bar. The width across the entrance is 
about 3000 feet. The North Creek joins the main river at nearly 
right angles, opposite the centre of the entrance, thus forming a 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 1 87 

somewhat complicated combination. The general tendency ot the 
waves is to heap up the sand-bar across the entire distance between 
the heads, with the exception of a narrow channel under the 
North Head, and occasionally there is a second channel at the 
South Head, but this is not permanently navigable. In attempt- 
ing to improve this entrance, the first thing to be considered is at 
what point should the entrance channel be fixed, and in fixing this 
point it is necessary to study the effect of the tidal waters from the 
North Creek upon the tidal waters of the river, and, if possible, to 
combine them into one concentrated stream, to act jointly upon 
one fixed point on the bar. Looking at the case with the above 
considerations before us, it appears that the best point on which 
to focus our large available scouring power, would be in the neigh- 
bourhood of A on the plan, as near as possible in a direct line 
with the centre of the last reach of the river, and somewhat to the 
north line of the North Creek. Having determined this point, we 
have to consider what works would be necessary in order that the 
tidal and upland water scour might be concentrated at that point. 
Firstly : By the construction of a breakwater starting from the 
South Head, extending seaward for about 2000 feet in an easterly 
direction, the entrance would then be protected from the south 
and south-easterly weather ; at the same time the tidal waters 
would be directed so as to improve the South Channel. Secondly: 
By the construction ot a wall from the pilot station in a south- 
easterly direction, crossing the sand-bank, and terminating by a 
breakwater of about the same length as the proposed south break- 
water, leaving an entrance of about 1500 feet between the extre- 
mities of the works. The northern works would protect the en- 
trance from the north-easterly and easterly weather, which, as is 
well-known, are the principal agents in heaping up bars ; they 
would, in conjunction with the southern breakwater, direct and 
concentrate the tidal action on the bar, thus enabling the ebb-tide 
and upland water to carry the sand well out to sea. Considering 
the large amount of tidal water available, and the great depth of 
the sea a short distance from the entrance, there can be no doubt 
that in a short time after the completion ot these works, there 
would be a sufficient depth at the entrance to enable the largest 
steamer afloat to enter ; moreover, the lower reach of the river 
being protected from the prejudicial action of the waves, and hav- 
ing its direction fixed by the position of the entrance, would soon 
make for itself a permanent deep channel. Judging from the effect 
of the works at Dublin, where an insignificant river has been made 
available for a first-class shipping trade, by the correct application 
ot sound principles, the author has every confidence in predicting 
that if works were carried out on the lines proposed this great 
natural highway, which is now closed to all except small steamers 
and coasting craft, would be available for our first-class inter- 
colonial steamers, the effect of which, as far as enhancing the 
value of property and increasing the prosperity of this district, 
cannot well be gauged or, in these times of advancement, even 
imagined. After the maturest consideration of this case, the author 
feels convinced that by the application of the most modern and 
improved construction, these works could be carried out for a sum 
not exceeding ^200,000 or ^"220,000. The Clarence is undoubtedly 
the most important of all the rivers of this colony running into the 



1 88 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Pacific. It flows through one of the most productive districts of 
New South Wales ; and from the wonderful richness of the soil, 
there can be little doubt that this district is destined to play an 
important part in the development of the great agricultural re- 
sources of this colony. But for the existence of the bar at the 
entrance of this great natural means of internal communication 
Gralton the Clarence district would, there is little reason to doubt, 
be next in importance to Sydney hersell, for with the entrance 
once secured the port would be the natural outlet for the trade, 
not only from the immediate district itself, but from the whole of 
the country stretching away to the table-lands of New England 
and beyond. The pressing necessity, therefore, of removing this 
obstruction to the progress of this important part of the colony 
cannot be over-estimated. In examining this case the same con- 
tending forces are seen at work — namely, the struggle between 
waves and tide, the result being that the entrance has been driven 
into a most awkward corner by the action oi the north-east winds, 
the river being diverted from its straight course into one of the 
most ugly bends imaginable, with the result that, instead of a good 
channel, we see a succession of deep -holes and sandbanks, and to 
make matters worse there are several dangerous sunken rocks in 
this already uninviting entrance. Nature has done much towards 
the removal of this most unsatisfactory state of things, the entrance 
being well protected on the south by the South Head ; moreover, 
an enormous volume of tidal water is available, only wanting skil- 
ful directing in order that it may become a most powerful agent, 
and one that would be more than equal to the task of removing all 
obstructions. Wanting such directing, this great natural power is 
expended in dredging deep holes in places where they are not re- 
quired, and heaping up sandbanks on the site of the much-desired 
entrance ; at the same time, on account of the frequent changes 
of direction, troublesome eddies are formed to further increase the 
difficulties of navigation. There should be no great difficulty in 
fixing the entrance and removing the bar, considering that nature 
has provided perfect protection on the south side ; all that appears 
necessary is the construction of a breakwater to protect the en- 
trance from the north and south-easterly weather. At the same 
time the channel should be straightened by cutting through the 
spit, and deflecting the stream from the south side of the river by 
the construction of a dyke from the south bank to Rabbit Island, 
extending a short distance into the main channel. The break- 
water once constructed, the removal of the spit would be an easy 
matter ; for by cutting a narrow canal parallel with Queen street. 
Huka, the tide would soon complete the work of cutting a good 
channel. The new channel being straight, the banks would more- 
over require but little protection, as they would not be subjected 
to the excavating action inseparable from curved channels. The 
advantages of this plan of treatment must be commendable to the 
most casual observer. Firstly, the entrance being protected on 
the south side by the South Head and on the north by the break- 
water, extending into deep water, the protection from the waves 
is complete. Moreover, the channel being straightened, the tidal 
and upland waters, unimpaired by any abrupt changes of direction, 
would do the work of maintaining and improving the channel, and 
at the same time keeping the entrance clear of all obstructions. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 1 89 

Secondly, the entrance being well protected and in deep water, 
and the channel being straightened and removed from the neigh- 
bourhood of the sunken rocks, the port would be made available 
for the passage of large vessels, and could be entered without dan- 
ger in all weathers. The benefit that would follow the opening 
up ol this seaport, and the increased wealth and prosperity it 
would confer upon this valuable portion of our territory, does not 
require to be enlarged upon in this paper. The straightening of 
the entrance channel would be by no means as formidable an un- 
dertaking as it at first appears, lor with the proposed breakwater 
once constructed, this would be the natural course of the river. 
A remarkable instance of the ease with which the channel of a 
river may be diverted from one bank to the other is given in the 
case ol the Missouri River, where by the construction of a com- 
paratively inexpensive dyke, the centre of the channel of this great 
river was shifted from the west to the east bank, a distance of 
nearly 2000 feet ; and in a few months the river cut for itself a new 
channel many feet in depth. (See Railroad Gazette of New York 
for November 30, 1883.) This case clearly demonstrates the prac- 
ticability of the works proposed for the Clarence. The entrance 
to the Clarence has been compared to that of the Hunter, and it 
has been argued that when carried out on similar lines in the two 
cases should have like results. Careful consideration will show 
that there is but little grounds for such conclusions. The two en- 
trances are alike in this respect, that they are both protected on 
the south by a natural breakwater ; but in the most important 
particular, as far as the treatment of the bars is concerned, the 
cases are widely different, for whilst the entrance to the Hunter is 
in a great measure protected from the N.E. wind by the easterly 
direction of the coast-line between Newcastle and Port Stephens, 
the Clarence is exposed to its full force, and, as is well-known, the 
long prevalence of N.E. winds have a prejudicial effect on the river 
entrances exposed to them, as is evidenced by the heaping up of 
the sand at all such rivers : thus clearly showing the necessity of 
treating each case according to its own special requirements. To 
carry out the works proposed by the author at the entrance to the 
Clarence, would probably cost about ^"150,000 to ^160,000. In 
coming to the above conclusion as to the best method of treating 
the Clarence River, the author has been guided by the experience 
gained in the successful treatment of the Tyne, Tees, Liffey, 
Danube, the Kurrachee mouth of the Indus, and the recent great 
works at the mouth of the Missisippi, in all of which cases the 
object kept in view has been the protection of the entrance from 
the wave action, and improving the scour by making the entrance 
channel as straight as possible ; whereas the existing works on the 
Clarence, in his opinion, merely deal with the " result " brought 
about by the disturbing action of the waves and tide, instead of 
treating with the "cause " by protecting the tidal action from the 
disturbing action of the waves, which would be the case if the 
works proposed by the author were carried out. The entrance to 
the Bellinger River is rather a complicated case, judging from the 
country map and the Admiralty chart, and in the absence of a de- 
tail chart of the river it would be unwise to speculate on the best 
method of improving it. The Nambuccra and Manning Rivers 
have more direct entrances than any of the rivers above-mentioned, 



190 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

and could probably be dealt with by the construction of much less 
stupendous works at a moderate cost. The entrance to the Macleay 
River is one that would require careful study ; but as it is well pro- 
tected on the south by Trial Bay, and having a large volume of 
tidal water available for maintaining the entrance, there should 
be no great difficulty in acquiring a satisfactory channel across 
the bar, the entrance to the Hastings River at Port Mac- 
quarie could be much improved, and at the same time a valu- 
able harbour formed, by taking advantage of the sand-bank 
opposite the town, and constructing a breakwater on the north 
in the direction shown on the map. This breakwater would 
protect the entrance from the noath-easterly weather, and at the 
same time steady the tidal current along the south side, thus form- 
ing a deep channel near the town, and by the increasing width of 
the harbour, the force of the waves in the time of easterly gales 
would be broken ; the current at the same time would be focussed 
at the entrance, and be enabled to keep down the bar. With 
skillful handling many of the inlets that are now practically closed 
for navigation might be made available, and those that at present 
can only be frequented by the smallest craft, might be used by a 
much larger class of vessels. But in all cases the first principle to 
be kept in mind is that the battle has to be fought with the waves. 
As to the best system of carrying out such works as are proposed 
in this paper, great strides have of late years been made in this 
branch of civil engineering, by the use of large concrete blocks 
breakwaters have been constructed at a speed altogether unknown 
a few years since. Thus 710 feet were added to the Manora 
Breakwater, Kurrachee, in less than four months by the use of 
concrete blocks of 27 tons each, placed in position by suitable 
machinery ; at the same time this work was carried out at a very 
moderate cost, compared with similar work under the old system. 
"Many other instances might be quoted, where, by the use of con- 
crete in its different forms works have been rapidly constructed at 
a moderate cost, that would have been well-nigh impossible to 
carry out, except by an enormous outlay, but for the aid of this 
most valuable material. Another great advance has been made in 
the direction of cheapening such works by the use of large mat- 
tresses made of fascine, which, when sunk in position, prevent the 
sand being washed out. Layers of stones are placed on these mat- 
tresses, which in their turn are covered with other mattresses, the 
work being thus well bound together. This system has been used 
with great advantage in America, and has recently been adopted 
in Holland, where the extensive works at the mouth of the .River 
Maas have been carried out on this system at a very moderate 
cost, and at the same time giving great satisfaction. In conclu- 
sion, the author's apology for bringing this subject under the 
notice of the Royal Society of New South Wales, is its vital im- 
portance to the best interests of the coast districts of the colony; 
the improvement of the river entrances being the principal work 
necessary to develop the resources of these rich agricultural lands. 
From valuable instruction in the principles that govern the move- 
ments of solid matter held in suspension by tidal and wave-dis- 
turbed water, imparted by Dr. James Thomson during an engineer- 
ing course at the Glasgow University, and from careful study of 
the subject extending over several years, and from personal in. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 191 

spection of man}- important harbours, the author is convinced that 
all that is necessary to ensure success in the treatment of our 
different rivers is : " The close observation of physical features 
and effects, and the adoption of means to assist the operations of 
nature, instead of opposing them " — that is (as expressed in the 
charter of the Institution of Civil Engineers), " directing the great 
sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man." 



MICROSCOPICAL SECTION. 

Sydney, 12th May, 1884.— Mr. G. D. Hirst in the Chair. 

Dr. Morris exhibited beneath his new microscope, by Powell 
and Lealand, using one of their new formula immersion ^-inch ob- 
jectives, apus corpuscle, having radiating pseudopoaia from a 
case of chronic cystitis. By means of a new staining fluid, to- 
gether with a new medium for mounting, these processes have been 
observed for the first time, and very valuable results are antici- 
pated Irom an extended use of the above methods of preparation. 
Dr. Morris also showed the resolution of the Amphipleura pellucida 
with Powell and Lealand's new formula J-inch immersion objec- 
tives, having a balsam angle of 112-. This is unquestionably one 
of the finest quarters ever constructed, and its performance of the 
extremely difficult task of resolving this famous test could not be 
excelled by objectives of much greater power. Mr. Hirst dis- 
played a living specimen of the Stentor igneus, commonly called 
the Scarlet Stentor, which is at times so abundant as to colour 
ponds a bright red. This Stentor was found in a fresh-water 
gathering from a pond in the Botanic Gardens. 



Sydney, gth June, 1884. — Mr. G. D. Hirst in the chair. 

A letter was read from Mr. Henry Watts, of Collingwood, Vic- 
toria, respecting the successful circulation of the box of slides con- 
tributed by the Sydney friends of the Postal Microscopical Society, 
and extracts were read from the manuscript notebook accompany- 
ing the book, testifying to the interest taken by the leading micro- 
scopists of Victoria and South Australia. It should be mentioned 
that the Postal Microscopical Society is based upon the successful so- 
ciety of that name in England, and its purpose is to afford mutual in- 
tercolonial help in microscopical matters, the exchange of boxes of 
slides illustrating Australasian natural history, together with re- 
marks on, suggestions, and illustrations of the same in an accom- 
panying note-book. Dr. Morris exhibited the first microscope ob- 
jective that has reached Australia, by the celebrated American 
optician Spencer, and the opinion may be expressed that it is equal 
to anything hitherto produced. The glass is Spencer's new i-ioth 
ot an inch homogeneous immersion objective, having a numerical 
aperture of 1-37, and an angle in Balsam of 127-. This glass 
possesses superb resolving power, and performed admirably on the 
highest test, Diatom, Amphipleura pellucida, mounted in phosphorus, 
using a new immersion fluid, " oil of rosin." The markings were 
crisp and clear with the highest eye-piece F. The field was full of 
light and perfectly flat, moreover this definition was obtained 
without the use of stops in the condenser. Dr. Morris called at- 
tention to the " oil of rosin," which had been especially prepared 



1 82 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

by Dr. Hartung of the Botany Stearine Works. Samples were 
shown in a crude semi-translucent state, a perfectly clear fluid, 
mixed with a few drops of oil of almonds, and mixed with half its 
bulk of oil of cedar. In the last three forms it proved to be best 
suited for microscopical purposes, and promises to become a valu- 
able fluid for use with homogeneous objectives. 









SEPTEMBER, 1884.] 



THE 



[No. 5, Vol. II 



NEW ZEALAND (\^pf^ 




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DEVOTED TO THE FURTHERANCE OF 
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Judicio perpende : et si tibi vera videntur 

Dede manus : aut si falsum est, adcinge ra. contra. 



CONTENTS : 

PAGE 

Evolution of the Decapod Zoea, with plate (from u Science") 193 

On the New Zealand Dipterous Fauna. By Baron C. R. Osten Sacken 198 

In Memoriam : F. R. von Hochstetter. By Prof. J. von Haast (with two Photo- 
graphs) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 202 

Notes on Nomenclature of New Zealand Lucanidse. By Dr. Sharp 220 

Oology of New Zealand. By T. H. Potts. ... 222 

On a Decade of New Feroniidse. By Capt. Broun. ... ... ... ... ... 226 

Review — 228 

A Course of Instruction in Zootomy CVertehrataJ, by T. Jeffery Parker. 

General Notes — 229 

Introduced Moths in New Zealand— Peripatus — Pied Specimen of the Black Stilt — Mcera Petriei. 

Meetings of Societies — 231 

Royal Society of Tasmania — Philosophical Institute of Canterbury — Auckland Institute — Otago 
Institute — Linnean Society of New South Wales — Royal Society of New South Wales. 



PKICE, 2s.; ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION, 10s. 

Posted — In New Zealand, 10s. 6d. ; Australia, lis. 



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WANTED TO BORROW FOR A SHORT TIME a Copy 
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good price for a copy. Apply — 

A. Hamilton, 

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DUNBD1N : 

PRINTED BY JOHN MACKAY, 

MORAY PLACE. 




Explanation of Plate. 

Fig i. Protozoea of Lucifer (after Brooks). Fig. 3. Zoea of Panopeus. 
,, 2. Zoea of Gebixi. ,, 4. Telson of Panopeus zoea. 



1 N.Z. Journal of Science " Vol. II, No. 4, September, if 



Vol. II, No. 5, SEPTEMBER, 1884. 



EVOLUTION OF THE DECAPOD ZOEA. 



(Science, Vol. III., p. 513, April, 1884.) 

Principles applicable to adults are often equally applicable to 
larvae. In the discussion of natural selection most writers have con- 
fined themselves to adult animals and their reaction upon environ- 
ment. There is no reason, however, why the principle should 
not be extended to include larval forms ; and, indeed, to a slight 
extent this has already been done. Weismann's " Theory of 
Descent " proceeds upon this line, and indicates some of the im- 
portant results which may arise from such research. 

Crustacean larvae offer particularly good opportunity for work 
in this direction. They are abundant, are easily obtained, and 
readily studied. They present great varieties of form, which are 
frequently not in any degree related to the adult characteristics. 
Indeed, crustacean larvae seem almost like a distinct group of 
animals, and may be studied as such, with the extra advantage 
that they are highly variable, and undergo rapid metamorphosis. 
Some of the possibilities ol such research may be seen by a short 
consideration of the different forms of decapod zoea. 

To make the subject clear it will be necessary to give a brief 
description of three types of decapod larvae, confining ourselves, 
however, only to such points as particularly concern us here. The 
first is the type, which is undoubtedly the oldest, known as the Pro- 
tozoea. It is a comparatively rare form, being found in a few 
macruran species (Pencus, Lucifer, Euphausia). Fig. 1 represents 
such a larva. As far as concerns us, the peculiarities are these : — 
The long bodyconsistsof a large cephalothorax,a more or lesscom- 
plete thorax, and an abdomen. The important point is, that all the 
regions of the body are represented. When viewed from above, 
the part of the body composed of thorax and abdomen is seen 
to be very slender and weak, and to extend for a long distance 
backwards. A second important point is the method of locomo- 
tion ; unlike all other forms, the antennae, instead of being sen- 
sory organs, are used in locomotion. They are large, ■ and 
covered with Svvimming-hairs, which convert them into paddles ; 
and, by moving them to and fro, the protozoea slowly propels 
itself by a series of jerks through the water. The telson is a 
third important feature ; it is small, being in our figure no broader 
than the abdomen ; it is usually forked, and carries a number of 
long spines (typically seven, though the number varies); it is not 
a swimming organ — a point of particular interest. One other 
feature must be mentioned — the usual, though not universal, 
absence of protective spines. 

A second type is that of the ordinary macruran zoea — e.g. y 
the larva of the common shrimp. Such a zoea is represented in 



194 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

fig. 2. Here we find a number of changes. First we see that 
only two regions of the body are present, the cephalothorax and 
the abdomen, the thorax being unrepresented. The cephalo- 
thorax is not very different from that of the protozoea. The 
abdomen is, however, very different : it is distinctly divided into 
segments, all of which are well developed ; it is tolerably thick, 
and is a much more powerful structure than the corresponding 
part of the protozoea. The muscular and usually the nervous 
system is well developed. In short, the abdomen is much more 
perfect than that of fig. i. The locomotion of this zoea is en- 
tirely different from that of the protozoea. It does not use its 
antennae -for moving, but propels itself vigorously with powerful 
strokes of its abdomen, after the manner of the lobster ; at least 
this is its motion when trying to escape danger, and that is all 
that concerns us. In correlation with this changed locomotion, 
the antennas have altered their form, and are now true sense 
organs. On the other hand, the telson has become broadened 
into a flat swimming organ. It is much broader than the rest 
of the abdomen, and is used as a paddle to augment the effects 
of the powerful strokes of the abdomen. It still retains a num- 
ber of spines, but they are usually quite small. 

A third type is the zoea of the ordinary crab. Fig. 3 is such 
a zoea. Here we see a number of striking peculiarities. As in the 
shrimp zoea, we find no middle body — i.e. y the thorax is absent. 
The abdomen is quite small, and always occupies a characteris- 
tic position. Instead of being stretched out behind the body, as 
in the shrimp zoea, it is bent under the cephalothorax as in the 
figure. Still another mode of locomotion is here found. It is 
true that it occasionally uses its tail, but its ordinary locomotion 
is neither with antennae nor abdomen, but by means of its first 
two pairs of maxillipeds. These are very long, and carry large 
numbers of swimming-hairs, and serve as oars, with which the 
zoea paddles itself along. Its motion, while swifter than that of 
the protozoea, is not so vigorous as that of the shrimp. The 
tail has become modified into a form half-way between the tails 
of the other two larvae described. It is somewhat broadened, 
and probably has a slight motor function, but its chief use is 
protection (fig. 4). The most noticeable feature is the very re- 
markable cephalothorax. This is of enormous comparative size, 
entirely covering the body when the abdomen is flexed. It is 
further armed with a number (usually four) of long spines, which 
project in different directions, and are strong and sharp. No 
one can be in doubt as to the use of this arrangement. The 
large cephalothorax, with its resisting spines, serves as a protec- 
tive case for the more delicate organs within ; and, further, when 
the abdomen is flexed, the spines of the peculiar telson are placed 
in such a position as to give additional protection, being then 
directed forwards. 

Now, is there any connection between these three forms, and 
is it possible to discover any explanation for their peculiarities ? 
In the first place, comparative embryology shows good reasons 



EVOLUTION OF THE DECAPOD ZOEA. 1 95 

for believing that the first type, protozoea, is the oldest, and that 
the others are derived from this form. The evidence cannot be 
here deduced, but may be found by referring to Claus, Brooks, or 
Balfour. Assuming then this to be the case, the question re- 
solves itself into the simpler one — What caused the protozoea 
to undergo changes which converted it into the remarkable zoea 

form ? 

A simple experiment, easily performed by anyone at the sea- 
shore, suggests an answer. The experiment is simply to endea- 
vour to catch a specimen of each of these types of larvae with a 
moderately small dipping-tube. It will be noticed that all of the 
larvae seem to have a dread of the suction which is produced by 
the tube, and all will swim away from it unless it be too strong. 
It will be further seen that it is next to impossible to catch the 
shrimp zoea. He darts away with the vigorous strokes of his tail, 
and unless the fisherman is very quick he is gone. Some of the crab 
zoeas will be easily caught, but they will be seen upon examina- 
tion to have doubled themselves up into as compact a mass as 
possible, with all their spines projecting, and consequently in 
position to offer the greatest defence against enemies. Other 
crab zoeas will be found not so easily caught. If the zoea 
fished for be of the species figured, or still better be the larva of 
Porcellana, and the dipping-tube be small, it will be found im- 
possible to catch it. The long spines project so far in different 
directions that the larva cannot enter the tube. Finally the 
protozea will be easily caught ; it swims slowly, and cannot 
escape the tube. Nor does it present projecting spines which 
prevent its entrance into a small orifice. This simple experi- 
ment teaches us four things : — 1st. The dread of suction exhibi- 
ted by all forms indicates that their chief enemies are small 
animals, largely perhaps fishes which swallow them in their 
widely-opened mouth ; 2nd. The behaviour of the macruran 
zoea shows evidently that in its struggle for existence it relies 
for its protection upon its power of flight, and this gives us im- 
mediately a hint as to the meaning of the broad tail ; 3rd. The 
crab zoeas rely for their protection not upon flight, but upon the 
efficacy of their defensive armor, either as an actual defence 
whose resistance baffles the jaws of the fish, or as an apparatus 
which prevents their entering the mouth of a small enemy (this 
consideration immediately explains the use of the excessively 
long spines in Panopeus and Porcellana which seem to be such 
encumbrances to the freedom of the larva) ; 4th. The protozoea 
seems to possess none of these means for protection ; and, indeed, 
in every respect the protozoea seems ill protected. Its slow, 
hesitating motion, its long weak abdomen, its long antennae 
with their numerous swimming-hairs, all render it easily entangled 
by rubbish, and easily caught by any enemy. 

Taking all these points into consideration, we get suggestions 
as to a possible explanation of the remarkable differences be- 
tween the crab and the shrimp zoea — differences which seem 
difficult to understand since the Brachyura and Macrura are 



196 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

evidently so nearly related. All decapod larvae are freely- 
swimming 1 animals, gaining their own living by an active search 
for food ; they are therefore subjected to a struggle for existence 
precisely similar to that of adult animals. The principle of 
natural selection will be as potent to select and modify them as 
it is in selecting and modifying adults. If therefore we assume 
the protozoea as an original form, we must expect to find it in 
many cases highly modified, and must expect in most larvae to 
find, not a protozoea, but a greatly different form, and one better 
adapted for the struggle for existence. Nor must we be surprised 
if the embryologist comes to the conclusion that the modified 
larval stages do not represent stages of ancestral history. 

That the protozoea larva is not well adapted for a struggle 
with numerous enemies is evident to any one who observes how 
easily it is captured. Assuming that this is the early larval 
form, we should not expect from what we know of the workings 
of nature that such an evidently weak form would be preserved, 
except in isolated cases. To adapt such a larva to a more 
effective struggle, there are three methods : the larvae may be 
largely increased in numbers, which would, of course, increase the 
chance of the species for survival ; or they may develop powers 
of flight which will enable them to escape their enemies ; or the 
larvae may develop some sort of defensive armor, which will 
enable them passively to resist all ordinary attacks. Abundant 
examples of each of these methods may be found in almost any 
group of the animal kingdom, but probably no better instances 
than the larvae in question ; and this is all the more interesting 
since it shows that some of the principles affecting adults also in 
a similar way have their influence on larvae. With these points 
in mind, it is possible to explain all of the important differences 
between the protozoea and the two zoea types. 

What explanation can we find for the shortened body ? Two 
explanations for this can be found, both of which probably had 
their influence. The possession of such a long, weak, almost 
functionless hind-body as is found in the protozoea is certainly 
calculated to render its possessor a more easy prey to enemies 
than it would be were the body more compact. The shortening 
may therefore be simply a protective measure. Or a second 
principle has probably had even more influence. There is good 
reason for believing that the amount of energy of a developing 
animal is limited, and, if expended in one direction, cannot be 
employed in a second. If, for example, a child over-develops its 
brain, its body is sure to suffer. Now this principle has had a 
similar effect in our larvae. In the protozoea the energy of de- 
velopment is evenly distributed to all parts of the body. The 
result is, that we find here a larva with almost all of the body 
present, but in a low state of development ; the larva is con- 
sequently comparatively weak If, however, the development of 
a part of the body should be postponed, the parts which did de- 
velop could reach a greater state of perfection, since the whole 
energy of development could be directly turned toward their 



EVOLUTION OF THE DECAPOD ZOEA. 1 97 

perfection. In all existing zoeas the development of the thorax 
has been thus postponed. The zoeas are found, therefore, to be 
much more vigorous than the protozoeas, their muscular and 
nervous system is better developed, and they are in all respects 
more fitted for an active struggle for existence ; and this applies 
equally well to the macruran or the crab zoea, and will assist in 
accounting for the absence of a thorax in the two forms — a 
point which seemed a great difficulty to Balfour. 

In other respects the crab and the shrimp zoea have taken two 
different lines. The macruran type has become modified for its 
struggle by acquiring great powers of flight ; we find its body, there- 
fore, long and slim; but, unlike the protozoea, it is very powerful, 
has well-developed muscles, and a broad, paddle-like tail, which, 
with the assistance of the powerful abdomen, forms an effective 
organ of flight. Everything which might impede its motion has 
disappeared. The antennae are small, and the other appendages 
are such as to present no hindrances. The whole body has 
become adapted to its swift motion. 

On the other hand, the crab zoea has taken a different line, 
and has developed, instead of a power of flight, a defensive armor. 
Its cephalothorax has enlarged, has become strong, and has de- 
veloped a number of defensive spines, whose use has already 
been noticed. Its tail, not particularly needed for swimming, 
has not developed into a broad plate, but has become an aug- 
mentation of the defensive armor by the form and position of its 
spines. Some species have carried this line of development still 
farther, and are provided with enormously long spines, many 
times the length of the body, which effectually prevent their 
being swallowed by small animals. The development of the 
spinous protection would seem to be correlated with the absence 
of a swimming tail. Some species {Pinnotheres, Taticird) which 
do not possess any of these, show a tendency toward a modifica- 
tion of the telson, which has in these cases become quite broad 
and flat. 

We may assume then that at one time the decapods, or the 
stem from which they arose, universally possessed a larval stage 
somewhat similar to the form known as a protozoea. As the 
struggle for existence became more and more severe among 
the Crustacea, modifications arose which took two directions. 
The adults became changed ; and there arose in this way the dif- 
ferent types which we know as Anomura,Brachyura, and Macrura. 
But, at the same time, natural selection had its influence upon 
the adult. The larvae, therefore, also became slowly modified 
for their own protection ; and from the protozoea arose the 
zoea types with their infinite variety. It is quite evident that 
these changes may take place in the larvae without materially 
affecting the adult, for the circumstances bringing them about 
influence the larvae alone. Still it is probable that habits and 
forms of the adult may have some influence upon the general 
shape of the larvae. The larva must eventually transform itself 
into the adult, and the more nearly it approaches the adult form 



T08 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

the less radical will be the change. We can, therefore, under- 
stand why the zoea of the walking animal, such as the crab, 
would develop protective apparatus ; while the zoea of the 
rapidly-swimming macruran would acquire organs of flight. We 
have, therefore, an explanation of the two facts that the larvae of 
the greater groups exhibit a certain unity, while within a given 
genus the different species may widely vary. 



ON THE NEW ZEALAND DIPTEROUS FAUNA. 



BY C. R. OSTEN SACKEN. 



(Communicated by Prof. F. W. Hutton). 

The interest connected with the New Zealand fauna, 
especially as regards its origin and affinities, encourages me to 
contribute my mite towards that subject. 

Our knowledge of the Diptera of New Zealand is, as yet, 
very limited. There are about 120-130 published species, and a 
certain number of unpublished ones may be seen in almost every 
European Museum. I have formed, from different sources, but 
principally from the contribution of Mr. Helms, in Greymouth, 
a small collection of about 80-90 species, many of which are not 
yet published. 

Although it would seem premature, from such meagre ma- 
terials, to draw conclusions concerning the affinities of the fauna, 
still there are methods of enquiry that are safe enough even under 
such circumstances. Small collections, formed at random in 
different parts of the country, by persons not especially interested 
in Dipterology, will necessarily contain the most common forms ; 
and if such collections again and again bring up the same species, 
or at least the same genera, we may safely draw the conclusion 
that such species or genera are characteristic of the fauna. The 
inference would be less safe, if the collections were formed by a 
practised dipterologist, as he would generally have a preference 
for some families, at the expense of others. The comparison of 
such common, characteristic forms with corresponding forms, 
obtained under similar conditions, in another fauna, affords a 
trustworthy starting point for defining the composition of these 
faunas. 

Now what strikes me at once in scanning my small New 
Zealand collection, and mentally completing it with the data of 
the published catalogues, is the abundant presence of groups 
which would hardly be represented at all in collections formed 
under similar conditions in the regions of Europe or of North 
America. 

There is the group of Beridce, represented in Central Europe 
by 7 or 8 species ; small flies, distantly related to Stratiomyidcz ; 
they usually occur among bushes, and in the shadowy parts of 



ON THE NEW ZEALAND DIPTEROUS FAUNA. 1 99 

the woods, either resting or slowly flying. There are other 
members of this group recorded, always in small numbers, from 
different parts of North and South America, a few from Asia 
and Australia. The only country where they seem to be more 
abundant is Chili ; some 19 species are described. Now from 
Greymouth alone I have eight species of Beridce, and I see that 
several other species have been described from other parts of 
New Zealand. 

The genus Helophilus (family Syrphidse) attracts my atten- 
tion next. Six species have been described from New Zealand 
(true Helophili, or closely allied forms), and in my very small 
collection I have, I believe, two new ones. Every collection from 
New Zealand is sure to contain a Helophilus, and most likely 
Hel. trilineatus, one of the earliest of Diptera described from that 
country (by Fabricius, in 1775, from the collection of Sir Joseph 
Banks). Only half a dozen Syrphidce are recorded from New 
Zealand besides Helophilus, so that this genus seems nearly to 
absorb the whole family. Now the representation of the Syr- 
phidce in a collection from any country in the world would be en- 
tirely different ; a small collection from any other country would 
probably contain several species of the genera Eristalis and 
Syrphus, before showing a single Helophilus. From New Zea- 
land not a single Eristalis has been recorded yet, and only three 
Syrphi. 

Of the genus Thereva my collection contains four species. I 
have seen two or three species in other collections. TJiereva 
bilineata was likewise among the Diptera brought home by Sir 
Joseph Banks, and described by Fabricius. In this respect New 
Zealand seems again to be different from all the other faunas 
known to me. Therevcs occur in all parts of the world, but by 
no means frequently ; they are not among the first Diptera that 
fall in the way of the collector. 

The three instances which I have quoted (Beris, Helophilus, 
Thereva) embrace about 25 species (described, or at least repre- 
sented, in collections), a comparatively large percentage, consi- 
dering that the whole number of species at present accessible to 
me (as specimens or as descriptions) is less than 200. And 
this proves thus far that the composition of the New Zealand 
dipterous fauna, I mean the relative proportion in which the 
different groups are represented, is a most peculiar one, more 
peculiar than any other fauna I know of. 

Another mode of enquiry open to us, even with very small 
materials, is to find out whether the collections within our reach 
contain any peculiar, exceptional forms, with a limited or dis- 
connected geographical distribution (especially as contra-dis- 
tinguished from cosmopolitan forms like Tabanus, Tipula, &c.) 
Of such forms I find several among my New Zealand Diptera. 
Limnobice, with pectinate antennae, seem to abound in New 
Zealand, and in this respect the fauna resembles that of Australia — 
I have not had the opportunity yet to determine further how 
close this relationship is. A most interesting New Zealand 



200 , JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Tipulid is Tanyderns forcipatus, described by me in the 
" Vienna Verh. Zool. Bot. Gesellsch, 1879," p. 520; I believe it 
came from the North Island. It is a very aberrant form, the first 
representative of which was found as a fossil in Prussian amber, 
and described by Dr. Loew. I had the good fortune to discover 
a second species in the United States (Atlantic side), and a third 
in California. A fourth species, from Chili, has been described 
by Dr. Philippi ; a fifth from Amboina, by Doleschall. These 
six species are most closely connected by certain characters, and, 
at the same time, by these same characters they are isolated from 
all the other Tipulidae. It is evidently a survival of a bygone 
fauna. 

The well-marked genus Trochobola differs from all the Tipu- 
lidae, by the presence of a supernumerary cross-vein between the 
two last longitudinal veins. The wings of the five or six known 
species are adorned with ocellate brown spots. The geographical 
distribution of these species is remarkable. Two closely allied 
species occur in Europe, principally in the northern and in the 
Alpine regions — they are by no means common ; a third species, 
likewise very closely related, is found in the northern regions of 
North America. Two species, as yet undescribed, have been 
found in New Zealand ; and I remember seeing specimens from 
Tasmania in the British Museum, whether of a different species 
from the New Zealand ones I cannot say. The Arctic area of 
Trochobola is thus separated from the Antarctic by a zone of 
more than 80 degrees of latitude ; nevertheless the species are 
so much alike that an unpractised eye might easily confound 
them. I look upon Trochobola as one of the most remarkable 
instances of a disconnected area I know of. I need not enter 
here into the important questions suggested by it. 

I should have said something now on the species of the cos- 
mopolitan genera that occur in New Zealand, but the poverty of 
my collection prevents me from enlarging on this subject. Seven 
species of Tabanus are described from there, but I do not possess 
a single one of them. Mycetophilidcs seem to be numerous, and 
to have the same general appearance as all over the world. 
Rhyphus must be common, and is represented by two species 
that are exceedingly like the European species, although easily 
distinguished from them. All the species of Rhyphus thus far re- 
corded (from North America, Brazil, Chili, New Guinea, Tas- 
mania) have, as far as I know, the same appearance. A very 
common insect in New Zealand seems to be Oncodes (Hcnops) 
brunneus, Hutton (recently described in Prof. Hutton's Cata- 
logue). I find it in almost every collection. The genus is cos- 
mopolitan ; but in Europe one might collect for a long time before 
getting hold of an Oncodes. In my small New Zealand collection 
there are twenty specimens already. The larvae of these flies live 
in the abdomen of spiders, and it would be interesting to ascertain 
what New Zealand spider is afflicted by that parasite. 

It remains now to notice some European species which I find 
among my New Zealand collection. 



ON THE NEW ZEALAND DIPTEROUS FAUNA. 201 

There is a Syrphus, which must be common, because I have 
ten specimens, both from Greymouth and another locality (North 
Island ?). I cannot distinguish it from the European 5. mellinns 
(xalaris, Fab.) A similar species, which I likewise cannot dis- 
tinguish from the European mellinns, although it has been de- 
scribed under a different name (S. orientalis, Wied.), exists in 
Java and Sumatra. Syrphi are excellent flyers, and are carried 
by the wind to very great distances. I believe, therefore, that 
the species in question may have existed on the island even 
before the arrival of the first European ships. Scalopse notata, 
likewise in my New Zealand collection, has been probably intro- 
duced in ships. A Culex looks very much like the European C. 
nemorosus. Some Chironimi have a very familiar look, also 
toelopa, common among sea-weeds. They will require a closer 
comparison. 

The study of the North American dipterous fauna during 
the last quarter of a century has brought to light a striking 
affinity between that fauna and the fossil one, the fragments of 
which have been preserved in the Prussian amber. Several ex- 
traordinary forms, first discovered in that amber, were found to 
be still living in North America. Such are, among the Tipulidae, 
the Tanyderus (Macrochile, Lw.); the Elephantomyia, a Limnobid 
with a filiform proboscis, as long as the whole body ; an Eriocera, 
with enormously long antennae. Among the other families, 
ArtJiropeas, an intermediate form between Tabanidce and Lep- 
tidce ; Bolbomyia, a dipteron of a very doubtful position, perhaps 
related to the Stratiomyidai ; several Dolichopodidce ; Sphyrace- 
phala, belonging to] the Diopsidcz, the stalk-eyed diptera. Like 
the fauna, the flora of North America still retains many forms 
that are now extinct in Europe, and only found fossil in the ter- 
tiary strata. It is possible, therefore, that the same correspond- 
ence will be found to exist between the flora of New Zealand and 
its dipterous fauna, and that forms of that order of insects may 
be discovered which it will be difficult to place in the now adopted 
families. For some reason, perhaps on account of their greater 
power of rapid spreading, Diptera seem to have been more en- 
during through geological ages than other orders of insects, at 
least I certainly know of more remarkable instances of discon- 
nected, widely scattered areas of distribution among Diptera than 
I have been able to ascertain among other orders. 

It is very much to be desired, therefore, that collections of 
New Zealand Diptera should be formed before the aboriginal 
fauna is too much modified by civilisation. Those most interest- 
ing survivals of past geological ages are generally among the 
rarest of insects, and among the first to be wiped out. 

May this unpretending paper help to promote the interest in 
that subject. 

Heidelberg, Germany, June, 18S4. 



202 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

IN MEMORTAM : 
FERDINAND RITTER VON HOCHSTETTER. 



The telegraph on the 21st of July brought us the announce- 
ment of the death of Dr. von Hochstetter, tidings that even here 
at the Antipodes have given deep pain to his numerous friends 
and admirers. New Zealand owes a great debt of gratitude to 
this eminent scientific man, for the excellent work he has done 
for it, and for the affection and never-flagging interest he showed 
in it to the end of his busy life ; and I personally have lost in 
him a faithful friend, who for . more than a quarter of a century 
has done me innumerable acts of kindness, and whose sterling 
worth and excellent qualities endeared him every year more and 
more to me. 

In offering therefore a notice of his remarkably unselfish and 
busy life, I only try to fulfil a sacred duty to one whose memory 
ought never to fade in this Colony. Though the greater portion 
of the inhabitants of New Zealand know Ferdinand von Hoch- 
stetter only from his published works, there are still many of the 
old Colonists to whom, during his stay in New Zealand, he 
became much attached, and who like myself will feel that his 
loss cannot be replaced ; but to all of them a short history of his 
life — the first part from a biography in Brockhaus' "Conversations 
Lexikon," and the latter part collected from his writings and 
private letters — will doubtless be of considerable interest. 

Two photographs are added in illustration ; the first showing 
Hochstetter when he was in his twenty-ninth year of age, from 
a lithograph drawn by J. Dauthage, of Vienna ; and the other 
from a photograph by H. Harmsen, of Vienna, taken in 1879, 
when the fatal malady to which he succumbed had already 
taken hold of him. 

Ferdinand Hochstetter, born the 30th of April, 1829, in 
Esslingen, Wurtemberg, was the son of Professor Christian 
Ferdinand Hochstetter, principal clergyman of that town, and a 
naturalist of high repute, principally distinguished as a botanist. 
After passing though the grammar school of his native town the 
subject of these notes entered the seminary at Maulbronn, near 
Tubingen, to study theology. However, his love for the natural 
sciences, implanted in his paternal home, soon grew so strong 
that, besides theology, he studied mineralogy, pakeontology and 
geology with great zeal and perseverance. After passing his 
theological examination successfully in 1851, and obtaining the 
degree of Doctor Philosophise in 1852, he left Wurtemberg, 
partly assisted by the Government, for a journey of some duration 
through Europe, mainly in order to enrich his knowledge of 
geology and the cognate sciences. 

In the spring of 1853 he arrived in Vienna, where he soon 
found employment on the Geological Survey of the Austrian 
Empire. In 1854 he was appointed Assistant-Geologist, and 







Ss % 



*& 4 



F. R. VON HOCHSTETTER. 203 

only two years afterwards (1856) Chief Geologist for the section 
Bohemia. It was soon perceived that in his scientific reports he 
had struck out a new path, and that they combined deep scien- 
tific research with sterling practical value, while his vivid 
descriptions of the mountain tract named Boehmer Wald (the 
Bohemian forest), still clothed in many parts with virgin forest, 
abounded in poetical originality. 

He also lectured the same year, during the winter months, as 
" Privat-docent " at the Vienna University, on geology. In the 
beginning of 1857 ne was selected to accompany as geologist the 
"Novara" Expedition round the world, and left Triest with it on 
the 30th of April of the same year. After visiting Madeira, the 
Cape. of Good Hope, St. Paul, Ceylon, the Nicobars, Java, Lucon, 
China, and Sydney, the " Novara " arrived in Auckland on Dec- 
ember 22, 1858. 

Some coal seams having been discovered shortly before near 
that city, the Government requested Hochstetter to examine 
them, which he did with his usual carefulness and conscientious- 
ness. A week afterwards he presented his report to the Govern- 
ment, who were so impressed with its value that through the 
Governor a request was made to the commodore of the " Novara" 
to allow Hochstetter to leave the ship and remain for some eight 
months longer in the Colony as the guest of the country, in 
order that he might examine its geology, physical geography, 
and natural history. This request was after some hesitation 
granted, and the " Novara " left New Zealand on January 8th, 
1859, for Tahiti, without Hochstetter. 

I had arrived in Auckland a day before the " Novara." We 
soon met, understood each other, and gradually we became linked 
together by the warmest friendship, never clouded for a single 
moment, and only severed by death. I cannot help observing 
here that Hochstetter's desire to acknowledge the merits of other 
scientific men, and his total want of envy or jealousy, was so 
great, that though his letters to me contain in many instances 
valuable contributions to the history of geology and the cognate 
sciences for the last twenty-five years, he was so unassuming as 
to his own work that he seldom spoke of it, and then only passed 
it over with a few remarks, while he fully dilated upon the work 
of others with sincere praise. Whenever I wanted more details 
about his own doings, I had to question him repeatedly before I 
could get the desired information. 

Invited by the New Zealand Government, at the express 
desire of Hochstetter, I accompanied him on all his journeys in 
New Zealand, helping him whenever I could to the best of my 
ability ; and thus I had ample opportunity of recognising all the 
eminent qualities of his noble character and great intellectual 
powers. 

During the first two months of his stay in New Zealand 
Hochstetter examined principally the geological formations near 
Auckland ; we then left on March 6th for the Waikato and the 
southern portions of the Auckland Province. During this jour- 



204 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

ney of three months' duration, extensive topographical and 
geological surveys were made, reaching from Whaingaroa and 
Mokau on the west coast, to Maketu and Tauranga on the east 
coast, including Tongariro, Ruapehu, and Lakes Taupo, Rotorua, 
Tarawera, and Rotomahana, with their geysers, terraces, and 
other wonderful phenomena. We returned to Auckland in the 
beginning of June, and after paying a visit to the goldfields of 
Coromandel Peninsula, and to the copper mines of Great Barrier 
Island and Kawau, left on July 28th for Nelson, where he re- 
mained till October 2nd, when he started for Sydney in the 
" Prince Alfred." During his stay in the Province of Nelson he 
visited the goldfields and coal measures of Golden Bay, the Dun 
Mountain copper mines, making also several excursions inland 
and reaching Lake Rotoiti, whence he had a view of the 
high ranges of the central chain, which, to his great regret, he 
was unable to visit. 

Both in Auckland and Nelson the Provincial Governments 
and the public, in order to show their appreciation of his arduous 
labours, made him handsome presentations, which to the end of 
his life he valued most highly, and always showed with pride to 
his New Zealand visitors. 

Hochstetter arrived in Triest in the middle of January, i860, 
and like the other scientific members of the " Novara " expedi- 
tion received many distinctions, both from the Emperor of 
Austria and the King of Wurtemberg, as well as from scientific 
bodies. Shortly after his return he was appointed Professor of 
Geology and Mineralogy in the Technical University (Hoch- 
schule) of Vienna, his lectures to begin in September of the same 
year. 

In the meantime he was occupied in working up his New 
Zealand collections and preparing reports on different mining 
concerns, for which he had not found the time before leaving the 
Colony. In June of the same year he went to London with the 
two Maoris who had shipped to Austria with the " Novara " to 
see them safely on board the " Caduceus," and to study for 
several months the geological and ethnological collections in the 
British and other English Museums. 

Returning to Vienna, he now began to lecture in September 
of the same year. On April 2nd of the following year (1 861) he 
married Gcorgina Bengough, the daughter of an English gentle- 
man who was director of the Vienna gasworks. Even before 
his marriage Hochstetter suffered considerably from a bronchial 
affection, which, however, never prevented him from teaching, 
although at times he was greatly inconvenienced by it. He also 
began now to get together a large collection of geological and 
mineralogical specimens for teaching purposes, the Technical 
University being of recent origin only. 

As it was impossible for him, whilst lecturing; to find time for 
the publication of the results of his journeys in New Zealand, he 
received for the year 1862 entire leave of absence from teaching, 
and he now devoted all his energies to this congenial task, the 



F. R. VON HOCHSTETTER. 205 

first result being his German publication, " Neu Seeland," a stout 
octavo volume containing a popular account of his journeys in 
this Colony, which appeared during April of 1863 in Germany. 
The book, beautifully illustrated, was at once most favourably 
received in Europe, and recognised as a standard work. And 
though Hochstetter had now to lecture again and to work at the 
completion of the Technical High School Museum, he continued 
to prepare his share of the great " Novara " publications, consist- 
ing of the geology of New Zealand and of the other countries 
visited ; while other scientific men of eminence, like Unger, 
Zittel, and others, were occupied in working out the Palaeontology. 

A break in this work was a month's journey in September 
of that year (1863) through Italy, where he visited Vesuvius, and 
carefully studied past and recent volcanic phenomena in that 
classical region. At last, in the end of May, 1864, the " Geology 
of New Zealand," a purely scientific work for the " Novara " 
publications, left the press, forming a large quarto volume and 
abounding in valuable facts and interesting information. About 
this time Hochstetter read also a paper on Nephrite and Dunite 
to the Imperial Academy of Science, of which he had in the 
meantime been elected a member. In the end of December of 
the same year the first half of the Palaeontology of New Zealand, 
also a portion of the " Novara " publications, appeared, contain- 
ing principally a description of the fossil plants by Unger, and 
the fossil shells by Zittel, being a most valuable contribution to 
the better knowledge of the past history of New Zealand. 

The question of prehistoric lakedwellings having been brought 
prominently before the scientiiic world through the remarkable 
discoveries made in Switzerland, Hochstetter was sent by the 
Vienna Academy of Science in September, 1864, to Carinthia, 
and some other parts of the Austrian Empire, to examine into 
traces of similar habitations and to discover new ones, the waters 
of some of the lakes in that part of Europe being at that time 
remarkably low. He acquitted himself of this task very well, 
and brought to light a number of similar lake dwellings, with the 
remains of their kitchen-middens. He also made, shortly after 
his return, a journey to Western Galizia, and examined into the 
occurrence of petroleum, his report on the subject being printed 
in the Year-book of the Imperial Geological Institute for 1865. 

As Hochstetter was of course very anxious to publish an 
English edition of his popular work on New Zealand, he took the 
first steps towards obtaining a publisher in England in October 
of the same year, but all his efforts failed. He then arranged 
with Cotta, in Stuttgardt, who had published the German work, 
to bring out also the English edition, with many additions up to 
date. His manuscript was then translated by a German-American 
gentleman, Mr. Edward Sauter, who happened to be in Germany 
at that time. However, before the printing could begin, Cotta 
stipulated for some guarantee as to the sale of the work ; upon 
which, after considerable negotiations, the New Zealand Parlia- 
ment voted in the end of 1865 the sum of £525 for the purchase 



206 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

of 500 copies. However, by some misunderstanding, the vote 
was not available at the time, and only at the end of 1866 did 
Hochstetter receive the official communication that the above- 
named sum had been placed at the disposal of the English 
agent to receive the said 500 copies. 

And, though I anticipate events, I may here add that he now 
went to work with renewed ardour, leaving out several chapters 
as of not sufficient interest to the colonists, re-writing others, and 
making full use of the publications of his successors in New 
Zealand, of which those of Dr. Hector and my own were most 
extensively quoted. 

He was of course greatly worried about the whole affair, as 
in the meantime he had given a personal guarantee to Baron 
Cotta ; and in one of his letters at the beginning of 1866, ad- 
dressed to me, he cannot help exclaiming, " I have now worked 
for seven years for New Zealand, and do not know when the 
troubles about the English edition will come to an end. The 
large amount of work done has brought me a great deal of 
scientific distinction, but I assure thee materially has yielded me 
very little fruit. However, I do not mind that. I have done 
my duty and redeemed my word, so I feel quite satisfied, be- 
cause I know my friends in the Colony will also have the same 
impression." 

In the same year Hochstetter had 260 students in mineralogy 
and 80 in geology, and though he suffered much from the 
bronchial affection he was subject to, he continued to teach with 
his usual enthusiasm and thoroughness. In the following year 
(1,867) he was elected President ol the Imperial Geographical 
Society of Vienna, a position he held till the state of his health 
in 1882 compelled him to resign that honourable office. As his 
salary was small, and his family gradually increasing, he now 
began the preparation of geological and mineralogical text-books 
for higher schools, which, soon after their appearance, were intro- 
duced in many parts of the Austrian Empire, and raised his 
income to some extent. These books proved that the experience 
he had gained in teaching was now used to the best advantage. 

At the beginning of the same year the second part of Hoch- 
stetter's share in the " Novara " publications appeared, containing 
his geological observations at the Cape of Good Hope, St. Paul, 
the Nicobars, Java, and some other points touched by the 
Austrian man-of-war. This volume is also a valuable contri- 
bution to the knowledge of the countries visited, some of them 
never having been geologically examined before. In April 
Hochstetter went to Paris on behalf of the Austrian Government, 
to report upon the metallurgical products in the International 
Exhibition. Every moment he could spare from teaching during 
the early part of that year (1867) was devoted to the Eng- 
lish edition of his " Neu Secland," to which he continued to add 
new material, or even to re-write some portions — often in the last 
moment before going to press — to bring up the book to the 
latest date. At last, in the end of September, this English 



F. R. VON HOCHSTETTER. 207 

edition, dedicated by permision to the Queen, was issued, 500 
copies being forwarded to the New Zealand agent in London, 
while 700 copies more were either sold in Germany or were sent 
to England and North America. 

Thus for more than eight years had Hochstetter been occu- 
pied with, working up his New Zealand researches, and he writes 
joyfully that at last his task is accomplished so far, though, as he 
says, " his heart is still in that far away beautiful country over 
the sea, where he has spent the nine happiest months of his life." 

His throat complaint gradually getting worse, he went, in 
May, 1868, to Tubingen to consult Professor Bruns, celebrated 
as a specialist in that line, and after having been under his care 
for some time some improvement took place, so that during the 
long vacation in the late summer and early autumn months, he 
could travel in the Bavarian and Eastern Alps, and explore the 
Tatra mountains (High Carpathians). In October of the same 
year he published a small work on crystallography, principally 
for the use of his students. It proved a great success, and 
is distinguished by its clearness and terseness. A few months 
afterwards he published an interesting account of the great 
earthquake and sea wave as experienced shortly before in South 
America, New Zealand, and Australia, with a calculation of the 
depth of the Pacific as deduced from the known velocity of the 
waves across that ocean. 

His throat in the spring of the following year (1869) had now 
become so bad that, judging from his letters, he appears to have 
felt very wretched and downhearted. However, shortly after- 
wards he writes more hopefully, having received leave of absence 
for several months in order that he might act as Consulting 
Geologist to the Directors of the Turkish Great Railway Com- 
pany, about to begin operations, who were very anxious to 
secure his co-operation. In June, 1869, he started from Vienna 
with a considerable staff, and after visiting Constantinople he 
went by Adrianople, Philipopolis, Sofia, Wranga, and Nisih, to 
Belgrad, making from these principal starting points or head- 
quarters extensive geological excursions in all directions. 

During the whole journey, made mostly on horseback, his 
throat never troubled him, but as soon as he returned in the 
middle of October to Vienna the old evil came back with 
renewed force. For the next twelve months, besides giving his 
lectures and attending to his usual official duties, he worked most 
assiduously to bring out the results of his Turkish journey, and 
published them partly in the Proceedings of the Imperial Geo- 
graphical Society of Vienna, partly in the Year-book of the 
Imperial Geological State Institute, and in Petermann's Geo- 
graphische Mittheilungen. These researches brought him ample 
recognition for his careful and conscientious work, through which 
new light was thrown upon some difficult points in the Geology 
of Turkey. 

In connection with these publications I may here add a trait 
demonstrating once more Hochstetter's unselfish character. He 



208 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

sent me these publications and some others of his, together with 
an important work by an eminent Austrian geologist, through a 
German physician, who had requested Hochstetter to give him 
an introduction to me, intending to settle in New Zealand. 
However, this person never made his appearance, nor was the 
parcel of books ever forwarded to me. When my friend became 
aware that I had given up the parcel of books as lost, he scarcely 
alluded to my not having received his own publications, but be- 
wailed the fact that I had been deprived of the excellent work 
of his friend and colleague Von Mojsisovics. I ought here to 
mention that Hochstetter was decorated with the Medjiedjie 
order by the Sultan, for his Turkish geological surveys. 

As President of the Imperial Geographical Society he was of 
course one of the foremost promoters of the first Austrian North 
Polar Expedition, and hailed with great delight the return of 
Payer and Laube, both parties having made important discoveries 
on the east coast of Greenland. Lieutenant Payer on board the 
11 Germania " returned safely to Bremerhafen ; while Dr. Laube 
with his party, after the loss of the " Hansa," travelled on a drift- 
ing icefield to the southern point of Greenland, where they were 
rescued. 

In the beginning of May, 1871, Hochstetter lost his eldest 
daughter, Julia, ten years of age ; and this loss was long and 
deeply felt by him, though, as he says, the enormous amount of 
work he had to get through was now of some comfort to him. 
He still continued preparing for publication his researches on the 
geology of Eastern Turkey, and also began a handbook of 
geology for the use of Grammar and " Real " Schools, which was 
published towards the end of that year in Prague, a second 
edition appearing in 1875. It also formed part of a General 
Geography (Allgemeine Erdkunde), for which Dr. J. Hann wrote 
the geographical and meteorological portions, and Dr. A.Pokorney 
the biology ; — an excellent work which has had several editions, 
and fully deserves the high estimation it is held in. At that 
time he published an Atlas of 24 Geological Pictorial Views, 
with letterpress, which were also most favourably received. In 
the autumn of the same year (1871) he tried the thermal springs 
of Carlsbad for his throat complaint, but again in vain ; and he 
writes now as if he had given up all hope of getting rid of it, 
though it interfered much with his public duties. 

After having made a short excursion into the Alps, he returned 
to Vienna, and continued to work with the utmost zeal to get the 
necessary funds together for a second Arctic Polar Expedition, 
intended to start as soon as possible, for which the sum of 
£20,000 was required. In February, 1872, a steamer, the 
" Tegethoff," was already secured, only £8000 more being wanted, 
and his whole energy being taxed to the utmost before that sum 
was obtained. Further work was now put on his willing shoulders, 
as member of the Imperial Commission for the International 
Exhibition, to be held in Vienna in 1873 ; and his first care was 
to urge upon his friends in New Zealand, with whom he was in 




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F. R. VON HOCHSTETTER. 209 

more or less regular communication, to exert themselves that 
the distant islands he cherished so much should be well represen- 
ted. At that time he had just received the third volume of the 
Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, a publication which 
he always expected with the greatest impatience, and he writes 
full of pride that he is connected with a country so far distant 
from his own fatherland which, " in so short a time after its 
existence can bring forth such valuable contributions to science." 

In August, 1872, he started again on a longer tour to the 
Ural and Eastern Siberia, this time as consulting geologist to a 
large mining association ; returning to Vienna after a harassing 
and arduous journey of seventy days, and feeling this time in very 
poor health. 

But now a most honourable distinction awaited him, the 
Emperor of Austria appointing him scientific lecturer to Crown 
Prince Rudolph, the lectures to begin in November, 1872. If 
anything were necessary to show in what high estimation 
Hochstetter was held in the country of his adoption, the fact 
that a Roman-catholic sovereign entrusted the scientific education 
of his son and heir to a protestant with well-known liberal 
principles, ought' to be conclusive. It may here be stated that 
during more than two years, during which these lectures continued, 
h'e acquitted himself so honourably of this task, that the Crown 
Prince to the end of Hochstetter's life looked upon him with 
respect and high regard, and that the Emperor himself showed 
by the great distinctions and appointments he conferred upon 
him that he had fulfilled his duties to the entire satisfaction of 
the latter. 

Hochstetter continued to urge upon Dr. Featherstone, then our 
agent-general in London, the necessity for obtaining as good repre- 
sentations of New Zealand as possiblefor the Vienna Exhibition, 
assuring him and other New Zealand friends that "he would cheer- 
fully work and toil for that beloved country to the end of his 
days." As the New Zealand exhibits arrived very late, Hochstetter 
worked day and night to get them ready ; the more so as the 
three Moa skeletons, sent by the Canterbury Museum, and a 
large collection of bird skins had first to be articulated and 
mounted. After five weeks' incessant labour, with five assistants, 
the whole was at last, by the end of June, ready to be placed in 
position, nearly two months after the opening of the exhibition 

After having finished this arduous task, he left for a longer jour- 
ney into the Austrian Alps, with the Crown Prince Rudolph, 
now fifteen years of age, and returned only in the end of Sep- 
tember, after having spent a delightful time at Ischl, in Upper 
Austria. 

The love of nature so strongly developed, the interest in all 
scientific pursuits always exhibited by the highly-gifted Crown 
Prince of Austria, who has since earned a high and well-deserved 
reputation as an able ornithologist, may in a great measure be 
traced to the teachings of an enthusiastic, pure-minded, and re- 
markably well-informed man like Hochstetter, who was well 



210 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

aware of the importance of the great charge and responsibility 
he had undertaken. 

I have only to allude to the opening address of Crown 
Prince Rudolph as Patron of the first International Ornitholo- 
gical Congress in Vienna, on 7th April of the present year, in 
which he pointed out with considerable force the importance and 
value of the study of natural history as pursued in the present 
century, an address of which any scientific man might well be 
proud. 

The Crown Prince had to pass a very severe examination 
before the Emperor in the middle of May, 1870, which he did 
most satisfactorily, and procured Hochstetter the expression of 
the high satisfaction of that Sovereign. To show this more fully, 
the Emperor created Hochstetter an Aulic Councillor, a very 
high distinction in Austria; and shortly afterwards conferred upon 
him a patent of hereditary nobility. 

Towards the end of September Hochstetter left for Hamburg 
to receive officially, as President of the Imperial Geographical 
Society, the officers and men of the second Austrian-Hungarian 
Expedition, which had started more than two years before for 
an exploration of the Arctic regions, in the steamer " Tegethoff." 

After discovering Francis Joseph Land, they had been ob- 
liged to leave the ship, and after a most adventurous journey of 
96 days in open boats, had at last reached Nova Zembla on 
August 24th, where they fortunately met the Russian schooner 
" Nicolai." This vessel brought them to the northern coast of 
Norway. Hochstetter writes with the greatest delight of the 
successful issue of this memorable voyage, and of meeting again 
the two brave leaders Weyprecht and Payer. 

At the end of 1874 the Crown Prince ceased to be Hoch- 
stetter's pupil, but the friendly relations between them continued 
doubtless to the end of the latter's life. 

My friend, who had never given up his position as Professor 
at the Technical University, could now devote more time to 
teaching ; and, having been elected rector for the year 1875, addi- 
tional work was laid upon him. Nevertheless he managed, even 
at that particularly busy time, to get some interesting collections 
together for the Canterbury Museum, showing once more that he 
was always ready to procure for me what I especially wished. 
In fact, in every department of the Canterbury Museum valuable 
specimens abound, obtained through the friendly assistance of 
my departed friend, who under all circumstances always cheer- 
fully went to work for me. 

In the autumn of the same year Hochstetter went to the 
International Congress of Geographers held in Paris, and after- 
wards to the meeting of the German Naturalists at Gratz, where 
he had the enjoyment of meeting many distinguished friends 
from all parts of the world. 

In May, 1876, he was appointed Imperial Intendant (Direc- 
tor General) of the Imperial Museum, which was to contain 
all the zoological, botanical, mineralogical, geological, and 



F. R. VON HOCHSTETTER. 211 

ethnological collections, and the erection of which on a 
truly magnificent scale had been commenced three years 
previously. It was expected that this grand building, one of 
the greatest ornaments of Vienna, in which all these col- 
lections, now scattered in separate buildings, should be united, 
would be ready in about five years further, or about 1881 ; but, 
as will be seen in the following pages, my poor friend did not 
live to see it opened to the public. Directors or custodians for 
the several departments had been appointed, with the exception 
of the geological and palseontological, anthropological, and eth- 
nographical divisions, the direction of which he retained for 
himself. 

Notwithstanding that the whole direction and organisation 
was placed in his hands, entailing upon him an enormous amount 
of work, he continued to retain his position as Professor of 
the Technical University up to August, 1881, when at last he 
was relieved by being pensioned, and could now devote his 
undivided attention to the Museum, the grand buildings of which 
were now far advanced and nearly ready for occupation. Hoch- 
stetter had his whole heart and soul in this congenial task, and 
he dwells repeatedly upon the fact that both of us at the different 
ends of the earth try to create institutions vvhich shall combine 
strictly scientific aims with general public interest. 

Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, in an address to the Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society, as reported in Nature, Dec- 
ember 7, 1876, speaks of the new Vienna Museum, to contain 
five principal divisions, each with a proper reference library 
attached to it, in the following terms : — 

" With regard to the arrangement of subordinate parts in a 
museum, that which is now being carried out in the Imperial 
Museum at Vienna, under Dr. F. von Hochstetter, seems to me 
the best : to form one lineal series', inorganic objects forming the 
base ; then palseontological specimens, illustrating the life which 
has been, and leading up to the illustrations of the life which is 
now on the earth — botany, zoology, anatomy, and the like. 
When this is completed the Museum of Vienna will present a 
more perfect and complete history of the knowledge of the 
earth and its inhabitants than has as yet been presented." 

In the summer and autumn of the same year (1876) Hoch- 
stetter made some journeys in Belgium, Holland, Denmark, 
and Northern Germany, in the interest of the Imperial Museum. 
In Brussels, where he went at the invitation of the King of the 
Belgians to a meeting of the Presidents of Geographical Societies 
and eminent African travellers, to discuss systematic African 
exploration, he was the guest of the King, who treated him 
with marked respect. 

In January, 1877, Hochstetter was at last able to send com- 
plete sets of the publications of the " Novara " expedition to 
different institutions in New Zealand, so that nearly seventeen 
years had been necessary for its completion. However, consider- 
ing the enormous amount of matter to be worked out by so 



2 12 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

many scientific men, and the preparation of many hundreds of 
plates, it is evident that it could not well be issued in a shorter 
space of time. It will always remain a proud monument to the 
honour of the Austrian Government, and of the able'enthusiastic 
men to whom the navigation and scientific researches during that 
memorable voyage were entrusted. 

To show how Hochstetter took an interest in every important 
subject occupying public attention at the time, I may here men- 
tion that during this year he worked out a scheme for the 
construction of main railway lines in Asia, which was published 
and received honourable notice. 

Another subject, causing him also a great deal of exertion, 
was the engagement of a first-class taxidermist for the Canter- 
bury Museum, which after some time and a great deal of corres- 
pondence he was able to execute by sending out to us Mr. A. 
Reischek, of Vienna, for that post. The amount to be devoted 
to the publication of my Report on the Geology of Canterbury 
and Westland being rather limited, it was decided t<3 have the 
illustrations for that work printed in Europe, and Hochstetter, 
with his usual kindness and readiness to help me, undertook in 
the beginning of the same year (1877) the selection of the firm 
to whom the work was to be entrusted ; and he made such a 
good choice that the whole was executed in excellent style and 
at a moderate cost. 

During that year, besides lecturing as usual, he continued to 
devote all his time to settling the final plans for the future 
arrangement of the collections in the new Museum building, and 
obtaining by purchase and exchange large series of those objects 
in which the Vienna collections were deficient. 

In September the Geological Congress met in Vienna, during 
which his hospitable house was one of the principal attractions 
for his brethren of the hammer. On the 1st October of the same 
year he also took charge of the Mineralogical Museum. At the 
same time he had over two hundred students, to whom he had to 
lecture on mineralogy and geology ; so that, with the new bur- 
den added, notwithstanding that he had a wonderful capacity for 
work, it is not to be wondered at that he sometimes felt rather 
depressed. 

However, at that time he was able, to his great enjoyment, 
to show some attention to one of his oldest New Zealand friends ; 
and in the beginning of January, 1878, he writes full of joy that 
he had the great pleasure to spend Christmas and New Year's 
Day with our mutual friend, Dr. Carl Fischer, and his family, 
who for some months went to live in Vienna, and he adds : — "I 
am quite revelling in New Zealand reminiscences. I see the 
beautiful Auckland Harbour again before me ; all the olden 
times come back, and only thy presence is wanting to make me 
feel quite happy, though we are both getting old and grey." 

The Museum buildings were now so far advanced that at the 
beginning of that year (1878) the preparation of the designs for 
the show-cases, of about thirty different forms and sizes, could 



F. R. VON HOCHSTETTER. 21 3 

be proceeded with. The cost was estimated at about .£30,000, 
and the whole brought renewed care to one who had already his 
hands more than full. However, he found time to make in 
April and May a short journey to Berlin, to be present at the 
fiftieth anniversary of the Geographical Society of that capital, 
and visited afterwards the principal North German Museums. 

Though on his return, as he says, " he does not know where 
his head stands from trouble and work," he now took the 
necessary steps, " as a sign of his affection for New Zealand and 
friendship for me," to get together that magnificent metallurgical 
collection which is one of the great features of the technological 
series in the Canterbury Museum. He not only addressed him- 
self to the principal mining centres in Europe to get the desired 
material, but he also obtained from the different managing 
directors of the Austrian State mines sets of specimens, which it 
is impossible to procure through dealers, and which are thus of 
special value from their undoubted authenticity. 

He still devoted a great deal of time and attention to pre- 
historic researches, superintending excavations in several parts 
of the Austrian Empire, and collecting large series of antiquities, 
many of these of primary importance for tracing the early history 
of the different people who one after another had come to inhabit 
that portion of Europe ; and in order to continue this work more 
fully, he was at last obliged to give up lecturing for that year. 
Thus for a month he was in Krain, partly directing excavations 
in limestone caves which yielded splendid results, consisting 
principally of skeletons of the extinct cave bear. In the same 
country a number of prehistoric burial places were also examined, 
during which much interesting material was collected. For 
similar purposes he went also to Bohemia and afterwards to Hall- 
statt, in the Austrian Alps, where a number of human skeletons, 
and with them a large number of bronze ornaments, weapons, 
and implements, rewarded his researches. And finally, in Octo- 
ber of the same year, he went to Paris to visit the International 
Exhibition, and to purchase any available specimens required to 
fill up gaps in the Vienna collections. He also was presented, 
to his great satisfaction, by the French Minister of Marine with 
an extensive series of ethnological objects collected in the 
French Colonies. 

The New Museum building gradually advancing to com- 
pletion, Hochstetter began now to calculate with a certain 
degree of probability when he would be able to take charge of it, 
and he was at that time in great hopes that he would be able to 
begin with the arrangement of the collections early in 1883, so 
that about this time everything would have been ready for the 
opening. However, matters did not advance so smoothly and 
quickly as he anticipated, and he was not even able to superin- 
tend personally the transmission of the specimens when in the 
month of June of this year a beginning was at last made. 

Though he says at the beginning of 1879 tnat nis throat 
complaint was now quite chronic, he had to lecture again ; and 



214 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

reading between the lines in his letters, he seemed to me to feel 
that he could not render due justice to his students at the 
Technical University and at the same time push forward as 
much as he ought the great Museum under his charge. 

That year (1879) was in every respect a very busy one for 
him. Lecturing, purchases for the museum, administrative 
duties, and a few excursions into the country, principally into 
Krain for directing excavations in pre-historic burial places, were 
the principal events. In May, after a great deal of delay, and 
consequently of correspondence, he was at last able to send the 
first and principal portion of the metallurgical collections made 
for the Technological Department of the Canterbury Museum, 
packed in seven large cases, with the " Helgoland," an Austrian 
man-of-war, bound for Sydney, with the Austrian Commissioners 
for the International Exhibition on board. This vessel had re- 
ceived instructions to pay, after a short stay in Sydney, a visit 
to New Zealand, and after calling first at Wellington to come on 
to Lyttelton. 

However, the commander, Captain Pichler, on arriving in 
Sydney, received counter orders, so he had to return to Triest 
by the direct route via the Suez Canal, and thus had to forward 
our cases by one of the Union steamers. I regretted this very 
much, as I should have liked to see the Austrian flag fly once 
more in New Zealand waters. 

Towards the latter half of the year (1879), Hochstetter's 
health declined still more. He now began to suffer greatly from 
a complaint in his legs, considered by his physicians to be of a 
nervous character, which was so painful that he could not sleep. 
Especially during the exceptionally hard winter of 1880 it became 
very distressing ; but nevertheless he continued to lecture and 
attend to his other duties. 

In the beginning of that year (1880) he could advance a stage 
further by ordering a portion of the show cases for the new 
Museum, but, he says, it is " a hard trial of patience " to find 
that everything goes so slowly that after all, before the year 
1884 the new building would not be ready for occupation. The 
same year saw him as zealous as ever, though he continues to 
complain most bitterly that he has now not only to give up geo- 
logical excursions with his students, but that " he can only make 
the necessary business walks in Vienna with trouble and pain." 
The evil complained of became gradually worse, his hands being 
now affected in a like manner. 

He thinks, as he says in one of his letters written at that 
time, " that through the constant work and worry one becomes 
prematurely old. Fortunately (he adds) my children develop in 
a most satisfactory manner, and give me infinite pleasure." 

Nevertheless he went in May for a few weeks to Bohemia in 
order to superintend some explorations of prehistoric burial places. 
His election as correspondent by the Geological Society of Lon- 
don is also mentioned by him as having afforded him genuine 
pleasure, though personally I consider it an oversight that this 



F. R. VON HOCHSTETTER. 21$ 

well deserved compliment was not paid much sooner to one who, 
by his geological explorations of an English colony, had so 
greatly distinguished himself. This is another proof of the un- 
assuming character of Hochstetter, who, though in constant con- 
tact with eminent English geologists, evidently never complained 
or put himself forward, or this omission would surely have been 
rectified long before. The Royal Geographical Society of London 
had, however, some time before elected him an honorary corres- 
ponding member. 

Before he left in August of the same year (1880) 'for the 
Island of Riigen in the Baltic, to try sea-bathing for his nervous 
complaint, which had become so bad that he could scarcely walk, 
he again forwarded several cases for the Technological Museum 
in Christchurch, and continued in many ways to show his never- 
flagging interest in the advancement of the Institution under my 
charge. 

Before reaching the Baltic he visited first the pre-historic 
Exhibition in Berlin with considerable pleasure, and after his 
stay on Riigen he went to Stockholm, where he derived great 
enjoyment from his intercourse with Baron Nordenskiold. On 
his return journey he stayed several days in Copenhagen, always 
bent upon enriching the Museum under his care. 

Though the state of his health had not materially improved, 
he found himself much refreshed after the comparative rest of a 
few months, and now began to use a Swedish gymnastic cure, 
from which he hoped to derive better results than " from electri- 
city or medicine." 

In the beginning of the year 1881, at least some rooms on the 
first floor of the new Museum building could be used for offices, 
work-rooms, and for placing sample show-cases. The first col- 
lections he appears to have arranged here were the ethnological 
objects from New Zealand, which, as he tells me with pride, 
filled a case about eight feet high and eighteen feet long. The 
work became so arduous that he was at last obliged to resign his 
professorship at the end of July of the same year, and he could 
now devote all his energy to his duties as Director-General of 
the Imperial Museum. 

In the beginning of August he went with the whole of his 
family to Gallenegg in Krain, a most romantic spot, to bathe in 
the tepid springs. This, together with the glorious mountain air, 
improved his general health, without, however, freeing him from 
his nervous complaint. During this visit he superintended also 
extensive excavations on a prehistoric, so called Celtic, burial 
place at Watsch, a few miles distant from Gallenegg, the results 
of which were of remarkable bearing. 

After his return the arrangements for ventilation and heating 
(hot water apparatus) were next to be attended to, but owing to 
various circumstances many months elapsed before this important 
work, for which the estimates reached a sum of £5 2,000, was 
proceeded with ; and poor Hochstetter, feeling in constant pain, 
fretted about all these delays, as if he felt that if the work were 



2l6 JOURNAL OF SCIKNCh. 

not brought to a speedy termination he would not be able to 
proceed with the final arrangement of the new Museum, to which 
he had devoted so much careful and anxious thought. 

On the 1 2th of December of the same yearthe Imperial Geogra- 
phical Society of Vienna, under the presidency of the Crown Prince 
Rudolph, celebrated the 25th anniversary of its foundation, which 
was in many respects a festival in honour of Hochstetter, who had 
then been its president for fourteen years. The members of the 
Society # had his bust, life-size, executed in white marble by Victor 
Tilgner' an excellent Austrian sculptor, and placed it on that day in 
their great hall.* At the unveiling of the bust many of the most 
eminent men of the Austrian Empire were present to do honour 
to the man who, from his general scientific attainments and great 
merits for the advancement of the Society, was considered 
worthy of such high distinction. The address that he delivered 
as President on that day is in every respect a model, in which 
thorough knowledge of the subject treated, and sincere desire to 
acknowledge the merit of others, are harmoniously blended together. 
A further step was now being made in selecting the subjects 
of large appropriate oil paintings to be placed in each room of 
the new Museum buildings. There was room for one hundred 
and seven pictures on each floor, all of them to be six feet high 
and from three to thirteen feet long. 

Hochstetter's 'first care seems to have been that New Zealand 
should be properly represented, so in April (1882) the following 
subjects had already been selected: — The Francis Joseph Glacier, 
Rotomahana, the Southern Alps as seen from the West Coast 
(from a sketch of mine), and a Maori Pah, for one of the ethno- 
logical rooms ; and he was very anxious to get as much material 
from me, principally good foreground studies, as I could procure 
for him. Since then the subjects for two more New Zealand 
views have been chosen by him. 

In May of the same year Hochstetter went to Wilhelmsbad, 
near Cannstadt, to go through an electric cure. He stayed there 
five weeks, but unfortunately without the least effect ; on the 
contrary, the state of his health grew worse, so he gave it up at 
last and returned to Vienna, much disheartened, and now con- 
vinced that nothing would help him to regain his health. After 
his return he continued to work with his usual ardour, in order 
to prepare as far as possible everything for exhibition in the 
new Museum, trying to fill up any conspicuous gaps in the dif- 
ferent departments, and amongst other things he wrote to me re- 
peatedly to procure him a greenstone mere, which he had never 
been able to obtain before, as well as the rude appliances used 
by the Maoris for cutting nephrite. 

With the exception of a journey into Styria during a few 
weeks in July, he did not leave Vienna during that year (1882), 
as travelling had become very painful to him. At that time, as 
for some years previously, he often thought that if he could only 

* A fine copy of this bust has been placed in the Technological Hall of the 
Canterbury Museum. 



F. R. VON HOCHSTETTER. 217 

find time to pay New Zealand a visit, his health would certainly 
improve ; but owing to the heavy responsibilities he had under- 
taken, and his great conscientiousness never to shrink from what 
he considered his duty, he put aside all thoughts of gratifying this 
favourite wish. 

He was now obliged to throw up all his honorary appoint- 
ments one after another, as they compelled him to go into town 
at night, the last of which, the presidency of the Imperial Geo- 
graphical Society, he resigned, evidently with deep regret, towards 
the end of the year (1882), when the Society elected him its 
honorary president. I may here mention that Hochstetter since 
his marriage had been living at Oberdobling, a charming spot a 
few miles from Vienna. 

Towards the end of that year he again sent four cases to the 
Canterbury Museum, containing many valuable geological and 
ethnological objects that he had procured for us. 

On the 8th March of the following year (1883) he read a very 
interesting paper to the Vienna Academy of Science on the 
discoveries lately made in the prehistoric, so called, Celtic burial 
places in Krain, from which he drew the conclusion that they 
belonged to an Arian people, who, coming from the far east one 
thousand to two thousand years before the Christian era, had 
first settled in Austria, and then, crossing the Alps, had gone to 
dwell in Italy. He further showed that the oldest Etruscan 
remains can also be traced to this remarkable prehistoric people, 
its civilisation preceding that of the Grecian, Second Etruscan, 
and Roman Periods. 

A cold-water cure at Kaltenlentgeben, near Vienna, was tried 
in June ; and a second visit was made to Gallenegg, in Krain, 
where he stayed five weeks in the autumn with his family to 
bathe in the tepid springs, but unfortunately without the least 
effect, the nervous complaint, now traced to the spine, becoming 
gradually worse. But notwithstanding this state of constant 
pain, Hochstetter never lost his enthusiasm for work, and he 
writes with delight that already twenty of the large oil-paintings 
— some of them twelve feet long and six feet high, and amongst 
them several New Zealand views — for the decoration of the new 
Museum rooms were now ready, and that they were exhibited 
and much admired at the International Electric Exhibition held 
in the autumn of last year in Vienna. 

During his stay in Kaltenlentgeben he had the pleasure of 
hearing of Dr. and Mrs. von Lendenfeld's successful ascent of 
the Hochstetter Dome in the Southern Alps, in March of last 
year, and he, as usual when New Zealand scenery is concerned, 
was greatly pleased that such a feat had been accomplished by 
two Austrians. He had also taken a warm interest in Mr. 
Green's ascent of Mount Cook the year before. Whilst at 
Gallenegg he had again considerable excavations made at 
Watsch, that locality having previously given such excellent re- 
sults, and once more yielding a great quantity of objects in bronze 
and burnt clay. 



218 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Last November he had the pleasure of receiving a visit from 
Sir John Hall, when he was again able to indulge in New Zea- 
land reminiscences ; and his letter telling me of this meeting is 
full of delight at having thus once more come in contact with an 
eminent colonist of these far-off Islands, for which he had such 
great affection. 

Although his health continued seriously to decline, he worked 
constantly, besides his other official duties, at two papers, of 
which the copies sent to me arrived shortly before the telegraphic 
news of his death reached New Zealand. The first treats of 
Mexican relics discovered by him in the Ambrose collection in 
Tyrol. Amongst them is the battle-axe of Montezuma, and a 
feather standard which also belonged most probably to that 
unfortunate monarch. They were sent with many other objects 
by Ferdinand Cortez to the Emperor Charles the Fifth, who in 
his turn presented them to his brother, Arch-Duke Ferdinand, 
the founder of that celebrated Ambrose collection from which, 
by direction of the Emperor Francis Joseph, all the principal 
ethnological and mineralogical objects had been selected by 
Hochstetter for removal to the New Imperial Museum in Vienna. 

The second paper, Das K. K. Hof Mineralien Cabinet, read 
at the meetings of the Imperial Geological Institute of Vienna 
on February 5th and 13th of this year gives a most instructive 
account of the contents of the celebrated Imperial mineralogical 
collection, with Hochstetter's plans of exhibiting it in the new 
building. 

At last, in the middle of March, he was compelled to take to 
his bed, owing to disease having set in in one of his feet. The 
last letter I received from him before the telegraphic announce- 
ment of his death arrived here is dictated on the 4th of April, 
when already three weeks in bed, to his son Arthur, who, as he 
proudly informs me, has just passed his first medical examination 
(Rigorosum) with distinction ; but Hochstetter writes still most 
hopefully, giving an account of the present state of the Museum 
buildings — that the rooms for the zoological collections are 
ready so that the show cases can be placed in them, while the 
rooms for the geological, mineralogical, and palgeontological 
series can only be used next autumn, and that already fifty of 
the large oil paintings are finished. He also wished photographs 
and sketches for the artist, who has been commissioned to paint 
a panoramic view of Milford Sound. These of course I sent at 
once, but they would just arrive when my friend had closed his 
eyes for ever. 

At the end of June I received a letter from my friend, Dr. 
Otto Finsch, who had visited Hochstetter in May, and who tells 
me that the real cause of his disease had now been pronounced 
as diabetes, and that there was not the least hope of his recovery ; 
the telegram received here from London on the 21st of July 
unfortunately confirming that statement. 

I had thus given up all hope of hearing again from my poor 
friend, when in the beginning of this month (August) a letter of 



F. R. VON HOCHSTETTER. 2IO, 

his arrived, dated the tenth of June. It seemed to me like a 
voice from the grave ; and as this is doubtless the last direct 
news I shall receive from him, I shall give some extracts from 
this letter, dictated to his wife, but signed by him in his usual way: — 

" To-day, dearest friend, I can report to thee the arrival of 
the three cases with the Moa skeletons. Unfortunately I am not 
able to be present at the unpacking of them, as I have been bed- 
ridden since the sixteenth of March. The beginning of the 
history of my sufferings I have told thee in my last letter. 
Though I am in the hands of the best surgeons, they cannot say 
how long the affair will last. The disease from which I have 
been suffering for the last four years and a-half has at last been 
recognised as diabetes, and as my diet has been regulated 
accordingly I feel much better, though I must lie quietly in bed 
and must not move my foot. It is now the thirteenth week that 
I have been so prostrated. Fortunately my general state of 
health is comparatively good, so that I can occupy myself and 
read, and the faithful nursing and care of my dear wife helps me 
over the rest. 

" I shall send thee soon a set of photographs taken from some 
of the principal oil paintings in our new Museum. I would have 
done so at once, but some of the New Zealand pictures are not 
yet ready. The arrangement of the Museum has now gradually 
been begun. The botanical department on the second floor is 
already put in order. The show-cases for the zoological section 
are being placed on the first floor, and the mineralogical, geo- 
logical and ethnographical collections will be taken in hand at 
the beginning of next year. Nevertheless it will take three to 
four years more before we shall have finished. Fortunately every- 
thing is so well organised, and my young custodians and assist- 
ants are such good and reliable men, that even without my 
personal intervention on the spot everything advances perfectly 
well and satisfactorily." 

The rest of the letter, of a more private nature, I necessarily 
omit ; but it will be seen that Hochstetter at that time had no 
idea how very ill he was, and that he still looked hopefully 
towards the future. 

And so a good man has left this world, but his memory will 
for ever remain and be cherished in both hemispheres. His wife 
and seven children, of whom his eldest son Arthur is twenty-one 
year^ of age, lose in him a kind and loving husband and father; 
those who had the privilege of his intimacy, a true, affectionate, 
and devoted friend ; and the world is deprived of an honest 
searcher after truth, an honourable upright man, second to none 
amongst his contemporaries. 

As for myself, while writing these lines with a heavy heart, 
and reading letter after letter for the compilation of this 
narrative, I feel more and more that this inexpressibly sad loss I 
have sustained can never be replaced. And so let me finish this 
short and necessarily imperfect memoir of a noble, busy life with 
the words of the great German poet Goethe : — 



220 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

" Lest steh' dein Sarg in wohlgegonnter Ruli ; 
Mil lockrer Erde deckt iha leise zu, 
Uiid sanfter, als des Lebens, liege dann 
Auf dir des Grabes Biirde, guter Mann !" 

Julius von Haast. 
Christchurch, August 10, 1884. 



NOTES ON THE NOMENCLATURE OF NEW 
ZEALAND LUCANID.E* 



BY DR. SHARP. 



I understand that in continuation of the valuable series of 
catalogues of Coleoptera published by this Society, one of the 
members has undertaken the Lucanidce, and in order to facilitate 
his task, I give herewith the results of some researches into the 
nomenclature of the New Zealand species of the family about 
which a good deal of confusion prevails. The importance of 
correct nomenclature is well shown by the history of a slight 
error occuring in the list of New Zealand Coleoptera published 
by Professor Hutton some years ago. In this list, an Oxyomus, 
that should have been the first species of the family Scarabceidce, 
was, by a slight error, made to appear as the last of the LucanidcB^ 
and has since been treated by writers on New Zealand Entomo- 
logy as a real Lztcanid, so that Wallace in his valuable work on 
the "Geographical Distribution of Animals " (Vol. I. p., 457), 
has been misled into stating that in New Zealand " the LucauidcB 
are represented by two peculiar genera, Dendroblax and Oxyomus" 
It is scarcely necessary to add that Oxyomus is (or was, for it 
is, like nearly all generic names, a term of constantly shifting 
value) a very widely distributed genus outside of New Zealand, 
but does not really occur in New Zealand at all, and is more- 
over not a genus of Lucanidce at all. 

In the Manual of New Zealand Coleoptera recently issued 
by the Colonial Museum and Geological Survey Department of 
New Zealand, twelve species of Lticanidce are enumerated, and 
five of these are assigned to the genus " Dorcus MacLeay," three 
of these supposed species of Dorcus being described as new. I 
think it probable, however, that these species of Dorcus may 
belong to the genus Lissotes. 

Broun appears to have been unacquainted with the work done 
in the last twenty years on the genera of Litcauidoe^ and does not 
appear himself to have made any examination of the generic 
characters of the New Zealand Lucauidce ; while the description 
he gives of the genus Dorcus is " epitomised from the descrip- 
tions of Lucanus and Dorcus " given by Lacordaire in the 
" Genera of Coleoptera," and thus he did not recognise that the 
two species he assigns to Dorcus should be, — indeed have long 

Extracted from " Comples-rendus de la Soeiete Lntomologique de iielgique." 
2nd February, 1884. 



NOTES ON NOMENCLATURE OF NEW ZEALAND LUCANILVE. 221 

since been, — assigned to the genus Lissotes, of which he also 
gives a description (p. 254). For similar reasons, it is probable 
that Broun's two supposed new species assigned by him to 
Ceratognathus may not belong to that genus, and in the follow- 
ing list I have assigned the Dorci to Lissotes, the Ceratognathi 
to Mitophyllns. 

The list of New Zealand LucanidcB comprises altogether 
twenty names of species, but it is probable these names do not 
represent as many species ; five ol them are from the " Manual 
of New Zealand Coleoptera," and as the author of that work had 
no knowledge of the existence of descriptions of six of the 
species in the list, it is probable that some of his names will 
prove to be synonyms. Broun has also re-established certain 
species as valid that had previously been recognised as synonyms, 
but I need not refer to them in detail, as his error will be corrected 
by a reference to my list. It will be evident from the above remarks 
that New Zealand is accumulating a plentiful store of doubts 
and difficulties with which to occupy the time of her future 
naturalists. 

Genus Dendroblax. 

Dendroblax Earlei, White, Munich Cat. — New Zealand. 
Genus Lissotes. 

Dorcus abditus Broun (an n.sp.?), Man. N.Z. Col., p. 673. — 
New Zealand. 

Dorcus novce zealandicE Hope, Mun. Cat. Syn. Dorcus punc- 
tulatus White, Broun. — New Zealand. 

Dorcus planus (an n.sp.?) Man. N. Z. Col., p. 252. — New 
Zealand. 

Dorcus reticulatus West., Mun. Cat. Syn. Dorcus squamidor- 
sis Wh., Br. — New Zealand. 

Dorcus Steward Broun (an n.sp.?), Man. N.Z. Col., p. 673. 
— New Zealand. 

Lissotes capito Deyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1873, p. 339, pi. 
V., fig. 4, 5, male and female. — Ins. Chatham. 

Lissotes Desmaresti Deyr., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1 881, p. 239. — 
New Zealand. 

Lissotes Hehnsi Shp., Ent. Mo. Mag., XVI 1 1., p. 49. — New 
Zealand. 

Lissotes Menalcas West., Mun. Cat. — N. Holl (N. Zelandia in 
Mus. Brit, an recte ?). 

Genus Figulus. 

Figulus fissicollis Fairm., Mun. Cat. * Syn. Figulus modestus 
Parry, Mun. Cat. — Tongatabu (an recte ?). New Zealand (an 
recte ? D. S.) ; Ins. Fiji. 

Genus CERATOGNATHUS. 

Ceratognathus alboguttatus Bates, Mun. Cat. (Moreton Bay 
ex errore). — New Zealand. 

Ceratognathus dispar Slip., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1882, p. 
82. — New Zealand. 



222 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Ceratognathus helotoides Thorns., Mun. Cat. — New Zealand. 
Ceratognatkus sexpustulatus Bates, Mun. Cat. — New Zealand. 

Genus Mitophyllus. 

Ceratognathus foveolatus Broun, Man. N. Z. Col, p. 253, an. 
huj. gen.? an n.sp.? — New Zealand. 

Mitophyllus irrorat?is Parry, Mun. Cat. — New Zealand. 

Mitophyllus marmoratus Wat., Ent. Mo. Mag., XL, p. 8. — 
New Zealand. 

Mitophyllus parryanus West., Mun. Cat. — New Zealand. 

Ceratognathus zealandicus Broun, Man. N. Z. Col., p. 253, an. 
huj. gen.? an n.sp.? — New Zealand. 



OOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 



BY T. H. POTTS. 



Order I. — Birds of Prey — Accipitres. 

Family Falconidce — Hawks. 

Genus — Falco. 

F. Novce Zealandice, Gml. 

Quail Hawk, Ka-rewa-rewa. — The Quail-hawk is too bold a 
bird to exist amongst cultivated lands or farms, where its attacks 
on poultry have led to its rapid disestablishment. It is now 
restricted to the wilder parts of mountainous districts ; even 
there it is unwisely persecuted, notwithstanding it proves its value 
as an indefatigable destroyer of vermin. 

It breeds during the months of October, November and 
December. I have one note of its eggs having been taken so 
early as the 25th of October, in the Upper Rangitata district. 

It usually selects for its eyry a ledge or shelf under an over- 
hanging mass of rocks. It does little, if anything, in the way of 
nest-building, as trie eggs are deposited on any vegetable matter 
that may happen to have lodged on the chosen site. One year 
I knew of a nesting place on the bare soil, the position derived 
shelter from a large rock. There seems to be the usual com- 
plement of a nest of eggs, but as in the cases of many other 
species of native birds this rule is by no means constant, as it 
has been found incubating with one, two, three or four eggs. 

In shape they are broadly oval, oval, ovoid, or elongate. The 
last form is the rarer, as they are usually oval. Their colouring 
displays considerable variety, both in the ground and the darker 
tints of reddisli brown with which they are mottled, freckled, or 
suffused ; from a nesting-place in the Malvern Hills the eggs are 
so richly marked with dark reddish-brown blotches, marks, and 
speckles that very little of deep yellowish-brown ground colour 
is visible. I have never seen two eggs alike although taken from 



OOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 223 

one nesting-place. From a hillside west of the Acheron River, 
a tributary of the Rakaia, an eyry furnished eggs of which the 
lower part of one disclosed some patches of creamy white much 
sprinkled with yellowish-brown, but over the larger portion of 
the surface the ground colour was either yellowish-brown or it 
was covered with that colour splashed with irregularly shaped 
marks of dark brown ; on another egg from the same eyry the 
creamy ground colour was so much hidden by rich yellowish- 
brown as to appear in a few irregular marks only. From a 
craggy spur on Mount Potts, Upper Rangitata, an egg before 
me has the smaller end white, dotted with small freckles of 
reddish-brown ; these gradually become larger till at the bilge 
and just above it there is a broad zone of a dark reddish-brown 
with the apex white, freely sprinkled with reddish-brown. A 
fellow egg has a pinkish ground on which, from the smaller end 
over two-thirds of the surface, are innumerable small reddish- 
brown marks, the upper end being clouded over with rich brown 
and some few blackish-brown splashes. Another specimen from 
Mount Harper range has almost the entire surface white, freckled 
with yellowish-brown, chiefly in small dots, except at the apex, 
where there is an irregular splash of dark yellowish-brown ; this 
egg is usually pointed at the smaller end. From a rocky height 
above the gorges of the Ashburton River I have an elongated 
egg of dull pinky tone, much freckled with yellowish-brown, with 
a cap-like blotch at the apex of darker shades of brown. 

There is but little variation in size, as on comparing a series 
collected from many habitats the average dimensions may be 
given as two inches in length with a breadth of one inch six 
lines. The elongated specimen above mentioned as obtained 
from above the Ashburton gorges has a length of two inches 
three lines. 

Falco ferox, Peale. 

Sparrow-hawk, Karewa-rewa-tara. — The dashing little Spar- 
row-hawk has received but scant justice from many ornitholo- 
gists, some of whom profess not to believe in it, and would 
remove its name from the list of the native fauna ; but one 
is bound to admit that its opponents, however high their stand- 
ing as ornithologists, are usually found amongst those who 
have not had the advantage of knowing the bird and its life in 
the freedom of its wild haunts ; they reach their conclusions from 
the comparison of many dried skins, and possibly also from the 
contemplation of that ghastly sham — the stuffed bird. 

The Sparrow-hawk suffers from the same causes which affect 
its congener ; the march of settlement drives it back to the 
mountain ranges and hill country, where small woods are inter- 
spersed amongst the ravines and deep gullies. I have found it 
breeding not very far from the glacier on the Lawrence, Upper 
Rangitata. Its courage only ceases with life. In earlier days 
when station huts were very rare on " The Plains," and licensed 
houses afforded miserably scant accommodation to the jaded 



224 JOURNAL OP SCIENCE. 

traveller, a sparrow-hawk gave a singular instance of its fearless 
intrepidity. It dashed after a pigeon into a licensed house, 
swooped round the little bar, and entered an inner room where 
the quarry had sought shelter. 

For its nesting-place it appears to have a preference for 
rocky gullies fringed with trees, up river beds where lofty rocks 
tower cliff-like above the sombre foliage of the woods, or by the 
shrub-dotted crags that abut on a lake or river gorge. It builds 
amongst rocks, rarely on the bare soil, amongst sheltering tufts 
of snowgrass. Its complement of eggs is four, but in a few 
instances I have known it to be satisfied with one. In form they 
are oval, sometimes ovoid ; in colouration eggs from the same 
eyry show a good deal of variety. 

A specimen from the Paringa River, Westland, is yellowish- 
white, entirely dotted over with very minute sparks of brown, 
darkest at the ends. Another, from Geff's Knob, Hakatere, 
Ashburton Gorge, yellowish-white, marked with rich reddish- 
brown, with an irregular light zone round the bilge. From the 
Upper Waimakariri I have another of rich red brown over the 
whole surface, sparingly and irregularly figured with slight marks 
of blackish-brown. A set of four eggs collected by Geoffrey 
Potts from a ledge beneath an overhanging rock on Mount 
Walker, Orari, affords a good illustration of the variety of colour 
to be found in one eyry. One is pinky over two-thirds of its 
surface, marked by some scattered specks of brown, the upper 
part around the apex covered with a blotch of reddish-brown, 
with some blackish irregular marks ; another is creamy white, 
more amply dotted with rounded spots, the dark covering from 
the apex reaches lower than on the last described ; the third has 
the top and one side profusely suffused with rich reddish-brown, 
with "a few thin blackish markings ; the fourth, of rich pinky 
cream, is richly coloured with deep reddish-brown ; near to and 
around the apex the ground colour is again seen in a few 
openings of the mass of deeper colour. 

They measure about one inch eight lines in length, with a 
breadth of one inch five lines ; in some specimens these dimen- 
sions are slightly exceeded. The breeding season is in the 
months of October, November and December. 

Genus — Circus. 
Circus assimilis, Jard. and Selby. 
Harrier, Swamp-hawk, Kahu. — Notwithstanding the im- 
mense numbers that are annually killed off by unreflecting 
settlers, this very useful bird is yet to be found in abundance. 
One might have expected that its value as a rabbit destroyer 
alone would have afforded it protection. So far from its 
merits being duly appreciated there are many farmers who 
destroy it by gins or poison, even when it is engaged in 
hunting mice in the rick, steading, or yard. It certainly 
hunts hares ; but they increase in sufficient abundance in most 
parts of the country. Even wholesale slaughter is sometimes 



OOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 225 

planned to check the increase of these favourite rodents; but 
hare-hunting by harriers is an offence that can only be wiped 
out by poison or other ready means of death. 

The harriers pair early, and the short squeal heard in the first 
few days of August is a premonitory symptom that family cares 
will engage attention as sure as spring comes round. 

Their favourite nesting-places are amongst the rank grasses 
that thickly cover river-bed flats, the edges of swamps, amongst 
tall tufts of tohe-tohc {Arundo eonspicua) and flax bushes, some- 
times on rather open land not far from the margins of meres or 
lagoons. I have found the nest but rarely on high ground. It 
is nearly always built on the ground, strongly but roughly made 
of coarse grasses; very often tohe-tohe and raupo [Typha angus- 
tifolia) form part of the material. It is carried up to about a 
foot in height, with a flattish top. I have known a nest to be 
placed on, or rather in, a bunch of tohe-tohe : — " It may appear 
hardly credible, but above the gorge of the Ashburton we have 
found the nest partly built with sprays of the thorny discaria 
and the dead flower-stems of the large Alpine form of Aciphylla 
colensoi ; above this dreadful bed of thorns grass was carefully 
placed. We have known the selected site of a breeding place 
abandoned after considerable progress had been made with the 
structure. A pair made use of the same nesting-place year 
after year." — (Out in the Open.) 

The eggs are three or four in number, smooth, dull, white ; 
when blown and held up to the eye against the light the interior 
shows a deep green. They are oval, sometimes conical or 
ovato-conical, usually measure one inch eleven lines in length, 
with a breadth of one inch six lines ; these dimensions are some- 
times exceeded. November and December are the months for 
breeding. It is generally distributed, and may be found on the 
islands that lie off the coast of New Zealand as well as in the 
Alpine country of the interior. 

Fain ily Strigidce — Owls. 

Genus — Athene. 

Athene Novce Zealandice, Gml. 

Morepork, Ruru. — This owl, far better known by sound than by 
sight, now occurs much less frequently than it used only a fewyears 
since. The ceaseless destruction of timber trees, the burning and 
clearing of great forests, has driven it from its accustomed haunts, 
whence, as soon as the shades of evening closed in, it issued forth 
with its well-known cry of Morepork! Morepork! Morepork! This 
familiar call, borne on the soft night air, was pleasant to listen 
to — now close at hand with a kind of loud insistance of its de- 
mand, then dying away gradually with the bird's noiseless flight, 
soon from a remote distance it could be only faintly heard like a 
dull oft-repeated murmur. 

Its breeding places are in hollow trees, fissures, or holes in 
rocks ; but I have a note of its breeding in an out-building of a 
farm in the Ellesmere district. Two or three eggs are usual to a 



226 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

nest They are nearer round rather than broadly oval in shape, 
pure white, measuring one inch nearly six lines, with a breadth 
of one inch three lines. The breeding season extends through 
December and January in this district. 

Athene albifacies, Gray. 
Screech-owl, Laughing Jackass, Whekau. The dismal screech 
of this owl is better known inland than on the coast. Its curious 
call or cry has been the cause why settlers have conferred on it the 
name of Laughing Jackass. Although in this island it enjoys a 
considerable range, it is far more restricted in that respect than its 
smaller and more familiar congener. It is now over thirty years 
since I noted my first interview with this strange-looking bird ; it 
was at Rockwood, in the Malvern district. As there is a theory 
that the Whekau depended for a considerable part of its subsist- 
ence on the presence of the Kiore, or native rat, I may say that at 
the time mentioned the Kiore abounded near Rockwood ; one of 
the sports ol the boys was to thrust a flower-stalk of Spaniard 
grass (Aciphylla) into a rat hole in order to turn it out. Up the 
Hororata stream, west of Rockwood, stand some remarkable 
rocks, a mass of which, from the peculiarity of its outlines, was 
called Cherub's Rock. In those days often at night some most 
dismal shrieks proceeded thence, doubtless from Whekaus ; this 
wailing was said by the settlers to be from the Cherubs. Years 
afterwards these rocks were explored ; in one hole was found a 
quantity of castings, which probably were those of the Whekau. 
At one time it was to be found also in the Kakahu forest, near 
Arowhenua. Mr. W. W. Smith wrote me he had found its 
nesting-place at Albury, and had taken the old birds and eggs ; 
that the birds had nested in confinement. Through Mr. C. 
Richardson I am enabled to describe an egg taken early in 
January. It is nearly spherical, white, smooth, measuring one 
inch ten lines in length with a breadth of one inch seven lines. 
The nesting-place was found in a hole in a limestone cliff at 
Albury on the bank of the river Tengawai. There were two 
eggs incubated, and both of the old birds were at home. The 
hole was above three feet deep, and contained a small quantity 
of dry tussock grass. Another breeding station was on the 
( )puha, in South Canterbury. 

( To be continued.) 



OX A DECADE OF NEW FERONIID^. 



BY CAPT. BROUN. 



No. 1634. — Trichostemus erytkropus, n.sp. — Like T. fultow, more 
glossy aeneous, legs red ; the tibial spiniform bristles depressed 
and flexible 

Length, 8| ; breadth, y{ lines. 

* Abstract of paper read before the Auckland Institute on June 9, 1884. 



ON A DECADE OF NEW FERONIID.E. 22/ 

Rock and Pillar Mountains, Otago. — S. W. Fulton. 

No. 1635. — T. meritus, n.sp. — Allied to T. waihovensis ; the pos- 
terior angles of thorax not projecting, its sides not much curved, 
narrowed but only slightly sinuated behind, the space between the 
basal fossae depressed. 

Length, 10J ; breadth, 3J lines. 

Invercargill — T. Chalmer. 

No. 1636. — T. angulatus, n.sp — Moderately convex, glossy cop- 
pery-black ; hind angles of thorax protuberant, so much so as to 
distinguish the species. 

Length, 9^ ; breadth, 3 J lines. 

Invercargill — T. Chalmer. 

No. 1637. — T. convexus, n.sp. — The thorax is more convex than 
in any species from Otago, 7\ angulatus makes the nearest approach 
to it in that respect, but the angles differ, and the punctures in the 
elytral interstices are hardly discernible. 

Length, 9J ; breadth, 3J lines. 

Invercargill — T. Chalmer. 

No. 1638. — T. agriotes, n.sp. — Allied to T. meritus; convex, shin- 
ing, black ; the hind body more convex. There are only faint 
tinges of a coppery colour on the depressed parts of the thorax. 

Length, io£ ; breadth, 3f lines. 

Invercargill — T. Chalmer. 

No. 1639. — T. erraiicus, n.sp. — Larger and more convex than 7. 
fultoni ; the thorax more deeply arcuated in front and more rounded 
laterally ; the elytral interstices have many shallow transversal 
impressions. 

Length, 10J; breadth, 3^ lines. 

Taieri — S. W. Fulton (sent under the No. 56). 

No, 1640. — T. riparius, n.sp. — Owing to the convexity of the 
front part ol the thorax and middle of elytra, the insect appears as 
if medially depressed ; of compact form, not unlike that of T. 
difformipes, but with differently formed legs. 

Length, 10 ; breadth, 3f lines. 

Bed of Lee Stream, Taieri — S. W. Fulton. 

No. 1 641. — T. curtulus, n.sp. — Rather short, not like any other 
species. When compared with the female of T. fultoni the differ- 
ences in the length and breadth of the elytra become very obvious ; 
it is more convex, the posterior sinuations of the thorax are much 
shorter, so that the angles seem to be turned outwards to a greater 
extent ; colour pure black. 

Length, 8J ; breadth, 3J lines. 

Rock and Pillar Mountains — S. W. Fulton. 

No. 1642. — T. suspicax, n.sp. — The general contour like that of 
T. curtulus rather than any other ; the sides of the thorax from 
the middle backwards are very gradually, but not sinuously, nar- 
rowed, hind angles barely rectangular ; black. 

Length, 8 ; breadth, 3^- lines. 

Rock and Pillar Mountains — S. W. Fulton. 

No. 1643. — T '. amplicollis , n.sp. — Nigro-viridis. The form of the 
thorax approximates to that of T. chloris, T.patruelis, and T.planius- 
culus only, it is, however, more convex, and the posterior angles 
are more prominent. 

Length, 9 ; breadth, 3J lines. 

Taieri— S. W. Fulton. 



22N JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 

Group Bembidiid^e. 
No. 1644 — A nillus pallidas, n.sp. — Sub-depressed, shining, pale 
testaceous, bearing many minute setae, and short, erect, grayish 
hairs; eyes invisible. The genus has but one other species (A. 
. found near J Bordeaux and Toulouse. 
Length, £ ; breadth, ^ line. 
Sea Beach, Taieri — S. W. Fulton. 



REVIEW. 

A Course of Instruction in Zootomy ( Vcrtcbrata). By T. Jeffery 
Parker, B. Sc. Lond., Professor of Biology in the Univer- 
sity of Otago. Macmillan and Co., 1884. 

The present volume will be welcomed alike by teachers and 
students of biology, for it supplies a long-felt want in the text- 
books of this branch of science. It aims at being a continuation 
of the zoological part of Huxley and Martin's " Elementary 
Biology," the book which has contributed so largely towards the 
rapid advance of the study of biology. 

The work contains directions for the dissection of six verte- 
brate animals, viz.: — The lamprey, skate, cod, lizard, pigeon, and 
rabbit. These types have been chosen not only on account of 
their importance, but also because they are, for the most part, 
readily obtainable at any time of the year. The book is, of 
course, written primarily for English students, but almost the 
whole is available for the use of students in New Zealand. The 
pigeon and rabbit are easily obtainable everywhere, and the 
description of these two types occupies more than half the volume. 
The account of the lizard may be used for the examination of 
one of the New Zealand species, and so also the description of 
the cod will serve as a sufficient guide for the study of a native 
bony fish. The New Zealand species of skate (Raja nasuta) will 
serve excellently instead of the English species, indeed part of 
the description seems to have been taken from it. A species of 
lamprey (Geotria c/iilensis) is found in several of our rivers, and 
may be used in place of the English species described. 

The description of each of the types is divided into two parts. 
First the skeleton is described, and then follow the directions for 
dissection, with a description of the structures exposed at each 
stage. The directions are clear and well arranged, and the 
descriptions accurate, each point of structure to be observed bav- 
in; ; a paragraph to itself, numbered so as to facilitate reference. 
A special account of the nervous system of the skate is added, 
as tin's type presents special advantages for the study of the ver- 
tebrate nervous system. The book is most admirably illustrated 
by seventy-two figures of a very useful character. Almost all of 
them are new, those illustrating the nervous and circulating sys- 
tems are specially good, though some of them present a wealth 
of details, which would show to greater advantage if the figures- 
were of a somewhat larger size. 



GENERAL NOTES. 229 

A number of useful practical hints are given in the introduc- 
tion, and methods of preparing the skeletons of the types are in- 
cluded in the text. The author strongly advises students to 
make sketches of their dissections, and this advice we can heartily 
endorse. " Even a rough drawing, if the various parts are pro- 
perly named — and especially if they are further distinguished by 
different colours, forms a far better memorandum of work done 
than any mere description." 

In one respect we think that the book might have been ren- 
dered more complete and more useful. In Huxley and Martin's 
" Elementary Biology " the laboratory work in each section is 
preceded by a general description of the plant or animal under 
consideration. In this a number of interesting facts with regard 
to the habits of life, the more important points connected with 
the physiology and development of the type, &c, are given, and 
the morphological significance of certain structures pointed out. 
In the present work, however, each type is considered without 
reference to the others, and with regard to its anatomy only — 
the book is, in fact, only a manual of " Directions for Dissection." 
We are aware that the author did not intend the book to be 
more than this ; but he has carried out his plan in so clear and 
admirable a manner that we should have liked to have had more 
from him. Whilst we are grateful to the author for all that he 
has given us, we think that an opportunity has been lost of im- 
parting a good deal of valuable knowledge, which would have 
aided the student and lent an additional interest to the subject. 
The various types in the progressive series might have been com- 
pared, and the modifications pointed out which certain structures 
have undergone in the progression to higher or more specialised 
forms. In this way the morphological bearing of seemingly un- 
important details would have been obvious, and the dry facts of 
anatomy have received their savour from the " salt of morpholo- 
gical ideas," a savour which, at present, is not apparent to the 
beginner, who will, therefore, have to derive it from other sources. 

Although we think that the book would have been rendered 
more valuable by the additions suggested, we have no hesitation 
in recognising it as a most valuable practical guide, and feel as- 
sured that it will meet with a ready welcome in every zoological 
laboratory. 

A.P.T. 



GENERAL NOTES 



Introduce]) Moths in New Zealand. — During last 
summer Mr. R. S. Allan, while engaged in some survey work in 
connection with the Wellington-Manawatu railway, sent me 
down several specimens of moths collected by him near Porirua. 
At first I took these to be Hymenopterous insects, but finding 
on closer examination that they were true Lepidoptera, I for- 
warded them to Mr. E. Meyrick, who gives me the following infor- 



1'30 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

mation regarding them : — " The species is Sesia (Aegeria) 

tipuliformis, Linn., and is not indigenous to New Zealand, having 
been introduced from England with the currant, on the stems of 
which the larva feeds, being often very injurious. The family 
Scsiadtc is a large one, and is entirely composed of moths with 
narrow transparent wings like those sent. The group stands 
tolerably high, and has no affinity with the Hymcnoptera, which 
it appears to resemble. I am not, however, sure that the resem- 
blance is due to mimicry, at least in the case of most species. 
The likeness is quite general ; most of the species, like the 
present, have a resemblance to the IcJincuuwnidce amongst the 
Hymenoptera, but it will not bear close investigation, and I am 
not aware that it has been possible to point out any particular 
species as mimicked. One or two larger species, however, cer- 
tainly imitate hornets with considerable accuracy, and some of 
the South American species resemble bees of that country. 

" There is no species of the family native to New Zealand, and 
perhaps none to Australia, though generally well distributed 
elsewhere." — G. M. T. 



PERIPATUS (Nos. ii and 12, Vol. I., N. Z. Journ. Sc). — It 
may interest some of the readers of this paper to know that I saw, 
a few days ago, a number of specimens of Peripatus which had 
been collected in the Gwavas Bush, near the Whakaraara Moun- 
tains, Hawke's Bay. This bush is situated on the Secondary 
Rocks, which form a foot range to the main chain of the Ruahine 
Mountains. I should judge that it was fairly plentiful, but the 
specimens seemed all slightly smaller than those I have seen in 
the Wellington district— A. H. 



Pied Specimen of the Black Stilt. — I have shot a Black 
Stilt-plover {Himantopus novcz-zealandice) which has been seen 
frequenting a paddock in the Petane Valley, near Napier, for 
some weeks. I found that one leg had been fractured below the 
knee, and a large lump had formed over the point of fracture. 
This injury and its subsequent reparation was probably the cause 
of the isolation of the bird from its companions, but the most 
peculiar feature of the specimen was the beautifully regular 
manner in which the head, neck, shoulders and breast were 
spotted with white, giving the bird a very different appearance to 
either the Black or Pied Stilt. The specimen is now in the 
Museum of the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute, Napier. 

A. H. 



Mm.ua PETRIEI (G.M.Thomson). — In January of this year 
i took among algae, &c, in Sydney Harbour several specimens 
of a species of Amphipoda, which on examination proved to be 
without doubt the same as Mcera petrici, G. M. Thomson, and 
after some little hesitation I also identified it with Megamo&ra 
sub-carinatciy Haswell. Mr. Haswell's name has priority, so that 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 23 1 

the specific name petriei must be dropped; with regard to the 
genus I am somewhat uncertain, but as I am by no means sure 
of the generic importance of the characters by which Megamcera 
is distinguishhed from Mcera, I prefer to place the species 
under Mcera, as Mr. Thomson has done. The only point in 
which the descriptions of the two species really differ is with re- 
gard to the length of the superior antennae. Mcera petriei is given 
as having the superior antennae " as long as body," while that 
of Megamcera sicb-carinata is " nearly as long as the cephalon 
and pereion " ; the length of the antennae is however variable in 
this as in many other species of the Amphipoda. I have both 
male and female specimens from Sydney, the females resembling 
those from Lyttelton Harbour and described in the " Transac- 
tions of the N. Z. Institute " Vol. XV., p. 82. Curiously enough 
the males agree with those described by Mr. Thomson from 
Stewart Island, and differ from my Lyttelton specimens in hav- 
ing " the whole lower surface (of the propodos of the posterior 
gnathopoda) very densely fringed with two rows of long simple 
hairs." These hairs which are of the same size throughout their 
whole length, and thus differ from the ordinary setae found in 
this genus, are entirely absent in the Lyttelton specimens. An 
interesting question thus arises, but for the present must remain 
unanswered — What is the function of these hairs, and why should 
specimens from Sydney and Stewart Island have them, while 
those from Lyttelton have not ? 

Charles Chilton. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF TASMANIA. 

Hobart, June 9, 1884. — His Honour Mr. Justice Dobson in the 
chair. 

New members — Rev. J. B. W. Woollnough, Messrs. A. Park 
and G. Hinsby. 

The Hon. Secretary (Dr. Agnew) brought forward the usual 
returns. 

Papers — 1. " Results of a critical examination of the mollusca 
of the older tertiary of Tasmania." 

2. " Descriptions ot some new fossil mollusca, from Table Cape." 

3. "On the community of species of aquatic pulmonatt snails 
between Australia and Tasmania." All three hy Professor R. 
Tate, F.G.S., F.L.S., &c, of Adelaide. 

4. " Additions to the list of Table Cape fossils, together with 
further remarks upon certain fossil shells supposed to be identical 
with living species." 

5. " Notes on a fossil (Cypris alburyana), from Geilston." 

6. " Description of a new species of Vitrina, from the Travertin 
Beds, Geilston." All three by Mr. R. M. Johnston, F.L.S. 

7. " Notes on boring operations in search of coal in Tasmania," 
by Mr T. Stephens, F.G.S. 



232 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

In the discussion which followed the reading of Mr. Stephens' 
paper, Mr. K. M. Johnston stated that little value could be placed 
on conclusions formed from the partial evidence of marine or- 
ganisms only, as regards the position of the Southern and Eastern 
coal deposits of Tasmania, because he had found a considerable 
percentage of the species of the marine organisms common to the 
mudstone series immediately overlying the Mersey coal measures 
also common to the mudstone series which is now being tested by 
the boring drill at the Cascade Brewery, and also common to the 
Tasmanite beds on the Mersey. Among the fossils common to 
these deposits are the well-known forms : — Spinfeva Tasmanicnsis, 
Spirifera Darwinii, Productus brachythyarus, Ptevinea lata, Sanquinolites 
FAlicvidgci, Pecteii Fittoni, Pecten squamulifcvus, Pecten Illawarra, Pecten 

. sp>, Pleurotomaria Morvisiana, Protovctcpora amp la, Stenopova Tas- 
maniensis, and several others, and the list no doubt could be greatly 
increased. If, therefore, it be allowed that the Mersey and 
Southern and Eastern coal deposits represent different horizons, 
the evidence from marine organisms, taken by itself w T ith our 
present knowledge, is absolutely valueless, at any rate neutral. 
It is from an examination of the plant remains, associated with the 
respective coal measures, that we have any grounds for separating 
them into different groups, as representing different periods. Thus 
the prevailing plant remains of the coal measures of the Mersey, 
which are the equivalents of the Stoney Creek, Anvil Creek, and 
other coal seams in New South Wales, are Glossoptevis Bvowniana ; 
eqisetaceous stalks, broadly and flatly ribbed, allied to the Indian 
genus Schizoncw 'a ; a curious orbicular form allied to Actinoptevis : 
and numerous impressions of a form closely allied to Noeggevathiopsis 
media. On the other hand, the Midland, Southern and Eastern 
coal measures of Tasmania have generally as prevailing forms Pc- 
coptcris Austvalis, P. odontopteroides, Phyllotlieca Hooheri, Pliyllotheca 
vamosa, Sphenopteris alata, ZcugopliyUitcs elongatus, and Glossoptevis 
linearis, and, therefore, the beds ma)-, without doubt, as already 
shown by Feistmantel, Rev. W. B. Clarke, R. Etheridge, junr., and 
others, be regarded as the equivalents of the upper coal measures of 
New South Wales. Regarded from an evolutionist's point of view, 
Mr. Johnston stated that, with the late Rev. W. B. Clarke, he found 
it very difficult to recognise any break, stratigraphic or organic, 
between the upper and lower mudstone series of Australia, so far 
as the marine organisms of undoubted pala30zoic facies gave any 
evidence. If these subdivisions were to be classed as upper palaeo- 
zoic, and the upper coal measures, according to various authori- 
ties, as permian, oolitic, dias, or mesozoic, the separation must be 
doubtful and purely one of local convenience. Mr. Johnston ob- 
served that while, on the whole, he fully agreed with Mr. Stephens' 
conclusions, he was not prepared to concur with him in regardingthe 
sandy and calcareous fossiliferous rocks occurring in the neighbour- 
hood of Hobart, and in other localities in the South and East, wholly 
as the equivalents of the lower marine beds of New South Wales, for 
it was not only conceivable but, unfortunately, probable that the 
Southern marine beds ot Tasmania were formed in situations more 
removed from the oscillation of the land which produced the con- 
ditions favourable to the deposits of the lower coal measures in 
such places as the Don, Mersey, Stoney Creek, and Anvil Creek 
basins ; that while these carbonaceous deposits intercalating and 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 233 

interrupting the series of marine beds were being formed in situa- 
tions adjacent to the shores of the old palaeozoic mainland, the 
marine areas, more remote from the land, still continued to deposit 
their marine sediments with an uninterrupted chain of marine or- 
ganic lite ; and it is quite conceivable, and, indeed, in harmony 
with existing evidence, that the Southern and Eastern marine beds 
of Tasmania cover in one unbroken series the whole period repre- 
sented in Australia and in Northern Tasmania by the lower marine 
beds, lower coal measures, and upper marine beds • and that the 
final oscillation ol land, producing conditions favourable to the 
deposits of the upper coal measures of Australia and Tasmania, 
was the only one which extended as far as the South and East of 
Tasmania. However, Mr. Johnston was greatly pleased that this 
matter was being tested, as far as possible in the North and South, 
in a practical way by means of the diamond drill, and he hoped to 
see this most useful practical test still further employed in our im- 
portant coal basins, not only to measure the value of our coal seams 
vertically, but also sufficiently extended to ascertain their extent 
horizontally. 

PHILOSOPHICAL INSTITUTE OF CANTERBURY. 

Christchurch, 3rd July, 1884. — H. R. Webb, Esq., in the chair. 
Papers — 1. " Is life a distinct force ?" by Dr. Bakewell. 



Christchurch, 7th August, 1884. — R. W. Fereday, Esq., Pre- 
sident, in the chair. 

The Chairman announced that the Council had appointed 
Mr. R. H. Webb Honorary Treasurer, and Dr. Symes to fill the 
vacancy thus caused in the Council. 

Papers — 1. "The exceptional advantages of New Zealand for 
Sericiculture,'' by Mr. Federli. The author clearly showed that 
the climate of New Zealand was most suitable for the rose-leaf 
mulberry and the silkworms. The great secret of success was to 
carry on the silkworm industry with some other industry, and it 
was especially suitable for the farming population, as the whole 
work comes in just when they are idle, after having sown their 
crops. In answer to questions, Mr. Federli showed that exporting 
the grain (eggs) to Europe would be a most remunerative business. 
He had sent some to France himself. Cocoons could also be sent 
to France as they are now from China. The rose-leaf mulberry 
grows luxuriantly in parts of Canterbury, and if these trees were 
planted instead ot so many poplars and willows, they would be 
much more valuable, as the leaves are used for fattening sheep, as 
well as iood for silkworms, and they give a fine quality to the wool, 
making it resemble silk. Indeed, in France th© sheep are kept on 
mulberry leaves and hay during the winter, and their wool is always 
in great demand. No expense was required in growing the trees. 
The best way to remove the prejudice that people have against 
sericiculture, Mr. Federli said, would be to introduce a few well- 
selected families from the south of Europe, and when the farmers 
saw that they could successfully carry on the business, they would 
very soon embark in it too, and it would prove a great boon to all 
the working classes and the country generally. 



234 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Professor Hutton moved a cordial vote of thanks to Mr. Federli 
for his paper, remarking that no doubt his efforts would be crowned 
with success. Alter hearing his paper he was clearly convinced 
that sericiculture was eminently suited tor New Zealand, and as 
soon as the prejudice of people was removed, and plenty of mul- 
berry trees planted, numbers would embark in the industry, with 
great advantage to themselves. 

Mr. H. R. Webb seconded the vote of thanks, which was carried 
unanimously. 

2. "Supplement to a Monograph of the New Zealand Geome- 
trina," by Mr. E. Meyrick, B.A. 

The following corrections and additions made, after working 
through all the New Zealand species in the British Museum. 

Family names to stand as (i) Acidaliadce, (2) Larentiadcd, (3) Bole- 
tobiadce, (4) Lyrceidce, (5) Boarmiadee. 

The following species referred to by number in monograph : — 

2. Acidalia rnbraria, Dbld. — Additional synonyms repletaria, 
attributa, Walk. 

9. Eurydice rufescens, Butl. (cymosema, Meyr.) 

10. Harpalyce megaspilata, Walk. — Reference to rufescens, Butl., 
struck out, 

11. Harpalyce parora, n.sp. (humeraria, Meyr., nee. Walk. — All 
synonymy struck out. 

12. Stratonice euclidiata, Gn. (glyphicata, Gn.; catapyrrha, Butl.) 
Occurs also in Victoria. 

14. Pasiphila bilineolata, W r alk. — Additional synonymy inductata, 
denotata, subitata, himerata, eupitheciata, parvulata, cristata, Walk. 
Occurs also in south-east Australia. 

16. Tatosoma agrionata, Walk, (tipulata, inclinataria, transitaria, 
collectaria, Walk.; mistata, Feld.) 

17. Tatosoma timora, n.sp. (agrionata, Meyr., nee. Walk.) 

26. Arsinoe subochraria, Dbld. — Additional synonym enboliaria, 
Walk. 

33. Cidaria arida, Butl. (chaotica, Meyr.) 

42. Larentia tucidata, Walk, (plurimata, venipunctata, Walk. ; 
psamathodes, Meyr.) 

47. Larentia snbobscurata, Walk, (petropola, Meyr.) 

48. Larentia cinerearia, Dbld. — Additional synonym diffusaria, 
Walk. 

62. Pasithea breplios, Walk. — Reference to Enysii, Butl., struck 
out. 

64. Statira Enysii, Butl. (homomorpha, Meyr.) 

Genus 25. Samana, Walk, (not Panagra, Gn.) 

71. Lyrcea alectoraria, Walk — Additional synonym nstaria, Walk. 
References to primata, mixtaria, Walk., better struck out as uniden- 
tifiable. 

76. — Psendocoremia mclinata, Feld. — Additional synonym confusa, 
Butl. 

Genus 31. Gcllonia, n.g. (not Boarmia, Tr.) 

Genus 32. Boarmia, Tr. (Barsine, Meyr.. to lapse altogether). 

81. Declaim ' floccosa, Walk. — Reference to verrucosa, Feld., to be 
struck out. 

82. The insects described as sexes are apparently two distinct 
species. That described as male is Declaim junctilinea, Walk, (ver- 
rucosa, Feld ); that described as female is Ipana leptomera, Walk. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 235 

(crassitibia, Feld.) Genus Ipana, differs from Declaim by single an- 
tennae of male, from Atossa by separate origin of veins 10 and 11 of 
fore-wings. Further investigation of this group desirable. 

85. Amastris hnmeraria, Walk, (obtusaria, flexala, obtruncata, fu- 
siplagiata, Walk.; encausta, Meyr.) 

87. Chalastva pelurgata, Walk, (cinerascens, Feld.; streptophova, 
Meyr.) Genus Chalastva differs from Stvatocleis by pectinated an- 
tennae of male. 

The five following species are probably distinct from any 
described : — 

Laventia subductata, Walk. — Perhaps a Larentia. 

Laventia quadristrigata, Walk, (mterclusa, Walk,) Genus doubtful; 
recalls Microdes. 

Phibalapteryx snppressaria, Walk. — Perhaps a Larentia. 

Larentia falcata, Butl. — Perhaps a Eurydice. 

Samana acntata, Butl. — Apparently a true Samana. 

All other names believed to be either unidentifiable, or referable 
to species not really occurring in New Zealand. 

3. " Descriptions of New Zealand Micro-Lepidoptera," by Mr. 
E. Meyrick, B.A. 

IV. Scopariada. 

The following species were described. Owing to the difficulty 
of the group and the obscurity of the complex markings, the 
descriptions of most of the new species do not admit of compres- 
sion : — 

JVyctarcha atra Butl. — Castle Hill, Lake Wakatipu, to 3000 feet 

Scoparia anthracias, n sp- -Tasmania. 

S. chiasta, n.sp. — New South Wales. 

8. eumeles, n.sp. — New South Wales. 

8. aphrodes, n.sp. — New South Wales. 

8. epicryma, n.sp. — South Australia. 

8. exhibitalis, Walk. — New South Wales. 

S. syntaracta, n.sp — New South Wales, Tasmania. 

S. synapta, n.sp. — Tasmania. 

8. homala, n.sp. — South Australia. 

S. eremitis, n.sp. — South Australia. 

8. perierga, n.sp. — Tasmania. 

8. gomphota, n.sp. — Tasmania. 

$. oreas, n.sp. — Lake Wakatipu, 5000 feet. 

S. philerga, n.sp, — Auckland to Lake Wakatipu, common. 

$. chlamydota, n.sp. — Arthur's Pass, 3000 feet. 

S. minus cul alls, Walk. — Bealey River to Dunedin. 

S. minualis, Walk, — Christchurch to Otira Gorge. 

S. chimeria, n.sp. — Taranaki to Lake Wakatipu. 

S. dinodes, n.sp. — -Christchurch to Dunedin. 

#. acharis, n.sp. — Akaroa to Dunedin. 

S. cymatias, n.sp. — Arthur's Pass, 2500 feet. 

S. microphthalmia, n.sp. — Christchurch to Lake W'akatipu. 

S. hemicycla, n.sp. — Arthur's Pass, 3000 feet. 

S. ergatis, n.sp. — Castle Hill, 3000 feet. 

S. critica, n.sp. — Arthur's Pass, 3000 feet. 

S. anaplecta, n.sp. — Tasmania. 

S. sjpelaea, n.sp. — Throughout South- East Australia and Tas- 
mania. 



236 JOURNAL OP SCIENCE. 

S. char act a i n.sp. — Wanganui to Dunedin. 

S. ustimacula, Feld. (conifera, Butl.) — Castle Hill to Dunedin. 

S, pongalis, Feld. — Makatoku to Dunedin. 

S, melanaegis, n.sp. — Arthur's Pass to Lake Wakatipu (1700 to 
4200 feet.) 

S. trapezophora, n.sp. — Castle Hill, 3000 feet. 

S. philetaera, n.sp. — Bealey River, 2100 feet. 

S . periphanes, n.sp. — Lake Wakatipu. 

S. diphtheralis, Walk. — Hamilton to Christchurch. 

S. submarginalis, Walk, (maoriella, Walk.) — Generally abundant. 

S. cataxesta, n.sp. — 25 mm. Dark bluish-grey, lines faintly 
whitish, spots hardly darker! Otira Gorge to Lake Wakatipu. 

5. tetracycla, n.sp. — Lake Coleridge. 

S. in distinct alls, Walk, (rakaiensis, Knaggs). — Wellington to 
Lake Wakatipu. 

5. chalicodes, n.sp. — Wanganui to Mount Hutt. 

S. leptalea, n.sp. — Hamilton to Christchurch. 

S.psammitis, n.sp. — Arthur's Pass, 4500 feet. 

S. epicomia, n.sp. — 19 mm. Greyish-ochreous, basal third red- 
dish-ochreous, lines white, first line straight, perpendicular, followed 
by a dark reddish-brown fascia, space before second line suffused 
with white. '■ Arthur's Pass and Dunedin. 

F. Feredayi, Knaggs (moanalis, Feld.) — Eketahuna to Lake 
Wakatipu. 

S. acompa, n.sp. — Lake Wakatipu. 

S. acropola, msp, — Tasmania. 

S. cleodoralis, Walk. — New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania. 

8. manganeutis, n.sp. — Otira Gorge. 

S. crypsisoa, n.sp. — Castle Hill to Lake Wakatipu (3000 feet). 

S. axena, n.sp.— 25 mm. Fuscous-grey, irrorated with whitish, 
lines and spots very obscure, lower half of reniform whitish. 
Arthur's Pass, 4500 feet. 

S. steropaea, n.sp. — Castle Hill, 2500 teet. 
S. exilis, Knaggs. — Christchurch to Lake Wakatipu. 
S. elaphra, n.sp. — 13 mm. Pale brownish-ochreous, lines 
curved, dark margined, spots dot-like, black; hindwings grey. whit- 
ish. Wanganui to Christchurch. 

S, paltomacha, n sp. — 23 mm. Light fuscous, irrorated with 
white, veins blackish, reniform dot-like, white. Castle Hill, 2500 
feet. 

S. deltophora, n.sp. — 22 mm. Greyish-ochreous, irrorated with 
whitish, reniform dot-like, trifurcate, black, connected with a short 
black discal line. Arthur's Pass, 4200 feet. 
S. sabulosella, Walk. — Generally common. 
S.panopla, n.sp. — Mount Hutt. 

S. trivirgata, Feld. — Christchurch to Lake Wakatipu. 
Tetraprosopus Meyrickii, Butl. — New South Wales to South Aus- 
tralia. 

Xeroscopa pliiloncphes, n.sp. — Victoria, South Australia. 

X. encausta, n.sp — Tasmania. 

X. petrina, n.sp. — Bealey River to Mount Hutt, 2400 feet. 

X. cyameuta, n.sp, — Wellington to Lake Wakatipu, to 2600 feet. 

X. astragalota, n.sp. — Mount Hutt. 

X. rotuella, Feld. — Mount Hutt. 

X. harpalea, n.sp. — Otira Gorge, 1600 feet. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 237 

X ejuncida, Knaggs. — Bealey River to Lake Wakatipu, 2000 to 
3000 feet. 

X, niphospora, n.sp. — 28 mm. Light greyish-ochreous, suffused 
with white, costa dark fuscous, orbicular and reniform dot-like, 
black. Arthur's Pass to Lake Wakatipu, 2500 to 4500 feet. 

X apheles, n.sp. — 31 mm. Light brownish-ochreous, lines and 
spots obsolete ; hindwings ochreous-whitish. Arthur's Pass, 4500 
feet. 

X aspidota, n.sp. — 24 mm. Light ochreous ; a black triangular 
spot on costa at base ; lines white, first followed by a broad black 
band narrowing downwards, space between this and second line 
white. Wellington to Lake Wakatipu. 

X nomeutis, n.^p. — Lake Wakatipu, 3500 to 5000 feet. 

X epicremna, n.sp. — Castle Hill, 2500 feet. 

X legnota, n.sp. — Mount Hutt to Lake Wakatipu. 

X octophora, n.sp. — Christchurch to Invercargill, to 3000 feet. 

X asterisca, n.sp. — Arthur's Pass to Lake Wakatipu, to 4500 feet. 

X leucogranima, n.sp. — 21mm. Blackish-fuscous, lines slender, 
white, sharply defined, second terminating in anal angle. Mount 
Hutt. 



Christchurch, September 4th, 1884,— R. W. Fereday, Esq., 
President, in the chair. 

Professor von Haast read a paper, " In Memoriam : Ferdinand 
von Hochstetter."* 

Professor Hutton said that he did not wish this occasion to pass 
without recording his opinion of the great value of Dr. Hochstetter's 
geological work in New Zealand. When Dr. Hochstetter came to 
this country a few scattered observations by Dr. Dieffenbach, the 
Hon. W. Mantell, Dr. C. Forbes, and others, represented our know- 
ledge of its geology. All was vague, and no geological map of any 
part of tne islands was in existence. During his short sojourn Dr. 
Hochstetter mapped large parts of the provinces of Auckland and 
Nelson, and laid the basis of the present classification of our rocks. 
His geological maps of the neighbourhood of Auckland, and of 
the Waikato and Taupo districts are marvels of accuracy ; and 
in Nelson he was also very successful, notwithstanding the difficult 
nature of the country. He distinguished two tertiary systems, an 
older and a younger, and he recognised the difference in age 
between the coals of Drury and Waikato on the one hand, and of 
Pakawau in Nelson on the other. He also recognised the triassic 
rocks near Nelson, the palaeozoic sandstones and slates in the 
southern parts of that province, and the still older schists of the 
western ranges. No doubt the classification in the " Reise de 
Novara" contains several mistakes, but nearly all of these are due 
to Dr. von Hochstetter having incorporated with his own observa- 
tions much information given him by others about places he did 
not himself visit. If these be left out, it will be fou id that the 
geological survey has only introduced two changes of any import- 
ance into his classification. The first of these changes is un- 
doubtedly an improvement, but it was not made until 1869. It is 
removing the plant beds of Port Waikato from the coal measures 
of Pakawau and placing them with the older rocks. The second 

* See page 202. 



2$S JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

change is uniting these coal measures with the coals of Waikato 
and Drury, and with the Aotea and Waitemata series of Auckland 
into a cretaceo-tertiary formation. To this change Professor Hut- 
ton could not agree, tor he had always maintained that Dr. Hoch- 
stetter's views were correct. But, however this may be, it is cer- 
tainly most remarkable that Dr. Hochstetter, in his short stay of 
only nine months, should have distinguished six out ot the eight 
systems into which our rocks can be divided. 

On the suggestion of Mr. H. R. Webb, it was resolved that the 
President, together with Protessors von Haast and Hutton, should 
be requested to prepare and forward to Mrs, von Hochstetter a 
letter of condolence, 



AUCKLAND INSTITUTE. 

Auckland, July 14th, 1884. H. G. Seth Smith, Esq., President, 
in the chair. 

New members — F. H. Edgecombe, A. G. Gover, J. B. Hobart. 

Papers — 1. " Notes on the Pselaphidas of New Zealand," by 
Capt. T. Broun. 

The author states : — " In all the following species of Euplectus, 
the three basal abdominal segments, usually seen from above, are 
strongly marginated laterally and on the same plane ; the fourth, 
about equally large, is more or less deflexed, and the suture between 
the two apical ones is not distinctly visible. 

" In a dissected specimen I found a supplementary basal segment, 
anterior to that referred to in description as the first dorsal seg- 
ment. In another, examined from below, this additional segment is 
as large as the others, with its middle portion projecting between 
the posterior coxae. In E. monticola, E. incomptus, and E. cereus, the 
extra basal segment is uncovered by the elytra, and bears numerous, 
excessively minute, brassy scales. In an example of E. tuberigerus 
(Part III., p. 17, "Man. N.Z. Coleop.") the additional basal dorsal 
plate is wholly exposed, so that in it, it seems as if the fourth, not 
the third, visible dorsal segment is protuberant at the middle. 
These facts conclusively prove that the New Zealand Euplectini 
are provided with a retractile basal segment." 

No. 1645. — Bryaxis sylvicola, n.sp. — Convex, dark red, tarsi ful- 
vescent, nearly glabrous. Antennae 10-articulate, 6th transverse; 
7th and 8th smaller, transverse ; 9th large, its outer apex pro- 
longed ; 10th joint large, ovate. Metasternum depressed ; anterior 
coxae, with protuberant spines. Allied to B. micans, B. clavata, and 
B. dispar. 

Male— Length, J ; breadth, § line. 

Habitat. — Near Howick. 

No. 1646. — Euplectus crassipes, n.sp. — Pubescent, castaneo-rufous, 
legs fulvescent, convex, shining. Comes near E. longulus, but the 
legs are thicker than those of any other species. 

Length, f ; breadth, 1 line. 

Howick, Auckland. 

No. 1647. — E . patruelis , n.sp.— Rufous, slightly glossy, legs and 
antennae fulvous, with grayish yellow hairs. Like E. ovithorax but 
longer, the punctation ot head and thorax more obvious, without 
any raised inter-antennal space. 

Length, quite '{ ; breadth, 1 line. 

Howick. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 239 

No. 1648. — E. monticola, n sp. — Resembles E. patruelis, eyes 
smaller, head and thorax more finely sculptured, the impression 
on the head continuous, so that the foveae are not well marked off. 

Length, f ; breadth, £ line. 

Waitakerei Range. 

No. 1649. — E. ovithorax, n.sp.— -Thorax ovilorm, punctate. E. 
aspev is its nearest ally. 

Length, f ; breadth, quite J- line. 

Woodhill, Kaipara Railway. 

No. 1650. — E. cbnisus, n.sp. — More convex than E. sculptumtus, 
broader ; the depression on the head similar but punctate, inter- 
antennal portion plane. 

Length, § ; breadth, £ line. 

Waitakerei Range. 

No. 1651. — E. vacuus, n.sp. — Sub-depressed, chestnut-red, elytra 
and abdomen densely covered with short grayish hairs. Head tri- 
gonal, with two large isolated foveae. Thorax transverse, punc- 
tate ; joints 4-8 of antennae transversely quadrate. 

Length, -§ ; breadth, nearly ^ line. 

Ho wick. 

No. 1652. — E.incompkus, n.sp. — Rufous, shining, finely pubescent. 
Head short and broad. The middle joints ol antennae short ; 
punctation of head, thorax and wing-covers shallow. Allied to 
E. vacuus. 

Length, f ; breadth, \ line. 

Tairua. 

No. 1653. — E. mirificus, n.sp.— Head large, sub-quadrate, with 
a longitudinal depression near each side united on the vertex by 
a transversal one, forehead plane and punctate, side margins ob- 
tusely and unevenly elevated, the occipital portion obliquely nar- 
rowed in front and projecting over the depressed part. Front 
tibiae apparently hollowed as if for the reception of the tarsi, just 
like some of the Byvvhidce. 

Length, f ; breadth, J line. 

Howick. 

No. 1652. — E. U-impressus, n.sp. — Head large, sub-quadrate, 
rather plane, smooth, its impressions forming a reversed u, fore- 
head slightly raised. More like E. bvevitarsis than any other species. 

Length, f ; breadth, \ line. 

Woodhill, Kaipara Railway. 

No. 1655. — E* ceveus, n.sp. — Pale yellow, clothed with yellow 
hairs, shining. Head longer than broad, inter-ocular foveae con- 
tinuous, with a depression occupying most of the surface. Thorax 
hardly larger than head, much narrowed posteriorly, the three 
ante-basal foveae united, the raised space behind with three large 
punctures. Maxillary palpi accord better with Dalma than Euplectus. 

Length, 1 ; breadth, | line. 

2. " The Curse of Charity," by E. A. Mackechnie. 

3. •' On Geyser Eruptions and Terrace Formations," Part I., 
by J. Martin, F.G.S. In this paper the author attempted to give 
a description of the chief physical features of the geysers of the 
Rotorua and Taupo districts, and of the terraces and deposits 
formed by them. In the portion of the paper read on this occa- 
sion, the geysers were divided into classes, according to the pecu- 
liarities of their mode of eruption. Mr. Martin illustrated his 



240 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

views with numerous lime-light transparencies ot the principal 
geysers. 

Auckland, August nth, 1884. H. G. Seth Smith, Esq., Presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

New member — T. Steel. 

Papers — 1. "Description of Tuhua, or Mayor Island," by E. 
C. Goldsmith. This was a careful account of the chief physical 
features of Mayor Island, situated in the Bay of Plenty, between 
Tauranga harbour and Tairua. The island is wholly volcanic, 
and contains numerous extinct craters, one of which is of unusually 
large size. From it streams of lava had been poured into the sea, 
some composed of basalt, some of obsidian or other acidic volca- 
nic rocks. The whole surface of the island is thus excessively 
rough and difficult to traverse. A hot spring exists on the 
northern shore, and a portion of the floor of the main crater is 
occupied by two shallow lakes. There are no running streams, 
and only two or three springs. In former times the island had 
been thickly peopled by Maoris, and nearly all the high peaks 
had been fortified as pahs. At present the inhabitants number 
only four or five. 

3. " Buddhism and its Evolution Theories," by J. Murray 
Moore, M.D. The first portion only of this paper was read, 
and was devoted to an account of the life of Buddha ; the 
writer reserving for the second part his views respecting the his- 
tory and development of Buddhism. 

3. " Geyser Eruptions and Terrace Formations," Part II., by 
J. Martin, F.G.S. The hot lake district of Auckland is perhaps 
more widely celebrated for its magnificent terraces and other beau- 
riful structures formed by its geysers and thermal springs, than 
for the wonderful displays of volcanic activity which formed the 
subject of the first part ot this paper. While many of the hot and 
boiling springs leave little or no deposit around their outlet, or to 
mark their course, by far the larger number are distinguished by 
the structures formed in great variety by their overflowing waters. 
The characteristic features of each variety of form are determined 
by : 1. The chemical constituents of the substances held in solu- 
tion. 2. The amount of mineral matter dissolved or held in sus- 
pension in a given quantity of water. 3. The amount of heat and 
pressure to which the water has been subjected before its discharge. 
4. The regularity or periodicity of the eruptions. 5. The confor- 
mation of the surface covered by the overflow. 6. The nature of 
the obtruction which interfere with the flow of the discharged 
water. Silica, which is the most important mineral contained in 
these springs is insoluble at ordinary temperatures, but is readily 
dissolved by intensely heated water under great pressure. It is 
rapidly deposited upon release of pressure, and a more gradual 
deposition takes place with decrease of temperature. Silica is 
also volatilised by high pressure steam, and reforms as a fine 
sublimed deposit upon the escape of its vaporous solvent. The 
silica liberated by the gradual decomposition of the rhyolitic rocks 
traversed by these hot springs is in a condition greatly favouring 
its solution, and the solvent power of the water is also materially 
increased by the presence of alkalies in solution. Finely divided 
silica held in suspension may also add to the deposits found dur- 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 24 1 

ing the rapid discharge of a geyser fountain. Flocculent silica is 
slowly deposited from cold alkaline solutions upon the gradual 
conversion of the alkaline hydrates into carbonates (by exposure 
to the atmosphere). Earthy silicious sinter will be formed as a 
residuary deposit by the first evaporation of the water. The pre- 
sence of iron oxides will impart to the sinter formation various 
tints of red, orange, yellow, or brown. Sulphurous springs are 
easily recognised by their characteristic deposit. The various 
silicious formations may be classed as (a) incrustations and con- 
cretions, (b) surface deposits, (c) cementations formed by the me- 
chanical union of silicious deposits with other minerals ; (a) the 
incrustations and concretions may be white or coloured and form 
frosted or crystalline, pearly or beaded, coralloid, spongoid, or 
nodular ; in structure honeycombed, porous, granular, scaley, or 
compact ; (b) the deposits form mounds, cones, basins, cups, 
terraces, or may cover the surface with tabular blocks of amor- 
phorous sinter, or beds of laminated geyserite. The appearance 
of a new deposit is : (1) acicular and crystalline; (2) rough, scal- 
loped, fretted > or fringed ; (3) vitreous, smooth, or mammillary. 
The structure may be brittle or friable, hard, compact, laminated, 
banded, granular, or amorphous. 



OTAGO INSTITUTE. 

Dunedin, August 5, 1884. D. Petrie, Esq., President, in the 
chair. 

New member — Major- General Fulton. 

The business of the meeting was to discuss " The New Zealand 
Institute : its relations to the affiliated societies and to scientific 
work in New Zealand generally." 

The following recommendations, which it is proposed to for- 
ward to the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute, 
were discussed at considerable length and unanimously agreed to. 

1. That it is desirable in the interests of scientific work generally 
in New Zealand, that the New Zealand Institute as at present 
existing be subdivided into two portions — the following depart- 
ments under the care of the present manager, viz. : the Colonial 
Museum and Geological Survey ; the Libraries, Meteorological 
Stations, Observatory, Laboratory, and the publications belonging 
respectively to these bodies being formed into a separate Govern- 
ment department ; while the New Zealand Institute proper, 
consisting of the affiliated societies only, be reconstituted on the 
basis laid down in the following recommendations. 

2. That the management be in the hands of a Board of 
Governors constituted as follows : — One Governor to be elected by 
each of the affiliated societies, the full number of Governors (say 
fifteen) to be made up by nomination. 

3. A meeting of the Board to be held during the last full week 
in January in each year. 

4. The income of the New Zealand Institute to consist of the 
annual Parliamentary vote, together with contributions from the 
affiliated societies ; such contributions to be fixed annually by the 
Board of Governors, and not to exceed one-fourth of the annual 
subscriptions of members. 



242 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

5. That a responsible editor of the " Transactions " be ap- 
pointed by the Governors, a suitable remuneration for his ser- 
vices being provided out of the funds of the Institute. 

6. That the selection of papers for publication in the " Tran- 
sactions'' be made in the first instance by the Council of the 
affiliated societies, the final decision in each case to rest with the 
Board of Governors. 

The Hon. Secretary was requested to forward copies of the 
foregoing suggestions to the other affiliated societies, soliciting 
their co-operation in carrying out the objects desired. At the same 
time the hope was expressed that these changes might be effected 
without altering or touching the " New Zealand Institute Act." 



Dunedin, 12th August, 1884. D. Petrie, Esq., President, in 
the chair. 

Papers — (1.) " On the Anatomy of the Common Mussel (Mytilus 
latus)," by A. Purdie, M.A. 

2. " New Species of N. Z. Plants," by D. Petrie, M.A. This 
paper gives descriptions of three new species of Uncinia, and of a 
new species of Carmichcelia. The following is an abstract : — 

Uncinia laxiflora (n.sp.) is distinguished by its slender leaves 
and trigonous culms, long spikelets with small very laxly imbricated 
glumes, and small many-nerved utricles. The species has 
apparently a wide range, as it has been gathered at Stewart 
Island, Catlin's River, and the Buller Valley (T. F. Cheeseman). 
It is most closely allied to U. ccespitosa (Boott) and U filiformis 
(Boott). 

Uncinia rigida (n.sp.) is a form closely allied to the foregoing ; 
but differs from it in the shorter more compact bracteate spikelets, 
the terete culms considerably exceeding the leaves in length, and 
in the size of the utricles. This species has been found at Blue- 
skin, and is the commonest form in the Waitahuna and Roxburgh 
districts (Otago). 

Uncinia pur pnrata (n.sp.) is an exceedingly distinct torm, having 
affinity with U. rubra (Boott). It is distinguished by its rather 
short ebracteate spikelets, slender leaves much shorter than the 
culms, dark brown obtuse glumes, and brown utricles. It has 
been gathered at Signal Hill (Dunedin) and Maungatua (Taieri). 

Carmichalia gracilis (n.sp.) is also a very distinct species, having 
affinity to C. juncea (Colenso), but differing widely in habit and 
size. It forms a low, densely branched and rather spreading bush. 
The flower racemes are glabrous, the flowers rather large, and the 
pedicels about four times as long as the calyx. The pod is rather 
small, light brown or grey, shortly boat-shaped, and upturned at 
the abruptly narrowed end, which is continued into a semi-erect 
subulate beak. It is usually one-seeded. . This, the handsomest 
species of Carmichcelia native to Otago, unless we except C. Kirkii 
(Hook, f.), grows plentifully in the valley of the Kawarau and 
Clutha from Arrowtown to Clyde. It is not as yet known from 
any other locality. 

The paper contained besides some remarks on the distribution 
of the genus Carmichcelia in Otaoro. The following species are stated 
to occur in the Otago District: — C. crassicaulis (Hook f.), C. nana 
(Col.), C. grandiflora (Hook. 1.), O. odorata (Col.), C. flagelliformis 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 243 

(Col.), C. uniflora (Kirk), C. juncea (Col.), G. Kirkii (Hook, f.), G. 
gracilis, and probably G. Enysii (Kirk). The author agrees with 
Mr. Kirk's opinion that G. anstvalis (Br.) does not grow in Otago. 



LINNEAN SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Sydney, 25th June, 1884. — Dr. James C. Cox, F.L.S., &c, 
Vice-President, in the chair. 

New members — Messrs J. Mitchell, G. Masters, F. Skolten- 
hoff, L. C. Henderson, C.E. 

The Chairman announced that G. F. Angas, Esq., F.L.S., &c, 
of London, had been elected a Corresponding Member by the 
Council. 

Papers. — 1. Occasional Notes on Plants indigenous in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of Sydney, No. 7,'' by E. Haviland. 

In this paper the author treats of such species of the genus 
Goodenia as are to be found in the close vicinity of Sydney. He 
refers to the curious construction of the flowers ; especially to the 
indusium, an organ so unusual in flowering plants. He is of 
opinion that the genus is entirely dependant on the agency of in- 
sects for its fructification. 

2. " On the new Australian Fishes in the Queensland Museum. 
Part II.," by Charles W. De Vis, M.A. _ 

Sixteen species are here described, viz : — Seven of the Family 
Squamipinnes, two of the Mullidae, one of the Sparidae, four of 
Scorpaenidae, and two of the Teuthididae. 

3. " On a Marine species of Philougria, by Charles Chilton, 
M.A. 

This short paper, which was accompanied by a plate, contained 
a somewhat detailed description of a species of Philougria found 
in rock-pools at Coogee Bay, near Sydney. The species ap- 
pears to be new, and the name Philougria marina is given to it. 
Attention was drawn to its habitat since it is the only species of 
the Oniscince known to the author to inhabit the sea, the other 
species being truly terrestrial. 

4. " The Australian Hydromedusae," continued. Part IV., by 
R. von Lendenfeld, Ph. D. 

In this paper the numerous Australian species of Graptolithes, 
described by Professor McCoy, of Plumularidae described by All- 
man, Bate, Kirchenpauer and Busk, and of the Dicorynidae, are 
sifted and catalogued with references, and a large number of new 
and interesting species, and one new genus discovered by the 
author are described and figured. The Australian Plumularidaa 
exceed in the number of species the Plumularidae of all the rest of 
the world put together. 

5. " On the Flesh-spicules of certain Sponges," by R. von 
Lendenfeld, Ph. D. 

In a former paper the author expressed his opinion that 
" flesh-spicules " in Sponges, do not, as was hitherto supposed, 
only occur in such species as possess a fibrous siliceous skeleton, 
but that they may make their appearance in any species, so that 
their existence cannot be considered of sufficient importance to allow 
of a separate family being formed, comprising such Sponges only 
as possess Flesh-spicules. The author had based this hypothe- 
sis partly on general conclusions and partly on the observation of a 



244 JOURNAL OP SCIENCE. 

true Horn-sponge, a Hircinia, with fiesh-spicules. Now the author 
is enabled to prove his hypothesis by further discoveries, which he 
made during the investigation of the numerous and valuable 
sponges ot Port Jackson. He found, namely, three species pos- 
sessing " flesh-spicules," which according to the structure of their 
fibrous skeleton, should be placed in the Families of the Horn- 
sponges. 

6. Note on the slimy coating of certain Boltenias in Port Jack- 
son. By R. von Lendenfeld, Ph. D. 

Some solitary Ascidians, similar to the ordinary Boltenia aus- 
tvalis which grows close to low tide mark, but which are iound in 
deep water exclusively, are covered with a very slippery slime, an 
occurrence without precedent in Ascidians. This slime was in- 
vestigated by the author, and found to consist of a thick layer ot 
ova in their follicula-capsules. The slime is supposed to be 
formed by the cylindrical cells of the follicular. 

7. Report on the Australian Echinodermata, exhibited at the 
Fisheries Exhibition, London. By F. Jeffrey Bell, M.A., &c. 

This paper was communicated and read by E. P. Ramsay, 
F.L.S., &c. It contains a list of all the named species in the 
collection sent to London, viz., 10 species of the class Crinoidea ; 
12 of the Asteroidea, 19 of the Ophiurioidea, and 30 of the Echinioidea, 
with critical notes, &c. 

Mr. Macleay exhibited for Mr Wilkinson a very peculiar conical 
stone implement, found by Mr, A. G. Brook, of Gondoblui Station, 
embedded in the soil on the plains near the Queensland border, 
between the Narran and Barwon Rivers. The note accompanying 
the exhibit states that there are no rocks near that locality, and 
that the old aboriginals of the district know nothing about it. The 
stone is composed ot a soft fine white sandstone, is ot conical form, 
19 inches in length, and four inches in diameter in the middle ; the 
surface presents a smooth worn appearance. Dr, Cox suggested 
that it had probably been used for grinding nardoo, and that view 
seemed to receive most favour, though a number of different 
opinions were expressed. 

Dr. Cox exhibited a cluster of mud oysters, some of them 
measuring seven inches long by six broad, from Eden, Twofold 
Bay. It was unusual to find this kind of oyster attached either 
to others of its kind, as in this instance, or to rocks, Formerly 
this species, judging from the number of the shells found in the 
cooking ovens at the camps of the natives along our shores, was 
very abundant, but is now fast disappearing. Although growing 
in abundance to the south, this oyster is never likely to become a 
marketable commodity, owing to the fact that it will not live 
beyond twenty-four hours out of the water, 

E. P. Ramsay, F.L.S., &c, exhibited on behalf of Mr. A. 
Campbell, of Melbourne, a specimen of Pachycephala rufogularis 
((*ould), in a remarkable rufescent state of plumage. The whole 
of the head, fore and hind neck, chest, sides, and centre of the 
abdomen, were of a rich rust red, the interscapular region, rump, 
wing coverts and secondaries, washed with the same colour. The 
specimen was shot near Melbourne some months ago, in company 
with another of apparently the same plumage. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 245 

ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Sydney, July 21st, 1884.— Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., 
President, in the chair. 

New members.— Messrs. W. H. Binsted, J. Lackey, M.L.A., 
R. Sands, F. M. Moore, M.D., M.R.C.S., etc., F. Verde, and T. F. 
Wiesener. 

Papers.— 1. "Notes on Gold," by Dr. Leibius, M.A., F.C.S. 

1. On the remarkable occurence of gold in Queensland. — To- 
wards the end of 1882, three brothers, named Morgan, discovered 
about 25 miles from Rockhampton, near the Dee River, auriferous 
deposits, which, not only on account of their richness, but especi- 
ally from a scientific point of view, bid fair to be classed among the 
most remarkable examples of auriferous deposits yet known. The 
lucky prospectors have for some time kept their discovery rather 
quiet ; last year they had been for several months retarded in their 
work of developing their mine by want of water, and it is only com- 
paratively lately that its extent and richness have been ascertained. 
The Capricomian, a Rockhampton newspaper, in its issue of 22nd 
March last, gives an interesting account of this mine, under the 
heading "The Dee Gold-mine," from which, and also from infor- 
mation and specimen kindly supplied to me by Mr. Walter Hall, 
of Sydney, one of the present owners of the mine, I have obtained 
much valuable information regarding the same. " The Mount 
Morgan Mine," so called alter the name of its discoverer, is a 
mountain ridge, rising about 400 feet, and consists of ferruginous 
quartz, in which the gold is disseminated in a very finely divided 
state. The mountain ridge appears to be the result of a thermo- 
spring, which in past ages held quartz, iron, and gold in solution, 
and from wnich the gold has been precipitated in a finely divided 
state, more or less coated with hydrated oxide of iron. As the 
mine is being developed caves are opened out, from the roof of 
which this oxide of iron and silica hangs like stalactites the size of 
a finger, and in which the gold is readily seen finely disseminated 
as shown by samples brought here to-night. As the Caprieomian, 
before referred to, says, " the formation operated on cannot be 
called a reef. The whole hill-top seems to be o± richly auriferous 
stone. It is merely cut away to suit the convenience o"f the miners, 
so that a quarry or a broad terrace has been formed, The cutting 
is 20 feet high and about 100 feet long, and the stone is of the same 
character the whole distance, and extends to the summit of the 
mountain, several chains higher. The facility with which the gold- 
bearing quartz may be obtained, may be judged from the fact that 
a charge of blasting powder only needs to be put in anywhere 
along the workings, and tons of it can be displaced. The expense 
of securing it is therefore comparatively small. It is carted about 
a quarter of a mile along a good metalled road down the mountain 
side, and is then thrown into a wooden shoot, wide and deep, and 
at most 200 leet long. At the bottom a cutting has been made for 
the reception of the stone, and barriers raised to prevent its progress 
down the hill. It is then carted about half a mile to No. 1 battery." 
There are two batteries, one of 10 the other of 15 stampers, where 
about 230 tons are passed through per week. The before-mentioned 
paper says: — " The owners here possess an apparently inexhaustible 
deposit ot auriferous quartz, and are able to mine it for almost 



246 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

quarter of the usual cost. They are very reticent as to the amount 
ot stone they are putting through and the yield obtained ; but we 
understand about 100 tons are being crushed at No. 1 battery, and 
130 at No. 2, weekly. The return is said to be not less than 50Z. 
to the ton." While, however, especially from a geological point of 
view, the occurrence of this gold is highly interesting, the character 
of the gold obtained is not less so. Lock, in his work on gold, pub- 
lished 1882, says: — "No gold has yet been found in nature 
unalloyed with silver," yet this gold Irom the Mount Morgan mine, 
of which since February last already over 10,000 oz. have been 
received as retorted gold at the Sydney Mint, is found to be free 
from silver — a minute trace excepted. I have brought some of 
this retorted gold rolled out very thin, to show its toughness. It 
assays 99 and 7-ioths per cent, of gold ; the rest is copper, with a 
trace of iron. Gold assaying 99 and 7-ioths per cent, is worth £\ 
4s. 3d. per oz. Gold from the samt mine received at the Mint 
assayed as high as 99 and 8-ioths per cent. It is, as far as I know, 
the richest native gold hitherto tound. The richest gold next to 
this comes, I believe, from Maryborough, Victoria, which assays 
99 and 3-ioths per cent. ; while that from its namesake in Queens- 
land contains only 85 per cent. gold. F. B. Miller, in his paper on 
"Gold-refining by Chlorine Gas," read before this society in 1869. 
alludes to the curious fact that as a. rule the gold contains more 
silver as we go northwards, giving the average fineness of Victoria 
gold as 96 per cent., New South Wales 93 per cent , and Queens- 
land 87 per cent. He says, however, " these are averages only. 
It is not to be supposed that there is a regular and consecutive 
diminution in fineness' with every degree of latitude we go north. 
There are exceptional localities in the north of this colony, as at 
Rocky River, where the gold is over 96 per cent. To these ex- 
ceptions we must now add the gold from Mount Morgan. Having 
now shortly described the remarkable occurrence and purity of 
this Mount Morgan gold, a not less interesting, though less satis- 
factory fact is this— that only about half the gold is extracted by 
the ordinary quartz-crushing and amalgamating machinery. The 
Capvicovnian says : — " The tailings which are being stored are said 
to contain as much gold as is saved, and., as they will be subjected 
to treatment at a future date, the result will be highly advantageous 
to the owners." Having the small quartz-crushing machinery 
erected at the Sydney Mint under my charge, I have had 
an opportunity of testing this fact. In November last we 
received, through Mr. Hall, of Sydney, 4581b. of this fer- 
ruginous quartz, part of it consisting of picked stone. It 
was carefully crushed and amalgamated in the Chilian 
mill, with 2401b. of mercury. Thus 7 44-100 oz. of gold, assaying 
991.5 were extracted. Another lot, weighing 1741b., was similarly 
treated, and 12 12-iou oz. of gold extracted, assaying 998-2. Thus 
lot 1 gave gold at the rate of 39 32-100 oz. standard per ton of 
quartz.; while lot 2 gave gold at the rate of 169 86-100 oz. standard 
per tun of quartz. In lot 1 gold at the rate of 460Z. 2dwt. I2gr. 
per ton was left in the tailings ; while in lot 2 the tailings assayed 
640Z. 5dwt. iHgrs. of gold per tDn. Both lots of tailings were now 
mixed and passed for two hours in the Chilian mill with 2401b. clean 
retorted mercury — only 1 66-100 oz. of gold, assaying -981 were, 
however, obtained by this treatment. The tailings were dried and 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 247 

found to weigh 4761b., containing gold at the rate of 410Z. i3dwt. 
i6gr. per ton ; or in above 4761b. tailings no less than 8oz. i7dwt. 
3gr. gold. I have brought some of these tailings here. Under 
the microscope there is no gold visible. I thought that if the oxide 
of iron were removed, by boiling the tailings in hydrochloric acid, 
and the solution filtered off, the gold might more readily be dis- 
cernible in the boiled-out residue. I iound, however, that this was 
not the case ; and that iooogr. of tailings thus boiled in strong 
hydrochloric acid, by which about 20 per cent, were dissolved, gave 
me only 0730gr. of pure gold, while iooogr. of the original tailings 
not boiled out, gave 1*306 gr. of gold, the same as when boiled out 
within nitric acid. The loss of gold by boiling in hydrochloric 
acid was no doubt due to the action of this acid upon manganese 
in the ore, whereby chlorine gas was formed, a ready solvent for 
gold. That the ordinary amalgamating Chilian mill did not extract 
all the gold in this stone I can only attribute to the supposition 
that the oxide of iron has literally coated some of the fine gold, 
thus preventing it from coming in contact with the mercury. For 
such ore, Plattner's chlorination process, if worked on a large scale, 
ought to be highly successful. I am glad to hear that arrange- 
ments have been made by which the tailings will presently be treated 
at the mine by the chlorination process, whereby the gold is dis- 
solved by an aqueous solution of chlorine gas, and precipitated by 
hydro-su'.phuric acid. It would, however, be interesting to see 
whether some or any of the numerous patent gold-extracting 
machineries or appliances would be able to overcome the difficulty, 
and to treat economically and successfully these tailings or the 
original ore. That it would be of great advantage both to a patentee 
and the owners of this mine is evident. While on this subject I 
may be permitted to allude to the want in this colony of a mining 
laboratory, supplied with all the appliances not only for examining 
ores, but for extracting by the most approved methods their 
metalliferous treasures on a large scale. Of course, such an esta- 
blishment would be both extensive and expensive, but while giving 
valuable aid to mining enterprise, it could be made not only 
self-supporting, but remunerative. All depends on its or- 
ganisation and suitability to our wants. I have brought here 
one of the printed circulars issued by the celebrated Govern- 
ment smelting works of Clausthal, Freiberg, and Eisleben, 
in Germany. This circular gives the price-list for extracting 
different metals, such as gold, silver, copper, lead, bismuth, cobalt, 
nickel, arsenic, and zinc from their ores, as well as for treating 
Mint and jewellers' sweep. From this it will be seen that the 
German Government not only makes use of these establishments 
for home purposes, but actually courts for customers all over the 
world. Such an establishment, with a staff of highly experienced 
officers, would soon become a school wherefrom our future mining 
managers and metallurgists might issue, and our mining industry 
would thus receive the much-wanted scientific basis to work upon 
in developing the great wealth hidden in the bowels of this great 
continent. 2. Preparation of Fine Gold. — The preparation of 
absolutely pure gold, such as is required by assayers, &c„ is tedious. 
The gold is dissolved in nitro-muriatic acid, evaporated, largely 
diluted with water to precipitate all silver it may contain, when 
the gold is precipitated in the filtrate by oxalic or sulphurous acid. 



248 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

By Miller's refining process with chlorine gas, by which since 
1869 to present date, over 720,000 oz. of silver — more than 20 tons 
— have been extracted in this Mint out of the gold imported, the 
present quantity ol silver thus obtained being between 40 and 50 
thousand oz. per year, the gold is obtained of an average fineness 
of 99 6-ioths per cent., some being as high as 99 8-ioths per cent. 
The occurrence of this almost pure gold at Mount Morgan sug- 
gested the experiment of submitting the same to a short chlorina- 
tion process whereby the small quantity of copper, &c, would be 
readily eliminated. The result of such chlorination carried out in 
an unglazed clay crucible was highly satislactory. I have here 
some of the gold which has been subjected to a series of most 
carefully-conducted assays, and compared with fine gold received 
from the chemist of the London Mint — Professor Chandler Roberts 
— with the result that it was tound to be absolutely fine, and since 
the process by which it became so is a very short and simple one, 
I was very glad of seeing it so successful. 3, Volatilisation of 
Gold. — On this subject a vast amount of notices have from time to 
time appeared in print, and the slight volatility of gold under cer- 
tain conditions is therefore nothing new. The erection of a 
scaffolding round the mint chimney preparatory to its being repaired 
enabled me to get some of the stuff which was found outside the 
chimney on the very top coping-stone. This stuff, of which, how- 
ever, there was but little, was found to contain in 235 grains of 
sweep 3*424 grains of gold and 14-242 grains of silver, or about 
1*46 per cent, gold and 6*06 per cent silver. The gold could be 
seen under the microscope. The horizontal flues in front ot the 
melting furnaces, as well as the case of the chimney to the height 
of about 20 feet, are periodically swept, and gold and silver ex- 
tracted therefrom. Since the mint chimney is about 70 feet high, 
it shows how under certain conditions and strong draught some 
gold is carried to the top, and probably beyond. In conclusion, I 
would draw your attention to several interesting specimens of 
auriferous ores, and also a beautiful specimen of native silver from 
the Boorook mine, which I have brought here for your inspection." 
2. " On the Oven Mounds of the Aborigines in Victoria," by the 
Rev. P. Macphersou, M.A. 






We have just received a small consignment of 

BLOW-PIPE APPARATUS 

Sets in Boxes, Platinum Wire and Foil, Platinum Forceps, 
Boxes of Minerals, Test Tubes, Oil and Grease 
Lamps, Pastiles and Holders, Mag- 
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J\ "WILIKITIE & OO., 



WHOLESALE & RETAIL 



BOOKSELLERS & STATIONERS, 

PRINCES STREET NORTH, 
DUNEDIN, 



NOVEMBER, 1881] 



THE 



[No. 6, Vol. II 



NEW ZEALAND 



r\ 



m 




DEVOTED TO THE FURTHERANCE .Of 
PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE THROUGHOUT THE COLONY. 



Judicio perpende : et si tibi vera vide/it ur 

Dede /nanus : aut si falsum est, adcingere contra. 



CONTENTS: 

The Origin of the Fauna and Flora of New Zealand. By Captain F. W. Hutton, 
F.G.S. (Part II.) 

Oology of New Zealand. By T. H. Potts (continued) 

Notes on the New Zealand Frost-Fisn. By C. H. Robson 

On an Aphidian Insect infesting Pine Trees. By W. M. Marskell 

On Moa and other Remains from the Tengawai River, Canterbury ... • 

Collection and Preservation of Diptera. By Samuel Wendell Williston, New 
Haven, Conn 

Results of an Examination of some of White's Types of New Zealand Coleoptera 
contained in the British Museum Collection at London. By Dr. D. Sharp 

Van Hansen's Hypothesis of Spontaneous Generation. By Dr. R. von Lendenfeld, 
Sydney 



PAGE 

249 

274 
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293 

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MORAY I'LACK. 



TO OUR SUBSCRIBERS. 



Dear Sirs, — 

We have much pleasure in informing you that the NEW 
Zealand Journal of Science has now been in existence three 
years, and, we think, has fully justified its raison d'etre. Carried on 
at first under considerable discouragement, financially and otherwise, 
it has still kept to its original programme, and we are now prepared, 
if sufficient inducement is held out, to increase the size of the publica- 
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Name 

Address^ 



Vol. II., No. 6, NOVEMBER, 1884. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF 
NEW ZEALAND. ' 



BY CAPTAIN F. W. HUTTON, F.G.S. 
II. 

The Antarctic and North Temperate Elements* 
In my address last year I pointed out that the immigrant 
part of our fauna and flora could be divided into five elements, 
v i z — (i) Australian, (2) Polynesian, (3) S. American, (4) Antarc- 
tic, and (5) N. Temperate. I explained that of these elements 
the first three had invaded New Zealand together from the north 
at three different epochs. The { first invasion was in the lower 
cretaceous, when New Zealand formed part of a large South 
Pacific continent,-)* extending from New Guinea to Chili. The 
second was in the eocene period, the third in the pliocene, during 
both of which times New Zealand was an island, although consi- 
derably larger than at present ; but I had to postpone the proof 
of the pliocene upheaval. We now come to the. consideration of 
the two remaining elements — the Antarctic and the North Tem- 
perate — and we have to enquire at what time they came. 

The Antarctic element, as we shall presently see, must have 
invaded New Zealand from the south. It consists of plants, sea 
birds, fresh-water fishes, marine fishes, marine Crustacea, and 
marine shells. There are also a few insects — such as the beetles 
Heterodactylus and Pristancyhis of the Auckland Islands — but 
no land birds, nor land mollusca. A very large portion of the 
North Temperate element no doubt came with the Antarctic 
forms ; for, as we saw in my last address, the percentage of en- 
demic species of plants belonging to each element is almost 
identical. These probably travelled to the southern hemisphere 
by the chain of the Andes, and then spread with the Fuegian 
plants. But several of our plants, insects, and arachnids are 
allied to northern forms, and have no near relations in South 
America. These probably migrated to us direct by the moun- 
tains of the Indian Archipelago at the same time that we were 
invaded by the Australian and Polynesian floras. This latter 
portion I shall leave out of consideration, and shall confine my 
attention solely to the invasion from the south by both the 
Antarctic and N. Temperate elements. 

* Annual Address to the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, delivered 6th 
Nov., 1884. For Part I., see N.Z. Journal of Science, II., p. 1 ; and Ann. and 
Mag. Nat. Hist., Series 5, Vol. 13, p. 425. 

t M. A. Milne Edwards appears to have advocated, in 1874, tne hypothesis 
that New Zealand had formerly been joined to some islands of Polynesia, while it 
remained separated from Australia. I have not seen his paper. (See N.Z. Jour, 
Sc, I., p. 258, footnote.) 



250 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Now in dealing with this part of our fauna and flora, we have 
to take into consideration two means of dispersal, at present 

lg on, which are not found, or only to a very limited extent, in 
the tropical parts of the ocean. In the first place the almost 
constant westerly winds travelling- round the globe in high 
southern latitudes, cause an easterly current which must neces- 
sarily drift to great distances the detached masses of kelp which 
are commonly seen floating in these seas, and the kelp might 
easily convey marine Crustacea and mollusca with it. In the 
second place, the larger petrels range widely over the southern 
ocean, and might sometimes carry seeds in their plumage. I 
leave icebergs out of consideration, for they would not assist 
marine animals in migrating, and I do not see how any of our 
insects or fresh-water fishes, or the seeds of any of our flowering 
plants could get upon them. Capt. Cook thus describes the 
vegetation of S. Georgia, between Lats. 54 and 55 S. : — " Not 
a tree was to be seen, not a shrub even big enough to make a tooth- 
pick. The only vegetation we met with was a coarse strong- 
bladed grass, growing in tufts, wild burnet, and a plant like moss 
which sprang from the rocks."* No flowering plant has been 
found south of 62 S. The most southerly land on which vegeta- 
tion occurs is Cockburn Island, one of the South Shetlands, in 
Lat 64 12' S., and here there are but a few mosses and lichens. 
Sir J. Hooker landed on Possession Island, in yi° 56' S., and on 
Franklin Island, in y6° 8' S., and did not find a fragment of 
vegetation on either.f 

But if marine currents, petrels, and the wind have been the 
only, or indeed the chief means of transport, we ought to find 
that the diffusion of plants and animals bears some relation to 
the distances of the land masses from each other. Now the dis- 
tance of S. Africa from Tasmania is about the same as that of 
New Zealand from S. America, and between Africa and Tasma- 
nia there are several possible halting places, so that we should 
expect that the connection of New Zealand with S. Africa, 
brought about by these means, would at any rate be nearly as 
great a>s that between New Zealand and Patagonia. This is 
really the ca c e in our marine fishes and marine mollusca ; in 
each of which about the same number of species belong to S. 
Africa as to S. America, while about six times as many are found 
in Tasmania, which is about one-fifth of the distance of Patago- 
nip, and one-sixth of the distanc Cape of Good Hope. 

But such is by no means the case in the marine Crustacea, for 
here as many of our species are found in S. America as in Aus- 
a, while only one-third of the number oc.jur in S. Africa. 
The species of flowering plants common to New Zealand and 
Antarctic S. America are three times as many as those common 
to New Zealand and S. Africa. The species of Antarctic flower- 

* Voyage Round the World, 1772-75, Vol. II., p. 213. 

t Icebergs are said to be formed in the Gulf of Penas, in Chili (Lat. 47 S. ), but 
such an isolated occurrence need not be taken into account in the dispersal of plants, 
for these icebergs could not drift far without melting. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 25 I 

ing plants (excluding the grasses) common to New Zealand and 
Australia (including Tasmania) are only twice as many as those 
common to New Zealand and S. America, while the grasses are 
only three times as many. Even the sea-weeds do not agree in 
distribution with the marine fishes, for while the number of 
species common to New Zealand and S. America is rather larger 
than the number common to New Zealand and S. Africa, the 
species common to New Zealand and Australia are only about 
twice as numerous as those common to New Zealand and S. 
America. The fresh-water fishes show the same thing ; five are 
common to New Zealand and Australia, and two to New Zealand 
and S. America. Evidently then the communication between 
New Zealand and Patagonia has been easier for marine Crustacea, 
fresh- water iishes, and plants, at some former period. than it is 
now ; and this could only have been caused by some interme- 
diate land having formerly existed. 

This is quite in accordance with the opinion of Sir J. Hooker, 
who thinks that possibly the " plants of the Southern Ocean are 
the remains of a flora that had once spread over a larger and 
more continuous tract of land than now exists in that ocean ; 
and that the peculiar Antarctic genera and species may be the 
vestiges of a flora characterised by the predominance of plants 
which are now scattered throughout the southern islands."* And 
again, " The supposition that more land formerly existed along 
the parallels between Fuegia and Kerguelen's Land, possibly in 
the form of islands, remains the forlorn hope of the botanical 
geographer."-)- Mr. Moseley also considers more land to be ne- 
cessary to account for the almost identical floras of Kerguelen's 
Land, the Crozets, and Marion Islands ;j and Mr. Wallace comes 
to the same conclusion in his " Island Life." 

As some doubt may still remain as to the necessity of sup- 
posing a greater extension of land in former times, it will be as 
well to compare the floras and faunas of New Zealand and Tas- 
mania. We know that the high lands of both these places have 
never been submerged during the whole of the tertiary era, and 
that although at present separated by about 900 miles of ocean, 
they have probably approached to about 600 miles. A compa- 
rison therefore of their floras and faunas will furnish a very in- 
structive example of the powers of dispersion of plants and 
animals across the sea. 

Baron von Mueller enumerates 948 species of Tasmanian 
flowering plants, while the South Island of New Zealand has 68S 
species, and of these 103 are common to both — i. e. about 6j£ 
per cent, of the whole. According to Dr. Buller's " Manual " 
(1880) ninety-seven land birds have been recorded from New 
Zealand. Of these 53 are perching birds, and 44 are waders or 
rails. In Tasmania, according to Mr. E. P. Ramsay (1877), there 
are 107 land birds — viz., y8 perchers and 29 waders or rails. Of 

* Flora Nov. Zeal., intr. p. xxi. (1853). 
t Phil. Trans., Vol. 168, p. 13 (1879) 
X Linn. Journ., XV., p. 485. 



252 IOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

these only six perching birds* and 1 5 waders are common to 
both places. There have also been found in New Zealand one 
Australian perching bird, Eurystomus pacificus, and 7 waders, 
none of which are known in Tasmania. Of these perching birds 
Z. ccerulcsccns first appeared in New Zealand about 30 years ago, 
H. nigricans, A. carunculatus, E. pacificus, a.nd G. parvirostris are 
occasional stragglers, not naturalised ; while C.plcigosns migrates 
annually to and from Australia. There are also two fresh-water 
fishes, both of which go to the sea to breed, common to Tasma- 
nia and New Zealand. No fresh- water shells, and no land shells, 
with one doubtful exception,*^ are known to inhabit both places ; 
no sphinx moths, and but very few insects of any kind, some of 
which may have been introduced. If we were to include allied 
species, the list of plants would be increased, but not very much. 
On the other hand some of the plants, birds, and insects may 
have migrated into both Tasmania and New Zealand from the 
north, and may never have crossed the intervening ocean ; while 
some of the birds and insects may have been helped across by 
ships, and are not therefore fair examples of natural dispersal. 
On the whole we may well be astonished that, notwithstanding 
the strong westerly cyclones and the special facilities afforded by 
petrels, no animals except a few birds and insects, and but few 
flowering plants, have been able to cross this very ancient bar- 
rier of 600 to 900 miles of ocean. This is the more remarkable 
when we remember that the floras of Kerguelen's Land, the 
Crozets, and Marion Islands are almost identical, although the 
islands are more widely separated than New Zealand is from 
Tasmania, and they are of much smaller dimensions. The con- 
clusion is that this Antarctic group of islands must either have 
been connected, or else separated by channels much less than 
600 miles across, at some former period. 

I have already said that the greater part of the North Tem- 
perate plants spread over the southern hemisphere with the An- 
tarctic plants ; and there can be no doubt but that they mi- 
grated from the north to the south along the great meridional 
chains of mountains in a " continuous current of vegetation," as 
first shown by Sir J. Hooker, and subsequently advocated by 
Sir C. Lyell, Darwin, and Wallace. But I think that too much 
stress has been laid on the necessity for a series of alternating 
glacial epochs in each hemisphere to enable the plants to 
pass over the equatorial regions. Mr. Wallace, who is the latest 
exponent of this view, says that the " causes (which produced 
the continuous current of vegetation from north to south) were 
the repeated changes of climate, which, during all geological 
time, appear to have occurred in both hemispheres, culminating 

* Circus gouldii, Hylochelidon nigricans, Graucalus par-virosUis, Zosterops 
ccerulescens, Anthochcera carunculatus, and Chalcites plagosus. 

t Paryphanta milligani, — A large species with a wide aperture, living in damp 
woods, and not at all likely to stand a voyage. New Zealand and Tasmanian speci- 
mens have not been compared, and the dentition ol both is unknown. In New 
Zealand the species has been found in one locality only. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 2$ 3 

at rare intervals in glacial epochs, and which have been shewn 
to depend upon changes of eccentricity of the earth's orbit, and 
the occurrence of summer or winter in aphelion, in conjunction 
with the slower and more irregular changes of geographical con- 
ditions ; these combined causes, acting chiefly through the 
agency of heat-bearing oceanic currents, and of snow-and-ice- 
collecting highlands.* 

An inhabitant of the southern hemisphere may well ask in 
surprise, " Where is the evidence for this comprehensive state- 
ment ? " And Mr. Wallace himself, in the ninth chapter of his 
book, argues lucidly in favour of there having been no changes 
of any importance in the climate of the northern hemisphere 
between the triassic and pleistocene periods. All the informa- 
tion we obtain from Mr. Wallace is the following : " That there 
was such a greater accumulation of ice (in the southern hemis- 
phere) is shewn by the traces of ancient glaciers in the Southern 
Andes, and in New Zealand, and also, according to several 
writers, in Southern Africa, and the indications in all these 
localities point to a period so recent that it must almost certainly 
have been contemporaneous with the glacial period of the 
northern hemisphere." "f And further on he says, " We may 
further assume that what we know took place within the Arctic 
circle also took place in the Antarctic — that is that there have 
been alternations of climate during which some portions of what 
are now ice-clad lands, became able to support a considerable 
amount of vegetation.'^ This is all I can find in Mr. Wallace's 
book, and it must be allowed that it is very unsatisfactory. 
Let us therefore try to estimate fairly what the evidence really is. 

The only evidences in the south of former temperatures 
higher than at present, are (1) The miocene fauna which I dis- 
cussed in my former address, and (2) The fossil trees of 
Kerguelen's Land and the Crozet Islands, which must once have 
formed part of a luxuriant forest. But at the present time 
Fuegia, which is considerably south of Kerguelen's Land, sup- 
ports luxuriant forests§ and so also might the Crozet Islands 
and Kerguelen's Land if they were of larger extent. The in- 
fluence of land in mitigating the effect of the icy ocean is well 
shewn by a comparison of New Zealand with St Paul's Inland, 
in Lat. 3 8° io' S., on which the largest tree is only a few inches 
in diameter. The Kerguelen trees therefore do not imply 
a higher temperature than at present, but only a greater exten- 
sion of land, which we have already seen must at one time have 
existed. We now turn to the evidence of cold periods in the 
southern hemisphere, and we will take New Zealand first. 

It was Dr. von Haast who first pointed out that the New 
Zealand glaciers had been far more extensive at some former 

* Island Life, p. 484. + I.e. p. 157. J I.e. p. 490. 

§ Dr. Coppinger says that in the museum of Santiago there is a section of a 

beech tree from Magellan which is more than 7 feet in diameter. — Cruise of the 
Alert, p. 91. 



254 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

period than they are now,* and the evidence he brought for- 
ward has been admitted by all. For example, there is no 
doubt but that at one time, not geologically remote, the 
glaciers of the Waimakariri and of the Rakaia reached the 
Canterbury Plains, and that a branch from the Upper Rakaia 
passed through Lake Heron and joined the glacier coming down 
the Rangitata. This former great extension of our glaciers has 
been aptly called by Dr. von Haast our " Glacier Epoch," to dis- 
tinguish it from the " Glacial Epoch " of Europe, with which 
probably it nad no connection. But we have evidence of an- 
other and much earlier glacier epoch than the one ju^t men- 
tioned. At Lawrence, in Otago, there is a small rock-basin 
filled up with a conglomerate, the stones of which have come 
from the west, and some of them are distinctly marked by gla- 
cial striae. This conglomerate can be traced in a south-east 
direction to the Tokomairiro Plains, proving that a glacier at 
one time descended a valley running from the Tapanui Moun- 
tains to Kaitangata, quite across the present drainage of the 
country. The lower part of this valley has been filled up with 
rocks of oligocene age, and we have here, therefore, the 
proof of an eocene glacier epoch.-) - At Wharekauri, or 
Big Gully Creek, in the valley of the Waitaki, there is 
also another rock-basin filled with oligocene rocks. And at Castle 
Hill, on the road from Christchurch to Hokitika, there is evidence 
of a third and still earlier glacier epoch in a rock-basin, some 
eight miles long, which has been partly filled by marine upper 
cretaceous rocks, upon which lie oligocene and miocene strata. 

What now has been the cause of these three glacier epochs 
in New Zealand ? Are we to attribute each of them to a 
general lowering of the temperature of the southern hemisphere 
— that is, to a true glacial epoch ? Or are we to refer them to 
some other cause ? According to Mr. Wallace our last glacier 
epoch was due to a general lowering of the temperature, brought 
about by changes in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit, in com- 
bination with geographical changes, as explained by Dr. Croll. 
It will therefore be necessary to say a word on this subject. 

It is well known that, owing to the varying attractions of the 
planets, the mean annual velocity of the earth in its orbit is not 
the same year by year ; and as the earth has to complete its 
annual revolution round the sun in a fixed time, the distance it 
travels in each year varies. When the mean velocity increases 
the orbit increases, and vice versa. But as the length of the 
major axis of the orbit must remain constant, a greater or less 
length of orbit is obtained by an increase or decrease of the 
minor axis. So that when the average speed of the earth is 
great the orbit becomes more nearly circular, and when the ave- 
rage speed is small the orbit becomes more oval. But the sun 
must always occupy one of the foci of the orbit. Therefore as 

* Notes on the Geology of the Province of Canterbury, Cant. Pro. Gov. 
Gazette, 24th Oct.. 1862. 

t Geology of Otago, p. 93, and Cox, Geol. Reports 1878-9, p. 47. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 255 

the orbit gets flatter the position of the sun continually recedes 
from the centre ; or, in other words, the orbit gets more and 
more eccentric. As the annual amount of heat received by the 
earth from the sun varies inversely as the length of the minor 
axis, it follows that the greater the eccentricity the greater is the 
total amount of heat received from the sun. But when the 
eccentricity is great the earth is much nearer the sun in perihe- 
lion, and further away from it in aphelion, than when the eccen- 
tricity is small. Consequently that hemisphere of the earth 
which has its winter in aphelion and its summer in perihelion 
during a time of great eccentricity, will have its seasons exag- 
gerated ; a long and very cold winter being followed by a short 
but very hot summer ; while the other hemisphere will have a 
short warm winter, followed by a long and cool summer. Owing 
however to the combined action of precession of the equinoxes 
and revolution ot the apsides, the hemisphere which has its win- 
ter in aphelion is changed every 10,500 years ; and as a period 
of great eccentricity will last longer than this, these alternations 
of climate will recur perhaps three or four times before the eccen- 
tricity is greatly diminished. 

These facts, which have been well known for many years, 
were first brought prominently before geologists by Sir J. Her- 
schel in his address to the Geological Society of London in 
1832. From them we know that the earth's orbit has varied 
in past time, and we infer that these variations must have caused 
considerable changes in climate. But what these changes were, 
and to what extent they were carried are speculative deductions 
from the laws of physics, and are difficult to verify. The well- 
known hypothesis of Dr. Croll was the first of these specula- 
tions. It is very ingenious and worked out with great skill ; but it 
must of course be subject to all the complexities and uncer- 
tainties in which all meteorological phenomena are involved. 

He maintains that the large quantity of snow that would fall 
in the winter of each year on that hemisphere whose winter was 
in aphelion would not be all melted during the hot but short 
summer that followed, and consequently it would accumulate 
year by year and bring on a glacial epoch. His reasons for thinking 
that the whole snow-fall would not be melted in summer, are : (1) 
That, as snow can never rise in temperature above 3 2° R, the 
direct radiation from land covered with snow and ice would 
cool the air and lower the temperature of all surrounding bodies ; 
(2) That the rays of the sun falling on the snow and ice would 
to a large extent, be reflected back again into space ; and, (3) 
That thick fogs and cloudy skies would effectually prevent the 
rays of the sun from reaching the earth. II a reduction of the 
summer temperature by these means is allowed, he then argues 
that great changes would take place in the oceanic currents, 
which would tend stiJl further to lower the temperature of that 
hemisphere on which snow was accumulating. 

I need not allude to the objections that have been urged 
against this hypothesis. It is sufficient for my purpose to point 



256 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

out that, according to Dr. Croll himself, all depends upon the 
snow falling on land, for without land there will be no snow to 
radiate, to reflect, or to form fogs and clouds. Now, in the ant- 
arctic regions there is no great extent of land that is not already 
covered with snow. During the long cold winter of a high ec- 
centricity, the snow would fall into the sea, would be melted and 
work its way towards the equator. Consequently there would 
be no accumulation, and a high eccentricity would not bring on 
a glacial epoch in the southern hemisphere. On the contrary, 
greater cold would probably precipitate the moisture more to the 
north, and so lessen the snow-fall in high antarctic latitudes 
where alone there is land. Possibly therefore the ice would be 
reduced in quantity. Both Mr. Wallace and Dr. Croll* allow 
that high eccentricity alone would not bring on a glacial epoch 
unless the geographical conditions were favourable ; and so they 
would no doubt allow, on reconsideration, that no severe glacial 
epoch could occur in the southern hemisphere under the present 
conditions. In New Zealand more snow might fall in winter, 
but probably it would be all melted again by the greater heat of 
summer ; and, as the mean annual temperature would be higher 
with greater eccentricity, it is not likely that our glaciers would 
be much larger at that time than now. Under the present geo- 
graphical conditions, greater eccentricity might produce a greater 
precipitation of moisture in the form of snow or rain in winter, 
and greater floods in summer, and therefore a diluvial epoch, but 
not a glacial epoch. 

Now there is no reason to suppose that any very important 
geographical changes occurred in the southern hemisphere during 
the pleistocene period ; on the contrary, as will appear presently, 
the insular floras prove long isolation ; but there are several reasons 
for thinking that a diluvial epoch has occurred in New Zealand 
at a comparatively late date : that is during the depression 
which, as we shall presently see, followed our last great glacier 
epoch. These reasons I have lately given in a paper sent to the 
Geological Society,t and I need not reproduce them here, but 
the evidence is not confined to New Zealand alone. 

The Pampaean formation of S. America, so ably described 
by Darwin, which contains the remains of an enormous number 
of huge terrestrial mammals, is much like the so-called " loess 
formation " of Banks Peninsula and Oamaru, and in both cases 
violent and often-recurring floods sweeping down to the sea 
torrents of mud and the bodies of drowned animals, seem neces- 
sary to account for the phenomena. Also in a letter to me (dated 
June, 1884) Prof. R. Tate says that strong evidence is afforded 
by the distribution of Diprotodon, that Australia has passed 
through a pluvial period. So that there is evidence in New 
Zealand, in Australia, and in S. America to shew that the last high 
eccentricity of the earth's orbit may have produced in the southern 

* Phil. Mag. Feb. 1883, p. 81. 

f Sketch of the Geology of New Zealand. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 257 

hemisphere a diluvial epoch ; but we shall see directly that there 
is no evidence at all of its having produced a glacial epoch. 

Although there is no reason to suppose that any very im- 
portant geographical changes occurred in the southern hemis- 
phere during the pleistocene period, it is almost certain that dur- 
ing earlier tertiary times there was a greater extension of the 
Antarctic continent between S. America, S. Africa, and New 
Zealand. What effect this had on climate is doubtful. Accord- 
ing to Mr. Wallace it produced a long, persistent, more or less 
glaciated condition ;* while Dr. Martin Duncan invokes the 
same Antarctic continent as the cause of a warm miocene sea. 

Other hypotheses depending on cosmical causes, and there- 
fore affecting the whole world, — -such as a change of obliquity in 
the ecliptic, or a decrease in the heat derived from the sun — 
have been put forward to account for the European glacial epoch ; 
but, as these hypotheses have very few adherents, they need not 
be discussed here, especially as I believe it to be possible to 
bring forward sufficient evidence to prove that our great glacier 
epoch was not due to a general reduction of temperature in the 
southern hemisphere, and therefore was not due to any cosmical 
cause affecting the whole earth. 

In the first place there is no palaeontological evidence of any 
great change of climate in the southern hemisphere during the 
pliocene and pleistocene periods. In S. America, according to 
Mr. Darwin, the raised beaches contain the same species of mol- 
lusca as at present live in the neighbourhood. The same is the 
case in New Zealand, both with the pleistocene and pliocene 
deposits ; and no one has ever proved that any difference is to 
be found in S. Africa. So the evidence of migration from polar 
regions towards the equator, which forms such a cogent part of 
the proof of a European glacial epoch, is altogether wanting in 
the southern hemisphere. 

In the second place, our glaciers were always confined to 
valleys, and there is no proof that they ever reached the sea. 
There are no tills nor boulder clays, and no stratified moraines. 
There are no true erratics — i.e., blocks brought from some other 
drainage system — and no marine shells have ever been found 
in any of the glacier deposits, even in those which are now at 
the sea level. Dr. von Haast certainly adduces the fact that 
moraine shingle or sandspits are found between some of the 
moraines on the west coast of the South Island, as a proof that 
those glaciers entered the ? ^ ;*f- but this might well be due to the 
subsidence after the glacier epv, h, of which, as I shall presently 
point out, we have many independent proofs. If these glaciers had 
reached the sea their moraines would shew traces of having been 
deposited in water quite as much as the shingle spits between the 
moraines. 

In the third place, the cold that would be necessary to bring 
back our glaciers to their former dimensions would be sufficient 

*Island Life, p. iqj. 
t Geol. of Canterbury and Westland, p. 378. 



258 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

to exterminate throughout New Zealand all but the more cold- 
loving species of plants and animals.* But we find, as I showed 
in my last address, that the principal part of our sub-tropical 
fauna and flora was introduced before the miocene period, and 
has flourished ever since. It has, however, been lately suggested 
that the survival of our terrestrial fauna and flora through a cold 
glacial epoch may have been due to the sea standing at that time 
at a lower level than at present, and so affording room for the 
plants and animals to retire to.* No doubt Sir W. Thomson 
has calculated that the ice-cap covering northern Europe and 
America during the glacial epoch might have caused, by its 
attraction, a rise of the ocean of some 380 feet at the North 
Pole, and a lowering to the same extent at the South Pole,t and 
that the amount of water taken from the ocean t: form the ice 
might have lowered the level 120 feet all over the world. Thus 
reducing the rise at the North Pole to perhaps 260 feet, and in- 
creasing the fall at the South Pole to 500 feet at most. That is 
a fall of about 300 feet in the latitude of New Zealand. But this 
fall would occur when the ice-cap was on the northern hemis- 
phere. If the ice-cap shifted to the south the ocean would stand 
about 70 feet higher y instead of lower, round our islands, and con- 
sequently there would be no low-lying land for the plants and 
animals to retreat to. It is no doubt true, as mentioned by Dr. 
A. Geikie, that the pleistocene raised beaches and shore deposits 
of New Zealand indicate a greater elevation of the southern than 
of the northern parts of the country,! but our knowledge on this 
subject is not yet sufficiently exact to enable us to draw any 
conclusions. At present it appears as if these deposits indicated 
an elevation of 10 feet near Auckland, rising to 800 in Canter- 
bury and Otago, and if this be true the pleistocene submergence 
could hardly be due to displacement of the sea caused by the 
attraction of an ice-cap on the South Pole, for the rise is too 
great and too rapid. 

That the former extension of our glaciers was not caused by 
a cold period is, I believe, acknowledged by all New Zealand 
geologists, and also bythe late Dr. von. Hochstetter.§ Instead of 
a glacial epoch, four other hypotheses have been put forward to 
account for the phenomena: — (1.) The first is the elevation of 
the land, in combination with a more plateau-like form of the 
mountains, which would thus collect more snow.|| (2.) The 

* Trans. N.Z. Institute, viii. p. 385. 

* Dr. v. Haast, Geo!, of Canterbury and Westland, p. 381. 

t Archdeacon Pratt and the Rev. O. Fisher make it more, but only on the supposi- 
tion that the interior of the earth is fluid. Mr. Belt's calculations on this subject 
are of no value, as the enormous simultaneous ice-caps supposed by him to have 
occurred, are quite incredible. 

JText-book of Geology, p. 280 Dr. von Haast, however, who is the authority 
quoted by JJr. Geikie, is of the opposite opinion. He says "One fact however is 
certain — namely, that the land in post-pliocene times in the northern part of the 
province [of Canterbury] along the east coast stood at a lower level than at the cen- 
tral and southern portions." Geol. Gant., p. 366. 

§ New Zealand (1867), p. 505. 
Hector, Geological Expedition to the West Coast of Otago, Otago Provincial 
Gazette, 5th Nov., 1863 ; and Trans. N.Z. Institute, VI., p. 374 (1873). 



THE ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 259 

second is elevation in combination with the subsidence below 
the sea of Central Australia* (3.) The third is the plateau 
hypothesis alone, the land being at the same level as now. It 
is supposed that these plateaux have been reduced to sharp 
ridges by the erosion of the glaciers, and thus the retreat of the 
glaciers is accounted for.-)- (4.) The fourth is elevation alone, 
the retreat of the glaciers being caused by subsequent depres- 
sion.;}; 

These hypotheses resolve themselves into three, viz : — Sub- 
sidence of Central Australia, broad plateaux, and elevation — 
taken either singly or in combination. We will examine each of 
them. 

The subsidence hypothesis is thus explained by its author. 
" One cause of the greater extent of the New Zealand glaciers 

is that the elevation of the New Zealand mountains was 

probably coincident with the submergence of the low land in the 
interior of Australia, which is covered with a post -pliocene 
marine formation. The equatorial north-west winds would thus 
impinge on the New Zealand Alps without, as at present, being 
deprived of a large amount of their aqueous vapour by passing 
over the arid plains of Australia, and the condensation of snow 
by the mountains would be therefore very much in excess, and 
consequently the glaciers much larger than at present."§ This 
hypothesis is similar to one long ago proposed to account for the 
former extension of the Swiss glaciers by the submergence of the 
Sahara. But in our case it has been shewn that the hot north- 
west winds, as well as the cold south-west winds, are parts of 
westerly cyclones,|| and that they are saturated with moisture 
when they reach New Zealand. That our north-west winds owe 
their heat and dryness to local causes, and not to the arid plains 
of Australia, has been explained by Dr. Knight^ and by Mr. 
Barkas .% The subsidence of Central Australia might possibly 
decrease their temperature and therefore decrease the amount of 
aqueous vapour held by them, but this could not possibly in- 
crease the amount of snow on the mountains. 

The plateau hypothesis was proposed many years ago by 
Rendu, to account for the former extension of the glaciers of 
Switzerland, but it never obtained many adherents. It was shewn 
that the effect of plateaux is to diminish, not to increase, the 

* Hector, in a letter to Sir J. Hooker, dated 15th July, 1864, in Lyell's Princi- 
ples of Geology, 12th ed., Vol. I., p. 243, and Trans. N.Z. Institute, VI., p. 385 
(1873). 

f Haast, Q.J.G.S. XXI., p. 135 (1864), and Geology of Canterbury and West- 
land p.p. 372-4 (1879) > m his Geology of Canterbury (p. 376) Dr. v. Haast says 
that I was the former chief exponent of the theory that the extension of our glaciers 
ocurred during a partial submergence of the land. I do not know to what Dr. v. 
Haast alludes. The submergence that I have always advocated was in the pleisto- 
cene, after the glacier epoch was over. 

% Dobson, Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 340, and VI., p. 294; Travers, Trans. 
N.Z. Inst, VI., p. 299. 

§ Trans. N.Z. Institute, VI., p. 385. 

|| On the Principles of New Zealand weather Forecast, by Commander Edwin. 
R.N.; Trans. N.Z. hist., XII, p. 40 

IT Trans. N.Z. Inst., W1L, p. 47^.—% N. Z. Journal of Science, I., p. 576. 



260 IOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

size of glaciers ; and Prof. J. D. Forbes cites in proof the fact 
that, while the snow-fall in both places is about the same, " the 
largest glacier in Norway (Lodal) may be rudely estimated to 
have only one-seventh of the surface of the Aletch glacier of 
Switzerland, tributaries in both cases being excluded ; but the 
snow field connected with it may cover 400 English square 
miles at least, which probably exceeds in extent anything in the 
Alps. The perpetual snows of the Fondalen are much larger, 
and those of Sulitelma not inferior."* The size of glaciers there- 
fore is not proportional to the size of their snow-fields, as 
supposed by the advocates of the plateau hypothesis. Neither 
is the denuding power of the snow so great as supposed. Of 
course the snow-fields themselves preserve the rocks that lie 
below them ; it is only when the snow gets pressed into ice and 
begins to descend the valleys that any erosion can take place ; 
but even this erosion has, I think, been greatly over-estimated by 
the advocates of the plateau hypothesis. On this point I gladly 
avail myself of the opinion of Sir A. Ramsay, whom no one will 
accuse of underrating the amount of glacier erosion. In a dis- 
cussion at a meeting of the Geological Society of London, in 
1875, he said that " he thought that the effects of glacial action 
had been immensely exaggerated, and believed that all the great 
features of the country existed before the glacial period ;"+ and 
in the following year, in his paper on the history of the River 
Dee, he says that " by far the greater part of the valley excavating 
work was performed between permian and pre-glacial times, and 
that the work of the glaciers of the latter period somewhat 
deepened, widened, smoothed, and striated the outlines of the 
mountains and valleys, and excavated many rock-bound lake- 
basins, but on a grand scale did not effect any great changes on 
the pre-existing larger contours of the country."! 

In our own case we must remember that, even if glacier 
erosion is as great as claimed by the advocates of the plateau 
hypothesis, there have been in New Zealand, in the lower" 
cretacous and eocene periods, two earlier and probably quite as 
extensive glacier epochs, which must have reduced to ridges the 
supposed plateau, if it ever existed. We must also remember 
that the New Zealand Alps have been undergoing sub-aerial 
denudation without interruption from the Jurassic period to the 
present day ; and we have conclusive proofs that most of the 
valleys had been hollowed out nearly as deeply as now in the 
eocene period, because we find all the large river basins partly 
filled with oligoccne, or in some cases even with upper cretaceous 
rocks. I will limit myself to one example in illustration. In the 
middle Rakaia, on the right bank of the river, opposite the south 
end of Lake Coleridge, there is an outlier of oligocene limestone, 
called Red Cliff. It is lying in its original plane of deposition, 

* Norway and its Glaciers, p. 232. 
t Quar. four. Geol. Soc. XXXII., p. 204. 

% Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc. XXXII., p. 227. See also Dr. Knight in Trans. N. 
Z. Inst. VII., p. 479. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 26 1 

and is no doubt a fragment of a set of beds which once filled all 
this part of the valley. At present it is restricted to a patch 
occupying a sheltered side valley on the south side of the river, 
but it again appears at the river bed as an apparently detached 
fragment separated from the main mass in the valley by river 
gravels. This isolated portion is known as Castle Rock. Now 
the first thing to be noticed is that this oligocene limestone de- 
scends to below the present level of the river, proving con- 
clusively that the Rakaia is now running at a higher level than 
it did in the eocene period before the limestone was deposited. 
The second thing to be noticed is that the junction, up the side 
valley, between the limestone and^the palaeozoic rocks on which it 
rests, must mark the limit of the Rakaia valley at the time when 
the limestone was deposited. If therefore any great lateral 
denudation had taken place since that time, the line of junction 
ought to stand out as a prominence. But on the contrary it is 
in a valley, apparently much in the same position with regard 
to the other parts of the valley as when the limestone was 
formed. Consequently no great plateau on the south of the 
Rakaia can have been removed. 

Many other instances could be cited, but this one must 
suffice, for it alone is sufficient proof that the denudation which 
has taken place during the comparatively short time that has 
elapsed since the commencement of our last great glacier epoch 
cannot have affected the shape of the mountains to such an 
extent as to make it worth while to take this cause into con- 
sideration, even if it acted in the direction supposed. That the 
large river valleys were more or less filled to a height of 3000 or 
4000 feet above the present sea level by tertiary rocks, most of 
which have been since removed, is no doubt true. But as this 
is below the line of perpetual snow — which is estimated by Dr. 
von Haast and Mr. M'Kerrow to be between 7000 and 8000 feet 
, — this filling up of the valleys, if it affected the level'of the snow- 
line at all, would raise it by radiation in the same way that the 
plateau of Thibet raises the height of the snow-line on the 
northern slopes of the Himalaya. 

As therefore both the subsidence and the plateau hypotheses 
are quite untenable, we must fall back on elevation of the land 
as the main, if not the only cause of the former extension of our 
glaciers ; and it is strongly confirmatory of this hypothesis that 
the two earlier glacier epochs each occurred at a time when we 
have independent proof that the land stood at a far greater 
height than at present. With regard to the last glacier epoch it 
has been estimated that an elevation of between 3000 and 4000 
feet would be quite sufficient to bring back the glaciers to their 
former dimensions.^ 

But if our last glacier epoch was caused by elevation of the 
land, it is easy to prove that it must be of an elder date than 
the glacial epoch of Europe, because while our islands are sepa- 

X Trans. N. Z. Institute, XIII., p. 385. 



262 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

rated by a strait only 500 feet deep, the difference between their 
floras and faunas is far greater than the difference between the 
floras and faunas of England and Europe which were separated 
in the pleistocene period immediately after the glacial epoch. 
In the South Island we have six different kinds of birds repre- 
sented by different species in the North Island,* and this cannot 
be due to difference of climate, because some parts of the South 
Island are further north than parts of the North Island. Of the 
plants I am not competent to speak, but a comparison of the 
floras on each side of Cook's Strait would be of great interest.? 
Consequently the two islands of New Zealand must have been 
separated during, at least, the whole of the pleistocene period. 
But an elevation of 500 feet would join them, and an elevation 
of 1 100 feet would lay bare the whole of Cook's Strait, so that 
we are driven to the conclusion that this amount of elevation has 
not occured during the pleistocene period, and consequently our 
glacier epoch must have been earlier than the European glacial 
epoch. On the other hand the similarity of the land shells, in- 
sects, plants, birds, &c, forbids us placing the last separation be- 
fore the pliocene. That is to say, New Zealand must have stood 
more than 500 feet higher than at present during some part of 
the pliocene period ; for, if not, the plants and animals on the two 
islands would have been more differentiated than they are. 

But even if we do not assume that elevation was the cause of 
our glaciers, still there is independent evidence that our glacier 
epoch is older than the glacial epoch of Europe and N. America. 
First there are the glacier phenomena themselves. Several of 
the older lakes, such as those of the Rakaia, and of the central 
parts of Otago, have been completely filled up ; while others, such 
as the lake in the Upper Dillon, Lake Heron, Lake Tekapo, and 
Lake Pukaki, are approaching their end. Glacier striae are 
generally absent, although the rocks still retain their rounded 
form ; and in the district of Central Otago masses of rock ten or 
twelve feet in thickness have been removed from the mountains 
by ordinary atmospheric weathering since the ice passed over 
them.J In the second place the drainage system has been much 
altered since the glacier epoch ; the gorges of the Kawarau, 
Dunstan, Mataura, and Upper Taieri in Otago,§ and that of 
the South Ashburton in Canterbury, having been entirely cut 
since then. 

* South Island. North Island. 

Myiomoira macrocephala represented by M. toitoi. 
Myioscopus albifrons ,, M. longipes. 

Turnagra crassirostris ,, T. hectori. 

Glaucopis cinerea ,, G. wilsoni. 

Ocydromus australis ,, O. earli. 

Apteryx australis ,, A. mantelli. 

t In the Trans. N. Z. Inst., XVI., p. 466, Mr. W. T. L. Travers gives an in- 
teresting table shewing the distribution between the islands of if; genera of plants ; 
but as no attempt is made to distinguish the differences due to different station and 
climate from those due to isolation, it is not available for my present purpose. 
X Geology of Otago, p. 91. 
§ Geology of Otago, p. 94. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 263 

Let us now see what palaeontological evidence there is to fix 
the date of this upheaval. Marine strata belonging to the 
Pareora System, and containing, so far as we know at present, 
from 20 to 45 per cent, of living species of mollusca, are found 
throughout New Zealand from Southland to Auckland. These 
may be considered as of miocene age. The next series, in 
ascending order, shews a very different assemblage of fossils. It 
is called the Wanganui System, and is widely spread over the 
North Island. The marine beds contain a number of shells, of 
which from 70 to 90 per cent, are still living. This system must 
therefore be referred to the newer pliocene. No fossiliferous 
marine rocks of this system are known as yet in the South 
Island, but it is represented by thick masses of unfossiliferous 
gravels. Marine deposits with shells of still living species, and 
therefore of pleistocene age, are found at various places in both 
islands, from Auckland to Oamaru and Dunedin,* and in addition 
there are many unfossiliferous shore deposits and other indica- 
tions that a gradual elevation was going on during the whole 
of the pleistocene period all round the coasts south of Auckland. 
While therefore we have ample evidence in fossiliferous rocks 
that the land stood at a lower level than at present during the 
miocene, newer pliocene, and pleistocene periods, there is a break 
in our geological record in the older pliocene of which we have 
no trace in marine strata. This can only be accounted for by 
one of two suppositions ; either (1) that all the beds of that age 
have been covered up, or have been removed by denudation ; 
or (2) that during this period New Zealand stood at a higher 
level than at present, in which case the marine beds would be 
deposited at a level which is now below the sea, and consequently 
inaccessible to us. As we have both miocene and newer pliocene 
beds in abundance, there is no reason for thinking that the first 
supposition is correct ; while we have good reasons, in the dis- 
tribution of our fauna and in our old glacier marks, for believing 
that New Zealand was considerably elevated in the pliocene 
period. The conclusion therefore is that our last great glacier 
epoch was caused by an elevation of the land that took place 
during the older pliocene ; or, more precisely, in the interval be- 
tween the Pareora and the marine beds of the Wanganui 
systems. Possibly this elevation may have continued in the 
South Island during the whole of the pliocene, but it was cer- 
tainly over before the advent of the pleistocene. In my address 
last year I mentioned this elevation as necessary to explain the 
flora of the Kermadec Islands, but I had to postpone the proofs 
of it until now. 

It appears therefore that, so far as New Zealand is concerned, 
Mr. Wallace is incorrect in his statement already quoted, that 
the traces of ancient glaciers " point to a period so recent that it 

* See Trans. N.Z. Inst., V., p. 387; Geology of Otago, pp. 70 and 78; 
M'Kay, Geol. Reports 1878-9, p. 84; Von Haast, Geology of Canterbury, p. 366 ; 
Percy Smith, Trans. N.Z. Inst., XIII., p. 398. 



264 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

must almost certainly have been contemporaneous with the 
glacial epoch of the northern hemisphere." 

Let us now turn to Australia. In Tasmania there appear to 
be several glacier lakes, but I have seen no description of any 
moraines. Lake Omeo, in the Australian Alps, may also have 
had the same origin, but it must not be forgotten that in a dry 
climate like Australia, the wind may excavate rock basins. A 
glacial epoch, however, is not required to account for these. 
Whether Australia has undergone the rigors of a glacial epoch 
is a moot question with Australian geologists. Mr. Tenison- 
Woods* and Mr. Howitt"(* can find no traces of it ; while Pro- 
fessor R. Tate is of the contrary opinion and instances striated 
rock surfaces and small granite erratics on the beach at Black 
Point, Holdfast Bay, near Adelaide ,J but he considers all these 
to be of pliocene age. This is in Lat. 35 S., only one degree 
south of Sydney. Professor Tate also describes parallel grooves 
and scratches running east and west in the rocks in the bed of 
the Inman, Cape Jarvis ; and on these grooves Mr. Selwyn had 
previously remarked that they strongly reminded him of similar 
grooves he had so frequently seen in the mountains of North 
Wales. Mr. G. S. Griffiths has also lately read a paper to the 
Royal Society of Victoria, " On the evidences of a glacier epoch 
in Victoria during post-miocene times." Mr. Griffiths allows 
that the evidence is not altogether satisfactory, consisting as it 
chiefly does of the wide distribution of clays with gravels and 
boulders, for the most part well water-worn ; but he considers 
that a pliocene glaciation offers the best explanation of the facts. 
If the glacial theory is rejected, he says, " we shall have to 
believe that since the pliocene era commenced Victoria has been 
elevated and depressed to a considerable extent at least five or 
six times" (p. 26). It seems to me, however, that one subsi- 
dence, varied with-several slight upward oscillations, is all that is 
required ; and as in Victoria marine pliocene rocks occur up to 
1720 feet above the sea,§ I think that this last hypothesis pre- 
sents far fewer difficulties that the former, especially when we 
remember that there are no true glacial phenomena in New 
Zealand. 

It is indeed hard to believe that these Australian glacial 
phenomena are due to a general cold period in the southern 
hemisphere; for if such had been the case, the South Island of 
New Zealand must have been covered with snow and ice, and 
almost all life would have been destroyed, a supposition which 
Mr. W. T. L. Travers has shewn it is impossible for us to allow.|| 

We come now to S. Africa. Mr. Wallace says that " accord- 
ing to several writers " there are traces of ancient glaciers in the 
Transvaal. But so far as I know only two writers — Mr. Stow 



* Proc. Lin, Soc. of N. S. Wales, VII., p. 382. 

t Quar. Jour. Ged. Soc. XXXV., p. 35. 

% Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Australia, 1878-9 Anniversary Address. 

§ Lock's Gold, p. 931, quoted by Mr. Griffiths, p. 22. 

|| Trans. N.Z. Inst., VII., p. 409. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 265 

and Captain Aylward — have expressed this opinion from a per- 
sonal knowledge of the country ; and Mr. Wallace has forgotten 
to mention that at the meeting of the Geological Society at 
which Mr. Stow's paper was read, Mr. Griesbach, who had ex- 
amined the district, "disputed the possibility of any of the gravels 
(of the Vaal) being of glacial origin."* Again, Mr. Wallace says 
that " we have here all the chief surface phenomena characteris- 
tic of a glaciated country ."t But this is not quite correct. The 
only phenomena mentioned are striations, rounded hills, and 
unstratified gravels and clays, with boulders, called by Mr. 
Wallace morainic matter. There are no perched blocks, no ter- 
minal moraines, no glacier lakes. Now rounded hills occur in 
many places where no ice has ever been, and various marks have 
often been mistaken for glacial striae, and tumultuous accumula- 
tions of gravel with boulders occur in all mountainous countries 
liable to floods. The only unmistakeable evidences of ancient 
glacier action — viz., terminal moraines and lakes — are absent. 
It is true that Dr. Shaw mentions abundant lacustrine deposits 
along the Vaal River,J and these may occupy old glacier lakes. 
But if so, these deposits clearly do not " point to a period so 
recent that it must almost certainly have been contemporaneous 
with the glacial period of the northern hemisphere." On the 
contrary, they point to a time older, perhaps, than the glacial 
epoch of New Zealand. There is also another and quite distinct 
line of argument, which leads to exactly the same conclusion. 
The mountain system of the Transvaal, in Lat. 25 S. to 27 S., 
may be compared to the New Zealand Alps, between the lati- 
tudes 44 S. and 45 S. The S. African mountains are certainly 
not higher, and the rainfall on them is certainly not greater. 
But this portion of the New Zealand Alps has no glaciers at all 
comparable to the large ones supposed to have formerly existed 
in the Transvaal, although it is 18 further south, and is much 
nearer to the sea, so that a reduction of temperature sufficient to 
bring glaciers to the Transvaal would be equivalent to moving it 
at least 20 further south. Now Kerguelen's Land, situated in 
48 S., would also be virtually removed 20 further south — that 
is to a latitude where, as I have already mentioned, no vegeta- 
tion, except perhaps a few mosses and lichens, could exist. If 
this has been so, the whole of its present phanerogamic flora 
must have been introduced since this glacial epoch. But a« out 
of its 21 species of flowering plants there are two genera and 
eleven species found only there or in the neighbouring islands, 
we cannot suppose that its flora dates only from the pleistocene. 
Consequently this glacial epoch, if it ever took place, must have 
been long anterior to the glacial epoch of Europe. 

Proofs of a former extension of glaciers undoubtedly occur in 
South America as far north as 42 S., which is about the 
northerly limit of glacier marks in New Zealand. But in South 

* Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc. XXVIII., p. 27. 

f Island Life, p. 158, foot-note. 

X Quar. jour. Geol. Soc. XXVIII., p. 26. 



266 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

America there is no evidence as to their date. This is, however, 
unnecessary, for we have already seen that the ancient glaciers 
of New Zealand, of Australia, and of South Africa (if any) belong 
to periods very different from the glacial epoch of Europe. Mr. 
Wallace therefore was hardly justified in assuming, without 
making a personal examination, that '■ the close similarity in 
the state of preservation of the ice-marks and the known activity 
of denudation as a destroying agent, forbid the idea that they 
belong to widely separated epochs ;"* and consequently his 
argument that " if we reject the influence of high eccentricity as 
the cause ol this almost universal glaciation, we must postulate a 
general elevation of all these mountains about the same time,*)*" 
falls to the ground. 

I believe that almost all New Zealand geologists are now 
agreed that our last great glacier epoch was in the pliocene 
period ;J and it seems that an elevation of the land in pliocene 
times affords the only satisfactory explanation of the phenomena. 
The question now arises, Did the pliocene extension of land-area 
include the outlying islands ? This is a question which has been 
lately much discussed in France. M. Blanchard maintains that 
all were included ; M. Alph. Milne Edwards thinks that the 
Chatham Islands only were connected with New Zealand ; and 
Dr. H. Filhol, while allowing a former land extending down to 
the Auckland Islands, doubts whether Campbell Island ever 
formed part of it, § his reasons being partly geological con- 
siderations which compel him to think that this island only 
appeared above the sea at the close of the pliocene, and partly 
the absence of all land birds and lizards. Mr. Wallace says, 
" whether this early land extended eastward to the Chathams 
and southward to the Macquaries we have no means of ascer- 
taining, but as the intervening sea appears to be not more than 
about 1500 fathoms deep, it is quite possible that such an amount 
of subsidence may have occurred."|| To try to form an opinion 
of our own we must examine the faunas and floras of these 
islands. 

Chatham Islands. — Distant 400 miles from New Zealand. 
The fundamental rock of the main island is a micaceous slate, 1T 
upon which lie miocene limestone and volcanic rocks. Pitt's 
Island is composed of volcanic rocks and limestone, with some 
lignite and shale. It is more than 600 feet high, while the main 
island does not attain to that altitude. There appear to be no 
raised beaches or other signs of recent elevation.% There are 

* Island Life, page 504. 

tic p. 504. 

% Travers, Trans. N.Z. Inst., VI., p. 302 ; Dr. von Haast, Geol. of Canterbury, 
p. 372 ; Dr. Hector, Geol. Reports, 1883, p. 13 ; S. H. Cox, Geological Reports, 
1883, p. 9. Mr. Dobson alone would put it later, Trans. N.Z. Institute, VII., p. 
440. 

§ See N.Z. Journal of Science, I., pp. 251 and 259. 

|| Island Life, p. 455. 

IF Haast, Trans. N.Z. Inst., I., p, 180. 

• # Travers, Trans. N.Z. Inst., IV., p. 63. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 267 

21 species of land birds, of which six are endemic, and of these 
four are representatives of New Zealand species.* The gold 
cuckoo is identical with that of New Zealand and Australia. It 
migrates annually to and from the islands, and Mr. Potts informs 
me that it has been seen at the beach at the north-west point of 
the Island, quite exhausted and wet with sea spray. This was 
in October, the month in which the bird always arrives. There 
is, I believe, no proof that Apteryx, Stringops, or Ocydromus ever 
lived on these islands, and no moa bones have been found there. 
But on Pitt's Island there is a flightless rail (Cabalus modesties) 
allied to Ocydromus. There is one species of lizard on Pitt's 
Island identical I believe with the common Mocoa zealandica. 
Also a slug (Janella bitentaculata) and a land shell (Thalassia 
neozelanica), both of which are common in New Zealand. The 
flora has been tabulated by Mr. Buchanan in Trans. N.Z. Inst., 
Vol. VII. From this list I lind that 67 species of flowering 
plants are known, of which 12, or 18 per cent, are endemic. 
There is also one endemic genus. 

Now, when we remember that no lizards nor land shells have 
passed between Tasmania and New Zealand, and that very few 
plants are common to the two, although the distance is not 
much more than twice that of the Chatham Islands, it becomes 
evident that our connection with these islands must at one time 
have been much closer than it is now ; and the presence of the 
flightless rail and the slug point strongly to an absolute connec- 
tion between the two lands. This is again confirmed by the oc- 
currence of the migratory cuckoo ; for, as Mr. Darwin has pointed 
out, there are no migratory birds on true oceanic islands, that 
is on islands which have never formed part of the main land *f* 

The Antipodes Islands. — Distant from New Zealand 450 
miles. They appear to be entirely volcanic, and attain an eleva- 
tion of 700 feet. The only land-bird known is a paroquet, and the 
only plant known is Phormium tenax. 

Auckland Islands. — Distant from New Zealand 240 miles. 
According to Dr. Hector, these Islands are composed of granite, 
with tertiary sandstones, lignite, and volcanic roc ks. J They 
rise to 2000 feet above the sea. The land birds are Harpa novce 
zealandice, AntJwrnis melanura, Myiomoira macrocephali, Myios- 
copus albifrons, AntJms novce zealandice, Platycercus novce zealan- 
dice, var. aucklandicus, P. auriceps, and a rail said to be identical 
with R. brachipns of Tasmania. There is also a flightless duck 
(Nesonetta aucklandicd), belonging to to an endemic genus, 
and a species of Mergus. There is a slug (Janella bitentaculata), 

* Chatham Islands. New Zealand. 

Anthcrnis melanocephala represents A. melanura. 

Sphenseacus rufescens „ S. punctatus. 

Gerygone albofrontata ,, G. igata. 

Myioscopus traversi ,, M. albifrons 
Rallus dieffenbachii 
Cabalus modestus 

t Appendix to Mr. Romanes' Mental Evolution in Animals, p. 359, foot-note. 
% Trans. N.Z. Inst. II. p. 179. 



268 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

and three species of land shells (Patula unguiculus, AmpJd- 
doxa zebra, and Tlialassia neozelanica var. antipoda, and var. 
aucklandica) All but the last variety occur in New Zealand. 

Campbell Island. — Distant from New Zealand 420 miles. 
According to Dr. Hector, the rocks are blue slate and sandstone, 
like our lower mesozoic beds, as well as chalk, with flints, and 
volcanic rocks.* Dr. H. Filhol, however, does not mention any- 
sedimentary rocks except limestone. Its highest point is 1600 
feet above the sea. According to Mr. H. Armstrong, a ground 
lark and a small bird like a wren (probably Zosterops) are found 
here, but Dr. Filhol saw no land birds. It has one endemic 
land shell {Helix campbellicd), and two endemic flowering 
plants. 

Macquarie Island. — Distant from New Zealand 600 miles. 
The rocks are said to be greenstone, sometimes veined with 
quartz, occasionally amygdaloidal, and containing mesotype and 
analcime.*!* The land birds are Patycercus novce zealandice, var. 
erythrotis, an endemic rail [Rallus (?) macquariensis ) and a 
species of Ocydromus (probably O. brachypterus.) 

The floras of the southern group of islands — Auckland, 
Campbell, and Macquarie — are so closely connected that they 
must be taken together. They have between them 11 1 species 
of flowering plants, of which 25 — i.e., 22 per cent. — are endemic. 
There is also one endemic genus, and seven antarctic species, 
which are not known from New Zealand. We may therefore 
conclude that the evidence given by the birds and land mollusca 
is decidedly in favour of the Auckland Islands and Macquarie 
Island having been connected with New Zealand. Whether 
Campbell Island formed part of this land, or whether it dates 
from a still later time, may remain for the present an open 
question. But the possession of an apparently endemic species 
of land shell and two endemic species of flowering plants, are in 
favour of the former supposition. It is remarkable that the 
floras of the Chatham Islands, and of the southern group of 
islands have each become differentiated by about the same 
amount, and we must infer from this fact that their isolation 
from New Zealand was pretty nearly contemporaneous. I men- 
tioned in my last address that the flora of the Kermadec 
Islands, judging from the very scanty collections that have been 
made there, contains only 14 per cent, of endemic species, and 
its isolation may therefore date from about the same time. It 
appears probable that all were connected, or nearly connected, 
with New Zealand during the pliocene period ; and, if this be 
correct, it follows that the differentiation of the flora since then 
has been about 20 per cent., which is not very different from the 
rate of change in the marine mollusca. 

We now come to the question — By what route did the an- 
tarctic plants reach New Zealand ? As the Auckland Islands, 
Campbell Island, and Macquarie Island all contain antarctic 

* Trans. N.Z. Inst. II. p. 176. 

t Prof. ScuU, Trans. N.Z. Inst., XV., p. 487. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 269 

species which do not occur in New Zealand, it is evident that 
their floras are not altogether derived from New Zealand, but 
that the antarctic plants came through them and spread north- 
ward. It is true that there are also antarctic species in New 
Zealand which are not found in the southern islands; but this is 
only what we should expect, when we consider the relative size 
of the places, and reflect that these islands are merely the remains 
of a more extensive land. But granting that these plants came 
to New Zealand from the south, did they spread from S. America 
to the east or to the west ? Mr. Wallace says that the route by 
which the Fuegian plants may have reached New Zealand is 
easily marked off. It is by South Shetland Islands, Graham's 
Land, the Antarctic Continent to Victoria Land, thence to Adelie 
Island, Young Island, and Macquarie Island.* Thus passing 
from Graham's Land in a westerly direction at the high latitude 
of more than 70 S. to Victoria Land, along a coast where no 
vegetation now exists. He gives, however, no reasons for adopt- 
ing this route, and it does not seem to be quite consistent with 
his previously expressed opinion of a '" long persistent more or 
less glaciated condition " of the southern hemisphere. On the 
other hand, Sir J. Hooker points out that there are five groups 
of islands between Fuegia and Kerguelen Land, then none to 
Macquarie and Campbell Islands, and none across the whole 
Pacific Ocean from Campbell Island to Fuegia. He says that 
" Tierra del Fuego and the neighbouring southern extremity of 
the American continent appear to be the region of whose botani- 
cal peculiarities all the other antarctic islands, except those in 
the vicinity of New Zealand, more or less evidently partake. It 
presents a flora characterising isolated groups of islands extend- 
ing 5000 miles to the eastward of its own position. Some of 
these detached spots are much closer to the African and Aus- 
tralian continents, whose vegetation they do not assume, than to 
the American, and they are all situated in latitudes and under 
circumstances eminently unfavourable to the migration of species, 
save that their position relatively to Fuegia is in the same direc- 
tion as that of the violent and prevailing westerly winds."-f* But 
in a foot-note he says that too much stress has been laid upon 
winds in spreading plants, pointing out that both in the Pacific 
and in the North Atlantic plants have spread against the pre- 
vailing wind. 

Of the form of the basin of the Southern Ocean we know 
very little ; but it appears to be shallow, getting deeper towards 
the north. The two thousand fathom line passes close to Cape 
Horn, but keeps some distance to the south of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Tristan d'Acunha and Kerguelen Land stand upon sub- 
marine plateaux which extend nearly to Lat. 30 S., but it is 
uncertain whether either of them are connected with the antarctic 
plateau which surrounds the pole. The New Zealand plateau 

* Island Life, p. 489. 

t Flora Antarctica, II., p. 21 I, 



270 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

is said by Mr. Wallace to be connected with the antarctic 
plateau, but other geographers make a deep channel between 
Campbell Island and Macquarie Island, and another south of 
Macquarie Island. From what is known of the geology of the 
antarctic islands it appears that all are volcanic, except S. 
Georgia, which is part of an old slate mountain range. 

If we examine the faunas and floras of the islands along this 
track we find that Tristan d'Acunha, although three times as far 
from Fuegia as it is from the Cape of Good Hope, has its flora 
much more nearly allied to that of Fuegia than to that of Africa. 
Kerguelen Land also has its flora much more related to that of 
Fuegia than to that of the Auckland Islands, although the dis- 
tance is half as far again. This island has also 58 species of 
marine mollusca, of which 13 are found in South America, 6 or 
7 in New Zealand, and only 4 at the Cape of Good Hope ; and 
it has One endemic land shell — Helix Hookeri. Its fauna and 
flora must therefore have come from the west, and passed on by 
the east to New Zealand. We have already seen, in the early 
part of this address, that more land communication than at 
present exists is necessary to explain the migration of the 
antarctic fauna and flora ; and we have therefore in the antarctic 
plateau, stretching from near South America in an easterly 
direction to Victoria Land, and either connected with, or but 
slightly separated from, land that extended to 30 S. in the South 
Atlantic and Indian Oceans, the probable position of the con- 
tinent along which the migration took place, but which was 
always separated from New Zealand by a broad and deep 
channel south of Macquarie Island. 

There remains now only the question — What was the date of 
this migration into New Zealand ? It is evident that it could 
not have taken place, as a whole, in the pliocene or later, because 
we have already seen that the floras of the outlying islands have 
only differentiated some 20 per cent, in species since the pliocene ; 
while the New Zealand antarctic flora, as I mentioned in my 
last address, has differentiated by about 65 per cent, in the 
species. Also it must, as a whole, have been before the eocene, 
as since then the differentiation of species has been at least 90 
per cent. The main immigration must, therefore, have taken 
place either in the miocene, when New Zealand was reduced to 
a number of islands,* or else part must have arrived in the plio- 
cene and part in the eocene, at both of which times New Zealand 
extended much further to the south. Let us try to see which 
of the two is the more probable. 

It would be a great mistake to suppose that our alpine 
flora is almost exclusively composed of plants of antarctic 
or north temperate origin. Of 189 species of alpine plants 
belonging to 64 genera, I find that 48 per cent, are of 
antarctic (including N. Temperate) origin, 37 per cent, are 

* There is evidence that an elevation occurred between the deposition of the 
Oam am and Pareora Systems, but this elevation was slight, and New Zealand wa 
probably of no greater extent at that time than it is now. 



THE ORIGIN OF THL FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 27 1 

sub-tropical, and 15 per cent, are endemic. As about 44 per 
cent, of the total flora is antarctic, 48 per cent, sub-tropical, and 
18 per cent endemic, it would appear that the special adaptation 
of antarctic plants to cold regions has not availed them very 
much. For, composing 44 per cent, of the whole vegetation, 
they have only obtained to 48 per cent, of the alpine flora. 
Some of our Alpine species belong to quite sub-tropical genera — 
as Myrsine, Cyathodes, Dacrydhcm, and Phyllocladus ; but there 
is no large genus in New Zealand that is not represented by 
alpine forms. On the other hand only about 35 per cent, of 
the antarctic species are alpines, the other 65 per cent, living on 
the lowlands ; and out of 56 antarctic genera, about one-half 
have no alpine species at all. Again, out of 189 New Zealand 
alpine species, only 13 are found elsewhere — 9 in Australia or 
Tasmania, and 4 in Fuegia — so that 93 per cent, are endemic. 
Out of 64 alpine genera only 17 are confined to the Alps, and 7 
of these are endemic. These facts show that our alpine flora 
has, on the whole, grown out of the lowland flora, and that the 
arrival of alpines, as alpines has been quite exceptional. The 
ancestral forms have arrived on the lowlands, and their descen- 
dants have gradually worked their way up the mountains. Mr. 
Wallace has remarked that alpine plants are particularly well 
placed for dispersal, on account of the high winds so common in 
mountains. This is quite true, and explains their migration from 
mountain top to mountain top along a chain ; but it will not 
apply to the spread of plants to distant islands, because, although 
more seeds of alpine than of lowland plants would be blown 
away, all would arrive on the island at or near sea-level, and 
thus the alpines would not find their accustomed station, while 
the fewer seeds blown or carried by birds from lower levels would 
have a better chance of living in their new home. Alpine plants 
might succeed if they were blown into higher latitudes, but they 
would have less chance than lowland plants in a migration to- 
wards the equator. So that in the case of a migration between 
New Zealand and an antarctic continent, alpine plants of the 
former would more readily pass to the latter than the antarctic 
plants to New Zealand. 

From these considerations it appears evident that antarctic 
plants would have but a slight chance of establishing themselves 
in New Zealand if it were of smaller dimensions than at present, 
and especially if the surrounding seas were warmer, as appears 
to have been the case in the oligocene and miocene periods. 
These plants must therefore have come either during cold periods, 
of which there is no evidence, or else they must have come dur- 
ing those periods of elevation in which New Zealand stretched 
more to the south. This last supposition is certainly the more 
reasonable, and it agrees well with the proportion of endemic 
species found in the antarctic and North Temperate elements. 
There must therefore have been a greater continuity of land be- 
tween Fuegia, Kerguelen's Land, and New Zealand in both the 
eocene and the pliocene than there is now. Whether this land 



272 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

was always a series of islands, as it must have been in its earlier 
and its later stages, or whether it once was nearly continuous, is 
a matter of speculation. Of the 21 species of flowering plants of 
Kerguelen's Land, three — or 14 per cent. — are found there only ; 
while eleven — or 50 per cent. — are confined to Kerguelen, the 
Crozets, Marion Island, and Heard Island. I should therefore 
judge, from what we know of the flora of New Zealand, that 
this group of islands separated from Fuegia in the miocene and 
that the islands themselves were not separated from each other 
until late in the pliocene. The distribution of the petrels also 
points to the ancient date of the present oceanic conditions of 
the southern hemisphere. It is the only group ot birds which 
has originated in the south and spread to the north. The Alba- 
tross, Fulmar, and Shearwater of the north are all represen- 
tatives of southern species, while the south has several genera 
not represented at all in the north, eg., Ossifraga, Pterodroma, 
Daption, Prion, Pelacanoids. The only genus better developed 
in the north than in the south is that of the Shearwaters 
Puffinns), which is hardly ever seen out of sight of land. All the 
truly oceanic petrels are of southern origin, "f From this it seems 
probable that an antarctic continent south of Africa, and in- 
cluding Tristan d'Acunha and Kerguelen's Land, may have 
existed from the eocene to the pliocene period, that it was sub- 
merged during or before the pleistocene, and that we now see rem- 
nants of it in Graham's Land, Enderby Land, and Victoria Land. 
During the time this land existed it is possible that colder and 
warmer periods may have occurred when the eccentricity of the 
earth's orbit was great ; but this I consider a mere speculation 
unsupported by any evidence, for changes of climate are not 
required to account for any of the phenomena. 

It is evident from what has been said, that the north tem- 
perate plants came to New Zealand before the pleistocene 
period, and consequently they could not have migrated along 
the Andes during the glacial epoch of Europe. Either there 
have been many other glacial epochs, or else glacial epochs are 
not necessary for this meridional migration. I believe the latter 
to be the more correct view, because there is no evidence of 
glacial epochs in the southern hemisphere, and because the 
physical changes necessary to elevate or depress a chain of 
mountains for a few thousand feet are far less than those which 
are now acknowledged by nearly all geologists to be necessary 
for bringing about profound alterations in climate over immense 
districts of the globe. No one has as yet been sufficiently bold 
to advocate a glacial climate in New Guinea and Borneo, and 
yet the evidence of plant migration from Asia into Australia is 
as strong as that for a migration along the Andes ; and, as it is 
very unlikely that an elevation of the Indian Archipelago co- 
incided in time with the glacial epoch of Europe, so it is very 
unlikely that glacial epochs are necessary for the meridional 
migration of plants. It follows that if plants have travelled from 

f Hutton, Ibis, 1865. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. 273 

the northern hemisphere to Australia and New Zealand, some 
must have passed through the tropics and into temperate climates 
again without undergoing any change of generic importance. 
In the same way the sub-tropical and temperate plants of New 
Zealand have invaded the snow-clad regions of the South Island, 
and have become alpines, without undergoing any generic 
change. And just as the occurrence of Alpine species of sub- 
tropical genera does not prove that the tops of our mountains 
are warm, so the occurrence of species of tropical genera in the 
European miocene does not necessarily prove it to have been 
tropical in temperature. As these plants migrated towards the 
equator they would gradually accustom themselves to altered 
conditions without losing the marks of their affinities. 

I will now summarise in as few words as possible the results we 
have arrived at in both addresses. New Zealand, which formerly 
existed as the southern part of a continent extending through 
Australia to India, was isolated from Australia towards the close 
of the Jurassic period,* but was attached to a South Pacific con- 
tinent and received a stream of immigrants from the north. 
None arrived from the south because Fuegia was not then in ex- 
istence. In the upper cretaceous the land shrank to a size 
considerably smaller than at present. In the eocene, elevation 
took place and New Zealand extended outwards in all directions, 
but remained isolated trom other lands. Plants and animals 
came in both from the north and from the south. In the 
oligocene and miocene periods New Zealand was, except for a 
short interval, a cluster of islands, but was upraised once more, 
and obtained more immigrants from north and south during the 
pliocene ; after which subsidence occurred, and the land through- 
out the South Island and southern half of the North Island sank 
considerably below its present level, to be again elevated during 
the pleistocene period. 

It has been objected that we have no right to infer that 
because elevation or subsidence can be proved to have occurred 
in one particular district of the earth's surface, therefore this 
elevation or subsidence extended over neighbouring areas. But 
the more the geology and palaeontology of large geographical 
regions, like North America or Europe are studied, the more 
clearly we see that subterranean movements have affected large 
regions simultaneously, or nearly simultaneously, and that the 
local deviations from uniformity are comparatively small. So 
it comes about that we have in each large geographical area a 
series of rock systems which are nearly synchronous over the 
whole area, although not synchronous with those in other and 
distant areas. I think that our knowledge of the palaeontology 
of Australasia is already sufficient to shew that we have here also 
another oi those large geographical areas which, when viewed on 
a large scale, has been moved uniformly ; and therefore that the 
rock systems of New Zealand can be parallelled with those of 

* I need hardly say that I use these terms with very wide margins. 



274 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Australia ; and perhaps, in the earlier periods, with those of the 
Penins' la of India. 

Of course it is not denied that a scattered immigration may 
have been going on ever since the cretaceous period ; but it is 
asserted that this immigration has been small and almost in- 
appreciable in comparison with the rushes that took place from 
the north in the lower cretaceous, and from both north and south 
in the eocene and pliocene periods. The emigration from New 
Zealand has, I think, been small. Probably no land existed in 
the Antarctic Pacific to convey plants and animals from New 
Zealand to South America, and a northern migration of New 
Zealand plants is almost out of the question. A few stragglers 
may have been carried by birds to Tasmania or to temperate 
Australia, but that perhaps is all that can be allowed. Our 
fauna and flora is indeed a standing protest against the views of 
those naturalists who would make the winds scatter abroad 
insects and seeds of plants over hundreds of miles, and who 
imagine land shells and lizards to float about on logs for days 
and weeks together without being killed. 

NOTES TO PART I. 
i . Mr. Etheridge, as mentioned in the text, was the first to suggest that the 
Desert Sandstone of Australia was a lacustrine deposit ; but it was a mere sugges- 
tion. Prof. Ralph Tate arrived at the same conclusion quite independently, and 
brought forward facts to support it. See Anniversary Address, Roy. Soc. of South 
Australia, for 1878-9, p. lx. 

2. At the meeting of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, held on 30th 
July, 1884, Mr. Ratte exhibited fossils of the genera Rostellaria, Fusus, Pleuroto- 
niaria ( ?), Belemnites, Venus, and Nautilus, from the interior of New Caledonia, 
together with a fragment of bone. He observed that these fossils were characteristic 
ot the upper cretaceous period, and were likely to identify these New Caledonia beds 
with some already known in New Zealand. He also exhibited an Inoceramus from 
the neocomian of Noumea. 

3. Before this address was delivered, Mr. A. Agassiz had come to the conclu- 
sion that the specialisation of the Atlantic and Indo- Pacific faunas began soon after 
the end of the cretaceous period. — Report on the " Blake " Echini. Part I., p. 83, 
September, 1883. 

4. Since this address was in type I have come across an article in the Geological 
Magazine for 1882, by Mr. J. S. Gardner, in which several of the views maintained 
in my two addresses are enunciated. 



OOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND* 



BY T. II. POTTS. 



Order II. — Perching Birds — Passeres. 

Family Hirundinidcz — Sivallozvs. 

Genus — Hirundo. 

6. Hirundo nigricans, Vieill. 

Tree Swallow.— Several notices of the occurrence of the Tree 
Swallow have been recorded. It was observed by Mr. Enys 
skimming over the Avon at Christchurch in 1861. It inhabits 

Tasmania, Australia, and New Guinea. 

* Continued from p. 226. 



OOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 275 

Egg pinky white, sometimes faintly freckled at the larger 
end with fine spots of light reddish-brown. Length, eight and 
a-half lines ; breadth, six lines. 

Family Coraciadice — Rollers. 

Genus — Eurystomus. 
7. Eurystomus pacificus, Lath. 

Dollar Bird, Australian Roller. — The Canterbury Museum 
possesses a specimen from Westland. In addition to Mr. F. E. 
Clarke's note, it may be mentioned that in 1872 Mr. Little, 
an old Australian, then living at Okarita, was certain that 
he had seen this bird in the Queen Charlotte's Sound dis- 
trict. It inhabits the northern and eastern parts of Australia and 
New Guinea. 

Egg pearly white ; considerably pointed at the smaller end. 
Length, one inch five lines ; breadth, one inch two lines. 

Family A Icedinidm — Kingfishers. 

Genus — H alcyon . 

8. Halcyon vagans, Lesson. 

Kingfisher, Kotare. — The Kingfisher chooses for its nesting- 
place decayed or decaying trees, banks, sod-walls or fences ; it 
shows particular attachment for special places for breeding pur- 
poses, to which it returns year after year. I had the pleasure of 
shewing the eminent ornithologist, Dr. Otto Finsch, some of 
these very interesting spots at Ohinitahi ; within the lineal 
space of twelve feet were eighteen nesting-places, at a short dis- 
tance therefrom another station contained twelve tunnels within 
a length of eight feet. It evidences a marked absence of fear in 
making choice of a spot wherein to excavate its nursery. In 
several instances I have known a family reared in a bank or 
fence by the roadside, where passengers and vehicles were con- 
stantly passing ; in one of these cases the nest was but a few 
feet distant from a gate. Its home consists of what may be 
termed a tunnel approach, about the length of which there is no 
fixed rule, but the floor of the approach rises from the entrances 
upwards to the egg-chamber ; this part of the home is roomy, 
as the young remain within its walls till able to fly well. The 
measurements of a Kingfisher's nest gave the following dimen- 
sions : — entrance, rather more than two inches diameter ; length 
of the tunnel, sixteen inches ; egg-chamber, of ovoid form, seven 
inches in length, five and a-half inches in width ; height from 
floor to roof, four inches. 

The Halcyon lays from five to seven eggs. These are oval, 
glossy white, of delicate texture. In length, one inch and half 
a line ; with a breadth of ten and a-half lines. It breeds twice 
in the year ; the season commencing here in September, extends 
through the summer till the end of January. 



2j6 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Family Meliphagidce — Honey eaters. 

Genus — Anthochaera. 
9. Anthochaera carunculata, Lath. 

Wattled Honey-eater. — This species is included in the 
Catalogue of the Birds of New Zealand, as a specimen is stated 
to have been killed at Matakane. It is found in Queensland, 
N. S. Wales, Victoria, and S. and W. Australia. 

Egg ovoid ; reddish buff, very thickly dotted with markings 
of deep chestnut, umber, and reddish brown, interspersed with 
a number of indistinct marks of blackish grey; pinkish buff, with 
reddish brown and grey specks towards the larger end. Length 
one inch three lines, with a breadth of ten and a-half lines. 

Genus — Pogonornis. 
10. Pogonornis cincta, Dubus. 

Stitch-bird, Ihi. — This shy and now rare honey-eater is sel- 
dom met with. It may be surely considered as one of the 
scarcest of the native birds. In the Wellington Museum was a 
nest and egg collected in the woods above the Kaiwarawara 
stream, near Wellington. This structure had thin shallow walls ; 
was built of sprays, on which were arranged fibres and rootlets 
of tree-ferns ; fine grass leaves were used for the lining, over 
which was placed cow hair. It measured across the top four 
inches nine lines ; diameter of cavity, two inches four lines ; 
depth, one inch four lines. It was figured in my notes On the 
Birds of New Zealand, Part II., Trans. N.Z. Institute, Vol. 3. 
Through the kindness of the late Mrs. Meinertzhagen I received 
from Waimarama a beautiful specimen, which is now in my col- 
lection ; a careful measurement gave similar dimensions to those 
ot the nest before mentioned. 

Egg rather oval shape, somewhat pointed at each end ; the 
whole surface clouded over with pale rufous brown. Length 
nine lines, breadth seven lines. 

Genus — Prosthemadera. 

1 1. Prosthemadera Novce Zealandice, Gml. 

Parson-bird, Poe-bird, Tui, Koko. — Often builds under the 
shelter of Rubus twines, which many of us have learnt to fear or 
respect as the bush lawyer, or just beneath the wide-spreading 
fronds of tree ferns. More than once I have found it near the 
top of a matipo (Myrsme), several times in a manuka (Leptosper- 
mum), Pittosporum, &c. ; sometimes the nesting-place has been 
in a shady gully, at others near the sea-shore, at distances varying 
from six to thirty feet above the ground. The nest is large, 
made of slender sprays ; intermixed with these are mosses, and 
often the brown shining scales of the silver tree-fern (Oyathea) ; the 
lining of fine grasses. It measures across the walls at top, nine 
inches ; diameter of cavity three and a-half inches ; depth two 
inches. Of late years some nests have had tufts of wool inter- 
woven in the walls. Eggs vary in form, usually ovoid ; they are 



OOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 277 

occasionally elongate ; of delicate pink, very much marked with 
pale dull red, and faint red hair-like streaks, the smaller end 
nearly white and free from marks ; long ovoid, rather narrow at 
the smalller end, white, glossy, with pale red marks arranged 
vertically, darker and more numerous at the larger end ; ovoid, 
white, with a few rounded spots only at the larger end ; white, 
rather rough in texture, with a few yellowish-red marks ; white, 
with brownish red spots round the larger end ; elongate, with 
red brown spots indistinctly edged, forming an irregularly shaped 
zone near the apex. Length, one inch two lines ; breadth, ten 
lines. Breeding commences here in September, extending 
through the summer ; it breeds twice in the year. Although 
very quarrelsome and tyrannical to other species at nesting time, 
I once found it incubating in a mossy dell close to nests of 
Keropia and Glaucopis. It usually lays three to four eggs ; when 
the young are hatched it carries away egg-shells some distance 
from its home. 

Genus — Anthornis. 

12. Anthornis melanura, Sparrm. 

Bell bird, Korimako, Makomako, which last name settlers 
often render into Mockymock. — This well-known bird is yet to 
be found in tolerable abundance in many districts here. The 
planting of acacias is a great help towards its support during the 
winter and early spring months ; their flowers form a source of 
food of which it cannot be deprived by the blackbirds and other 
introduced species. I planted a few of several kinds of acacia 
for it in 1867, and have been recompensed by the constant 
melody of bell-birds throughout each winter. Last May I was 
informed by Sir George Grey that of late it had appeared again 
at Kawau, presumably arriving from the Little Barrier Island, 
some fifteen miles distant. The Manual of the Birds of New 
Zealand states this species to be rapidly dying out, so perhaps 
one may be held excused in giving detailed particulars of nesting 
and eggs in rather copious extracts from my note-book. It 
seems worth recording that notwithstanding the mixed character 
of the plantations here, I have rarely found the nest in any in- 
troduced species of tree or shrub ; its favourite trees selected to 
breed in are tior cabbage tree (Cordyline), manuka (Leptospermum), 
ngaio (Myoporum), konini {Fuchsia), especially if these are partly 
covered with trailers of Rubus or Muhlenbeckia. Several other 
kinds, such as Coriaria, Carpodetus, or Coprosma, are also made 
use of, but are not in so much request as the species mentioned. 
In the busy breeding season both sexes work at nest-building. 
Placed at no great elevation from the ground, the structure may 
be observed in a variety of situations ; often beneath the shelter 
of bush-lawyer, near the top of a moderate sized tree or shrub ; 
very often it is completely hidden under the loose thatch of per- 
sistent leaves that hang a-down the tall stem of a ti palm. It is 
i ather flat, with a well formed cup, loosely yet strongly built of 
sprays, grass, moss, well lined with feathers. From wall to wall 



JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

across the top it measures about five inches ; diameter of cup, 
two and three-quarter inches ; depth inside, two inches. Many- 
years since* (1869) I called attention to the peculiarity of the 
colouration of the lining feathers, as showing tokens of this bird's 
sense or love of harmony in colours ; keeping several kinds of 
choice poultry not far from the bush afforded me special oppor- 
tunities of observing this fact. I noticed nests lined with 
coloured feathers as follows : — Red from the kakas, green from 
the parroquets, black from the Norfolk turkies, buff from Cochin 
fowls, speckled from the pintadoes, white from the geese. I 
have not seen a red or gieen lined nest for years, as the destruc- 
tion of the woods about here has made both kakas and parro- 
quets rare visitors. It often builds in much frequented places, 
as against a ti palm stem beside a walk ; or I have seen the nest 
in a shrub by a public road, where a horseman could easily reach 
it. An instance may be cited as an exception to its apparent 
avoidance of exotic trees : last season I saw a nest beautifully 
and exactly poised on a strip of blue gum bark, that bent over 
and curled round in a complete circle or hoop ; there was nothing 
to conceal the nest ; it was lined with white goose feathers, and 
contained lour eggs. The breeding season commences in Sep- 
tember. The earliest entry in my note-book is the " 29th, nest 
and three eggs in a Carpodetus serratus ;" the latest entry is dated 
" March 10th, four young just hatched ;" " May 19th, yDung bell- 
bird with the rictal membrane showing very plain." It is more 
constant than many species in keeping to its complement of 
eggs, namely four ; only once in 30 years have I known this 
number exceeded. This interesting fact may excuse another 
extract : " A nest in a tangle of Muhlenbeckia, trailing over 
hina-hina (Melicylus), five eggs marked with Fernbrook lines, 
Dec. 9, 1882." Fernbrook lines, it may be explained, is the 
name we give to peculiar hair-like streaks which mark the eggs 
of certain families of bell-birds that breed in a gully near here 
called Fernbrook. 

The eggs vary considerably in their markings, also slightly 
in the ground colour ; they are entirely white, this is by no 
means common ; white, with minute specks of pale red ; white, 
with small marks and minute dots of red with some hair-like 
streaks ; white, marked equally over the surface with angular 
marks of pale red ; white, glossy, with fine hair-like streaks of 
red disposed angularly ; white, with small angular specks of 
purplish, chiefly gathered into an uneven zone at the larger end ; 
white, with rich red blotches at the larger end, small scattered 
dots of lighter red, wavy hair-like streaks almost completing an 
undulating zone just below .the middle of the egg ; white, with 
bold blotches of red touched with small marks of dark purplish, 
a few scattered dull purplish marks ; white, with dots of dark 
almost blackish purple, the margins becoming merged into pale 
red, nearly all the colour converged towards the apex ; white, 

* Inuis. X. /. Institute. Vol, 11. 



OOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 279 

with a complete broad ring around the larger end, of confluent 
blotches of rich red, the apex clear without -marks ; pale pink, 
richly marked with red blotches, a few small purplish dots 
chiefly at the larger end ; pale pink, with large angular marks 
of dull red, mostly at the larger end ; pale pink, with spots and 
rounded marks of reddish and dark purple ; pale pink, with the 
surface almost covered with freckles of dull red ; pale pink, with 
large irregularly shaped blotch covering the apex. 

The eggs are ovoid, ovoido-conical, sometimes broadly ellip- 
tical ; about eleven lines in length ; with a breadth of eight lines. 

I have notes of several habitats in the North Island, where 
within the last few months this species was fairly represented. 

13. Author nis melanocepkala, Gray. 

Chatham Island Bell-bird. — The material of this bird's nest is 
composed of thin twigs, roots, and coarse grasses bent and 
twisted together into a symmetrical bowl- shaped structure; in 
some specimens tufts of wool, fronds of coarse sphagnum moss, 
or a few dead leaves are sparingly introduced ; in others may be 
found long pieces of piri-piri (Accena) entwined with the other 
materials ; in the interior there are sometimes a few tufts of wool 
not firmly woven into the fabric, and some feathers complete the 
nest ; or there may be an entire absence of wool and feathers, 
the lining being made of broad grasses ; this style of finish at 
once recalls the work of the huia, to which it bears some resem- 
blance. It is a large handsome fabric of an even dusky-brown 
tone, that would harmonise well with dead fern fronds ; it mea- 
sures from wall to wall about seven and a-half inches ; cup nearly 
three inches across, with a depth of two and a-half inches. These 
dimensions are taken from a nest before me, which was received 
from Te Wakaru. The eggs are exceedingly beautiful, richer in 
their colouring than any other species of the Native honey-eating 
family ; they vary a good deal in their markings. They are 
ovoid, rarely all white ; pink, with red blotches, boldly but irregu- 
larly marked about the larger end with several wavy or curling 
hair-like streaks, that descend to the smaller end ; dull pinkish, 
with red specks and freckles arranged together chiefly in annular 
form round the smaller end ; reddish buff or salmon, with red 
brown marks at the larger end, which is rather pointed ; reddish 
buff or brownish salmon, with large confluent rounded blotches 
of dark red, covering the smaller end ; brownish salmon, or 
reddish buff with large splashes of dark red spreading over the 
larger end ; the rest of the surface almost clear from marks, 
except a few hair-like streaks ; length one inch and half a 
line ; breadth nine and a-half lines. 

It breeds in August, September, and October, probably also 
later in the summer ; the nest is usually built in kopi trees 
{Corynocarpus) where there is shelter from the trailing vines of 
supple-jack, also in karamu ( Coprosma), or under the head of 
tree-ferns ; generally at a height of some twelve feet from the 



280 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

ground. This handsome bird is no longer abundant near the 
settlements, having retired to sueh wooded places as afford it 
more seclusion. 

Genus — Zosterops. 

14. Zosterops lateralis, Lath. 

Blight bird, White eye, Tauhou. — One of the more common 
birds, very useful as an insect eater, very destructive to many 
kinds of fruit, such as figs, cherries, raspberries, &c. This honey- 
eater is remarkably indifferent as to what kinds of food it feeds on, 
I have seen it assembled in flocks near a slaughter-yard, feasting 
on particles of fat pecked from sheep skins stretched out on the 
rail fence to dry ; at other times vigorously competing with its 
mates for morsels of fat from a pig tub — very unseemly food for 
a honey-eater. It affords another instance of the difficulties that 
await hard and fast rules in systematic arrangements ; it is quite 
possible that the Zosterops may be removed from the Melipha- 
gid?e at some future revision of the New Zealand fauna. It 
uses a great variety of material in nest-building, this is partly 
caused by situation ; it seems to avail itself of any suitable 
material that is readily accessible. Mosses, and soft grasses 
usually predominate ; wool, thin slips of bark, webs, horsehair, 
are freely used ; some nests are composed chiefly of grass, with 
perhaps a tuft or two of grey-beard moss. In the more elaborate 
structures the cottony down of plants is interwoven with moss 
and spiders-webs ; often hair is worked in as a lining, more rarely 
fine hair, little roots of ferns, or delicate slips from the leaves of 
a carex, or stiff grass. The nest is cup-like and round, purse 
or hammock-shaped. It is suspended by careful workmanship, 
in which wool, grasses, or webs are used ; or it is built on a 
spray of a shrub without being suspended. It is deep or shal- 
low, thick and warm, or so slightly constructed that it may be 
seen through. Sometimes it may be observed built mostly of 
thin scales of manuka bark, in others wool is well nigh the only 
material. I once found a nest beautifully sewn or bound to a 
spray, showing a style of art and skill that few birds could sur- 
pass either in strength or neatness, exhibiting a wonderful de- 
gree of intelligence in the little architects. In endeavouring to 
describe the art of nest-building in many species, the difficulty 
is to know where to stop, there are so many details that it 
seems desirable to give which would take pages to set down. 
But there yet remains to record some peculiarly interesting work 
of the Zosterops, such as using for lining purposes, narrow 
strips of the outer edge of tough phormium leaves ; these pieces 
are stripped almost as fine as horsehair, and curled into the 
roundness of the cup with admirable neatness and regularity. 
What a work of difficulty and labour it must have caused the 
little architects to secure this peculiar material which made the 
interior of the structure of a bright orange or chestnut. I have 
known the nest constructed of moss secured firmly by the skil- 
ful entwinement of webs, to be lined with the innerlace bark of 



OOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 28 1 

the ribbon-wood — here was another kind of veryJ:ough material 
to work with. Unless seen, it would be difficult to realise the 
appearance of this beautiful example of bird architecture — a 
rare instance of what this bird can do in the art of building. A 
perfect cup of fine green moss, mottled here and there, and re- 
lieved with varying shades of brown or chestnut; or dark green webs 
strengthening the edges; within, the clear blue-green eggs, daintily 
reposing on the delicate cream-coloured lacebark that formed 
the lining. Three eggs were at one time its constant comple- 
ment, but a change of habit after some years was developed, and 
very often four eggs were met with ; I have, but rarely, observed 
five in a nest. These are usually ovoid, or ovoido-conical, often 
blunt at the point, sometimes narrowed, differing in size from 
the small specimen of only seven and a-half lines, to a large 
egg measuring nearly ten lines in length. The average may be 
given at about eight lines in length, with a bread th of six and 
a-half lines. Pale clear blue-green. Incubation lasts about ten 
days. There is reason to believe it may occasionally, yet rarely, 
become the dupe of the Whistler, or Bronze-winged Cuckoo, C. 
lucidus. 

Family Certhiadce. — Creepers. 

Genus — Xenicus. 

15. Xenicus I ongipes, Gml. 

Green Wren. — Late in the month of December I found the 
nest far up the Havelock river, it was beneath the moss-covered 
roots of an Alpine ribbon-wood tree (Plagianthus lyallii); it 
looked like a thick tuft of moss. Beneath this protective cover- 
ing the pouch-shaped nest was built, with the opening near 
the top ; it was almost entirely composed of fern rootlets, the en- 
trance being neatly and strongly formed with extra entwine- 
ments of the same material ; the inside was lined with feathers 
somewhat profusely. The entrance was so well hidden as to be 
scarcely discernible ; it was so difficult to discover that I scarcely 
remember any nest that afforded more pleasure in finding. It 
was ready for use, but contained no eggs. 

16. Xenicus gilviventris, Pelz. 

Rock Wren. — The little bird haunts the taluses of the Alps 
during some of the summer months. We have on several 
occasions made vain attempts to find a nest. During cattle- 
mustering, Ambrose Potts saw as many as thirty or forty at a 
time, amongst them several with the yellowish-green plumage, 
which he supposed denoted the dress of the males ; they allowed 
a very close approach, but when alarmed retired swiftly into the 
crevices and spaces between the rocks. Several taluses he 
visited had their assemblage of wrens actively moving about. 
Many rocks were displaced, but the birds he was unable to trace. 
He thought they made their way through the shingle below. 



282 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Genus — Acanthisitta. 

17. Acanthisitta Moris, Sparrm. 
Wren,Titipounamu,Pi-wau-wau. — Often builds in a small hole 
of a tree. I know one old konini which is resorted to yearly for 
this purpose, and that, too, almost to a day — the nest may be 
found in an open wood near the top of a range, or in the sheltered 
gully. The wren exhibits some caprice in the choice of a site for 
its home, and thus prepares pleasant surprises for those who take 
delight in learning the ways of animals. More than once I have 
known it to occupy the mortice-hole of a stockyard post ; also to 
utilise the skull of a horse, to build between the slabs of a bush 
hut or whare, or make its nest in thatch. In my notes of the 
breeding habits of New Zealand birds there was figured a nest 
built in a roll of bark that hung and swung in some convolvulus. 
Like many another species, this tiny bird would probably become 
familiar with man if it was permitted, and the bird-murderer 
shamed into becoming a student of nature, rather than a specu- 
lator in the value of bird's skins. On the 14th September I saw 
three pairs building. The nest is a peculiar structure, made of 
very fine sprays, rootlets, fern fibres, grasses, dead and skeleton 
leaves, and a few feathers. As the small entrance leads to an 
oblong or pear-shaped nest, which is all covered in except 
the opening, what ingenuity of constructive contrivance is 
shown by this little creature in arranging its varied materials, 
bringing the structure into the required shape, all within the 
narrow precincts of a small hole in a tree or post. From the 
difficulty of working in such narrow bounds the labour is long 
continued, and the tiny birds may be observed week after week 
industriously carrying material, and disappearing within their 
little den to build and form their dwelling. Some specimens of 
the nests measure six inches in length, with a breadth, from the 
curled fern-rootlets that bind round, and serve to strengthen the 
entrance, of four inches. Occasionally weka feathers are freely 
introduced. In resorting to a hole that has been already used 
for breeding, it does not repair or remove the old structure, but 
the new nest is begun on the top of the old decayed material. I 
have never seen both birds carrying material at the same moment, 
the bird not working, constantly utters its feeble cheep cheep note, 
but is never far from its mate. The materials are collected and 
brought home at longer intervals than is the case with several 
other species. I have known it build in a hole not more than 
thirty inches from the ground. 

Eggs ovoid or ovoido-conical, pure white ; seven and a quar- 
ter lines in length, with a breadth of six lines ; four, sometimes 
five, are found in a nest. The breeding season commences in 
August. I have observed a nest with young in January. 

Genus — Orthonyx. 

1 8. Orthonyx albicilla, Less. 
Whitehead, Hihipopokera, Upokotea. — Makes a symmetrical 
cup-shaped nest, of which soft grasses and moss enter largely 



OOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 283 

into its construction ; these materials are felted together and in- 
terwoven with webs, lichen, and the downy scales of tree 
ferns. It measures rather more than four inches across the top ; 
diameter of cup, one inch ten lines ; with a depth of nearly an 
inch and a-half. Eggs of delicate texture, broadly ovoid, white, 
speckled very faintly with pink. 

19. Orthonyx ochrocepJiala, Gml. 

Canary, Popokatea. — Perhaps amongst the native avifauna 
this genus is one of the most puzzling to understand. I am in- 
clined to think that the more one learns of the habits of the 
species that are included here as congeners, the less surprise he 
would feel should they be once more separated. The canary 
puzzles one by the varied style of its workmanship, no less than 
by the marked difference which distinguishes the colour of its 
eggs. These peculiarities will render some detailed description 
necessary. In a well-built compact structure, principally of 
moss, neatly interwoven with webs, measuring across the top 
three and a quarter inches, with a depth of nearly one and a-half 
inches, the style of architecture is closely allied to that of the 
preceding species, but the eggs of this nest are entirely re- 
moved therefrom. Another nest, without a particle of moss 
amongst its material, is principally built of fine thin strips of 
manuka bark and grasses, with a very few delicate sprays ; it is 
coarse and rough, yet the construction must have involved con- 
siderable labour. This specimen is from the once great forest 
of Little River. The eggs differ very much from specimens ob- 
tained in other localities. 

Egg ovoid, oval, or well nigh elliptical, with the small end 
much and suddenly pointed ; washed or clouded over the entire 
surfaee with creamy brown or yellowish brown. These are from 
the forests at Ahaura and Okarito, Westland. In another form 
they are dull white, much marked with purple and greyish brown ; 
yellowish white, marked with greyish-brown splashes ; pinky 
white, with purplish marks spread over the entire surface. These 
are from the woods on the Wilberforce River, Little River, and 
Banks' Peninsula. Specimens in the collection of the Otago 
Museum are much of this character, being greyish white, splashed 
with marks of greyish purple and purplish brown. Some day, 
probably, more particular investigation will be made, with a view 
to a separation into two species — that is, if breeding habits are 
taken into consideration and allowed their due weight. 

Family Luscinidce — Warblers. 

Genus — Sphenoecus. 

20. Sphenoecus punctatus y Quoy et Gaim. 

Utick, Grass-bird, Matata. — At one time very commonly met 

with about the swamps and round the edges of lagoons where the 

coarse water grasses grew rankly ; its numbers now appear to be 

very much lessened, as the swamp lands have been reclaimed 



284 TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

and cultivated. It now haunts the sedges and coarse herbage 
that fringe boggy creeks. 

Thirty years ago it was one of the most common species 
that affected the open country about Rockwood in the Malvern 
district ; the lads called it " utick " from its note. Its nest is 
made of grass, with very thin walls ; sometimes a feather or two 
is added, or a few tufts of wool ; it is usually placed in a tus- 
sock, just above the ground ; it measures about three inches 
across the top, is usually rather oval than round in shape. The 
egg is ovoid or ovoido-conical, white, speckled with reddish purple 
marks. I have a set marked with purple specks so abundantly 
towards the larger end as to form a confluent ring ; the rest of 
the surface is less freely dotted with very small marks of reddish 
purple ; in length they measure nearly ten lines, with a breadth 
of seven and three-quarter lines ; three eggs to a clutch usually, 
but have known of four to a nest. 

It breeds during November and December ; in the latter 
month I have observed the nest close to the water's edge of the 
large mere known as the Okarito lagoon. 

November 4, nest with three young in a tussock at the edge 
of a creek, Rockwood Valley. 

November 7, met with four eggs in a swamp by the Hororata 
Stream, in the Malvern Hills. 

21. SpJienoecus fulvus. Gray. 

Utick, Grass-bird or Pheasant-bird. — I am not aware that 
the breeding habits of this species differ from those of the last- 
named. The eggs are slightly larger, white marked with reddish- 
purple freckles ; from the Ashburton district. 

22. SpJienoecus rufescens, Buller. 

Chatham Island Grass-bird. — The eggs of this species as 
yet are undescribed. 

Genus— Gerygone. 

23. Gerygone Jlaviventris, Gray. 

Grey Warbler, Teetotum, Piripiri. — The warbler is a true 
pensile nest-builder, and its warm ivell-built home is one of the 
earliest bird structures we meet with ; it forecasts Spring, instead 
of waiting for that genial season. Almost as soon as the days 
lengthen, the warbler begins its family cares ; here is a good 
proof: July 15, nest in a garden in Wellington built in a bush 
of Olearia forsteri ; July 16, nest in a weeping-willow over the 
Avon at Christchurch ; this was in 1879. Considering the great 
difference in latitude, this may be considered an instance of very 
early nesting. It makes use of many kinds of trees and shrubs, 
in which it hangs its pouch or bottle-shaped nest, the entrance 
to which is often protected by a porch-like projection. It would 
require rather an extensive list to enumerate the various 
materials which at times are used in its construction. I 
have thought the earlier nests were usually the best finished 



OOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 285 

pieces of work ; mosses, grasses, feathers, down, a few slen- 
der dry sprays, are all closely interwoven with an abund- 
ance of spiders' webs, till a very firm warm home is completed. 
Sometimes poultry feathers, united and held together with 
cobwebs, are almost all the material used ; in other specimens 
grass contributes chiefly to the structure. Sometimes these nests 
appear hastily put together, the entrance merely strengthened, 
often with fine roots, for the wear and tear of ingress and egress, 
without the characteristic porch. It will readily make use of 
worsted, pieces of string, or cotton, to work in and help bind and 
intertwine with other material. 

The egg is ovoid, rarely all white ; rarely white, with a few 
small distinct marks of light brownish scattered generally over 
the surface ; white, with a coronal of dull reddish specks round 
the larger end ; white, with bold red specks, larger and more 
numerous towards the larger end ; white, with a zone of reddish 
purple specks at the larger end ; pinky white, with minute pink 
freckles dotted generally over the surface ; pinky white, with red 
specks larger and more abundant at the larger end ; pinky white, 
with confluent reddish specks, forming a broad well-defined ring 
round the apex. Eggs vary a good deal in size ; a fair average 
is in length about eight lines, with a breadth of six lines. Four 
eggs seem to be the usual complement. The breeding season, 
as we know, commences early, and extends through the summer, 
as shown by the note of a nest observed in a manuka on 26th 
January at Ohinitahi. The warbler during the height of the 
breeding season becomes a dupe to the cuckoos, and is liable to 
work hard for them from October to the end of January. It 
shows a determined defence of its young when once they are able 
to fly, assailing intrusive people with resolution. 

24. Gerygone albofrontata, Gray. 

Chatham Island Warbler. — Larger than the preceding species, 
distinguished also by its song ; it builds a more closely-felted nest 
than the grey warbler ; a great part of the material is composed 
of fern rootlets, moss, dead leaves, a little fine soft grass, spiders 
webs ; the entrance is strengthened, and the porch constructed 
with fern rootlets ; the whole contour of the nest seems more 
rounded ; it is strong enough to bear throwing about without 
falling to pieces. 

The egg is ovoid ; white, with red specks, and a ring of con- 
fluent reddish-brown specks on the larger end ; pinky-white, with 
a ring of purplish specks round the larger end ; pmk, with very 
faint greyish-purple marks principally towards the larger end ; 
pink, with minute specks of reddish over the whole surface, with 
a zone of confluent blotches and specks of red at the larger end. 
Four seems to be the usual complement. This warbler is fairly 
familiar, and is constantly to be seen about the gardens at 
Wharekauri ; it builds in kopi trees (Corynocarpus) ; karamu 
( Coprosma), it also affects. It is the dupe of the bronze-winged 
cuckoo. 



286 JOURNAL Of SCIENCE. 

25. G cry gone sy/rcstris, Potts. 

Wood Warbler. — Nothing* has yet been ascertained of the 
breeding habits of this little warbler, whose cheerful notes en- 
liven the fern gullies of the dense forests between Okarito and 
Lake Mapourika. 

Genus — Certhiparus. 

26. Certhiparus Novcz-Zcelaudice, Gml. 

Brown Creeper. — Builds its nest of moss, in which are en- 
twined a few feathers. 

The eggs are handsome ; broadly ovoid, freely sprinkled with 
purple-grey marks over the whole surface. 

It breeds in November and December, and lays three eggs. 
Notwithstanding it is so commonly met with, the nest is usually 
overlooked, for very few have been found, consequently the eggs 
are scarce in collections. I have seen this creeper in the garden 
for some days during winter : it seemed to prefer a belt of nut 
bushes to any other place there. 

I have a note of the young being found in a nest in December 
25th, in a wood above the gorge of the Rakaia ; also another on 
the Upper Rangitata. 

Genus— Petroeca. 

27. Petroeca toi-toi, Less. 

Pied Tit, Miro-miro. — A few years since it was plentiful about 
the Upper Hutt Valley ; it appears to be as familiar in its habits 
as the yellow-breasted species. The nest is mostly built of moss, 
webs, fine sprays, tree-fern scales, &c. ; is usually placed within a 
hollow place in a decayed tree. Eggs four in number, white, 
speckled with dull brownish-grey, chiefly at the larger end ; 
length nine lines ; with a breadth of seven lines. 

28. Petroeca macrocephala, Gml. 

Yellow-breasted Tit or Robin, Miro-miro, Ngoru-ngoru. In 
building the greater part of the labour falls to the share of the 
female. The materials are mosses, grass-bents, very thin fine 
sprays, cobwebs, woolly scales of tree-ferns, dead leaves, thin 
strips of bark ; feathers line the interior.* An average specimen 
measured across the walls at top five inches ; with a diameter of 
the cup about two and a-half inches ; depth one and a-half 
inches. 

Eggs, four in number ; oval or ovoid, sometimes pointed at 
the smaller end ; white, freckled towards the larger end with 
very small purple specks, quite distinctly marked ; white, with a 
faintly defined broad zone of dull purplish-grey around the apex, 
others from the same clutch more distinctly coloured ; white, with 
yellowish brown spots, towards the larger end, these are broader, 
and become intermixed with purplish-grey marks ; white, with 
purplish-grey specks, which are confluent round the larger end, 
forming a wide zone. The following note shows the period of 



See M.Z. Uouutry Journal, vol. 7, page yo. 



OOLOGY OF NEW ZEALAND. 287 

incubation : — November I, nest begun ; November 10, first egg 
laid ; the fourth egg was laid on the 13th, and the young were 
hatched on the 29th, Several instances have been observed of 
its building in porches, sheds, or outhouses. On September 8 I 
found a nest in a corner of the roof of a hut, and amongst the 
materials were bits of rags, scraps of paper, some short lengths 
of worsted. I have noticed the nest on the face of a high cliff 
by the sea, under the arch of a bridge on a public road, in crevices 
of cave-like rocks, in the hollows of decayed trees, amongst the 
pendant leaves of ti or cabbage-trees, in the close boughs of up- 
right cypress, in manuka, in the dry persistent fronds of a grand 
Hemitelia. In this instance, in addition to moss, dead leaves, the 
brown scales of the fern on which it was built, the nest had some 
chips of white bark. In my Notes on the Breeding Habits of 
New Zealand Birds, Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. II., there are given 
figures of two curiously-shaped nests, which were placed in the 
Canterbury Museum. This familiar bird sometimes surprises 
one by the odd sites it chooses for its home. On the 12th Sep- 
tember a pair had nearly completed their structure in an old 
metal teapot that hung on the stem of a ngaio tree ; on the next 
day I found a pair building in the folds of some mats of bass 
that were hanging over a beam in a barn. I have known it to 
be carrying nesting-stuff as early as July 26. This season I 
observed it building at the end of August ; but the following 
month, when the lengthened days give us spring warmth and 
growth, is the season when breeding is common. At the middle 
of the month, the 15th, I have counted six pairs nesting within 
an area of some twenty acres of suitable country. I have a note 
of a solitary instance of this bird becoming the dupe of the 
smaller cuckoo — this was observed at Ohinitahi. 

29. Petroeca longipes. Less. 

Wood-robin. — The nest is well and firmly built of mosses, 
fine roots, dead leaves, webs, tree-fern scales ; these are so 
carefully and judiciously arranged and twisted together that the 
fabric, in its neat and compact form, is really a most interesting 
and beautiful object. Eggs, usually three or four in number, 
ovoid, dull white, plentifully marked with greyish-brown. 

30. Petroeca albifrons, Gml. 

Robin, Toto-ara. — This delightful warbler is decreasing in 
numbers very rapidly; soon it is to be feared it will cease to charm 
the ears of those who dwell in woodland districts. Wanting the 
compactness which distinguishes the work of many of its con- 
geners, nevertheless the nest of this species is a complete study 
in natural history. There is a certain degree of boldness in 
conception disclosed not only by the scale on which the lines of 
its ample dwelling are founded, but also by the design which is so 
thoroughly well carried out for the comfortable accommodation 
of at most four nurslings. The philoprogenitiveness of our 
robin begins early and ends early, as may be seen when it is 



288 IOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

firmly putting its offspring in the way of self-dependence. The 
nest is often placed amongst the steeply-ridged roots of a mighty 
tree near a creek, or on a bossy protuberance on the rugged stem, 
or perhaps it may be observed neatly filling a hollow, matching so 
well the moss-tinted russet-brown bark, with its cleverly selected 
material, that it is difficult for the eye to detect the robin's home. 
Amongst the different kinds of material that are so judiciously 
chosen, may be found moss, roots, hairlike scales of Dicksonia, 
or the darker scales of Hemitelia and Cyathea, should those 
beautiful tree-ferns grow near, dead leaves, fine grasses, slender 
sprays, webs, sometimes a few feathers, on a broad foundation of 
thick coarse moss. The structure is raised by the careful entwin- 
ing of the material, till with a sloping front, the nest measures 
across the top some five or six inches. The cup has a diameter 
of three inches, whilst its depth is from an inch and a-quarter to 
nearly two inches. The eggs vary in number from two to four ; 
they are ovoid, dull white, with marks of purplish-grey, and over 
most part of the surface indistinct freckles of greyish-brown; 
dull white, with grey and brown marks confluent towards the 
larger end ; greenish-white, with grey and purplish marks ; 
creamy-white, with brownish marks over the surface generally. 
The breeding season extends from September through the sum- 
mer months, as I have a note of a bird incubating on January 
nth. 

31. Petroeca Tr aver si. 

Black Robin. — Information concerning the breeding habits 
of this Chatham Island robin is as yet wanting. 

Genus. — Anthus. 

32. Anthus Nov a Zealandicz y Gml. 

Lark, Pipit, Pihoihoi. — One of the earlier breeders. In the 
Rockwood Valley I have seen the nest and four eggs when snow 
lay well over the ground (Aug. 10th). My first note of this 
bird's breeding is dated "Sep. 21, 1854, nest with three eggs, 
hard set, Low Hills, Rockwood." In looking through the note- 
book I observe several entries of the nest and eggs, or young, 
in the month of August in different years. The rather loose, 
shallow nest is of grass placed on the ground near a sheltering 
tussock. I have but once seen a few tufts of moss mixed with 
the grass leaves, but not neatly interwoven. Eggs, ovoid, oval, 
ovoido-conical, or elongate, shining grey, with brown marks over 
the surface generally ; dull white, covered with deep brown 
streaks and splashes ; white with purple and grey marks ; dull 
white, speckled with brownish grey, mostly at the larger end ; 
greenish-white, with brown streaks ; dull white, with rich al- 
most reddish brown and purple streaks. Length, ten and a-half 
lines ; breadth, eight lines. 

( To be continued). 



NOTES ON THE NEW ZEALAND FROST-FISH. 289 

NOTES ON THE NEW ZEALAND FROST FISH. 



BY C. H. ROBSON. 



Notwithstanding the interest which has from time to time 
been taken by our naturalists in the habits of this beautiful fish, 
the cause of its mysterious landings has yet to be discovered. 
Dr. R. von Lendenfeld's theory, that it draws at the spawning 
season into shallow water, and that the reduction of pressure 
causes the air bladder to expand to such an extent as to burst, 
causing the stranding and death of the fish, is, as Mr. W. Arthur 
says in his paper published in the July number of this journal, 
ingenious, but in the writer's opinion, incorrect. I am happy to 
be able to confirm Mr. Arthur's statement that immature speci- 
mens have been obtained, for I have found them of all sizes 
down to three inches in length. It is to be regretted that Mr. 
Arthur's observations are for the most part second-hand, and 
fishermen's stories are frequently unreliable. The statement 
that specimens have been obtained when there has been no frost, 
is no doubt correct, as also that the fish has been sometimes 
netted (probably in deep water) during the summer season ; but 
that on landing it attempts to bite its tail, and that it feeds on 
sprats which it follows into the surf, I venture to doubt, personal 
observation having led me to conclude that at the time of its 
landing it does not feed on anything. I have opened a great 
number of specimens without finding any food in the stomach, 
except in one instance, when I found a young mullet in the 
mouth of a frost fish at Cape Campbell, at which place many 
female fish with fully developed roes were obtained, but no 
males with milt. The only occasion on which the writer ever 
saw a frost-fish in anything like warm weather, was in March, 
1880, when in Cook's Strait, near the Brothers rocks, a large 
cormorant was observed in the act of trying to persuade a half- 
grown frost-fish about two feet in length to ascertain by per- 
sonal observation whether his digestive apparatus was in good 
working order. The fish, however, was not of an enquiring 
mind, or he objected to undertake the investigation on 
personal grounds, and urging his objections very forcibly, 
frequently sought to return to the depths of his native 
element, the shag following and persuading him to return 
to the surface, where the dispute continued for a long 
time ; till at last the bird, not being able to carry his point on 
sea, proceeded with his friend to the shore, where, no doubt, he 
succeeded in convincing him that the personal investigation soli- 
cited was absolutely necessary. For many years the writer has 
continued, when opportunity served, to observe the habits of the 
frost-fish, with a view to the discovery of a reason of some kind 
for its singular practice of coming on shore during frosty nights. 
A long series of personal observations has convinced him that it is 
not thrown on the land by surf or high tides when in pursuit of 



2gO JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

food or otherwise, but that it comes on shore in an apparently- 
voluntary manner for some reason as yet undiscovered. Dr. 
Hector's statement that it is most commonly found on sandy- 
beaches exposed to the long roll of ocean swell is quite correct ; 
but the inference which he draws from being so found, viz., that 
it is thrown on shore by the sea while in pursuit of food is, in 
my opinion, an error, of which personal observation of its land- 
ing on beaches which are not exposed to any swell, and in per- 
fectly calm weather, would at once convince him. I have observed 
the landings of the frost-fish at the following places : — Clifford 
Bay, Cape Campbell, Kartigi and Moeraki beaches (Otago), 
Mania Beach, and Portland Island (Hawke's Bay). As far as 
my experience'goes, it comes on shore only during frosty weather, 
when there is little or no wind, and most commonly during the 
night. Only two of the landing-places above named are sheltered 
from the southerly winds, which usually prevail during frosty 
weather, viz., Moeraki and Clifford Bay. At the last-named 
place I found the frost-fish more abundantly than anywhere else, 
and had better opportunities of observing its habits, so that my 
further remarks will chiefly refer to what I saw there, though 
they apply also to Moeraki. Clifford Bay is sheltered from S., 
S.E., and S.W. winds by very high land at the side nearest 
Cape Campbell, and where the frost-fish most commonly lands 
it only does so during southerly weather in the winter months 
when, on account of the shelter provided by the high cliffs, the 
sea close in shore is perfectly smooth ; as a rule the frost-fish 
comes on shore at this place about dawn, but frequently after 
sunrise, and usually with the tide quarter-ebb it swims on top of 
the clear water strongly in a normal position, with its head di- 
rected to the shore, and continues so to advance till the water 
becomes too shallow for it to swim further, when its compressed 
shape causes it to fall on one side; it then begins to spring into the 
air, often 3 feet or more, with its head always directed shorewards, 
till the receding tide leaves it high and dry. When jumping, as 
above stated, it frequently comes down bent like a C, and as it is 
then gasping, this may have led the fishermen at Purakanui to 
think that it was trying to bite its tail, the more so from the fact 
that the said tail is often bleeding, by beating on the sand during the 
dying struggles of the fish. In a paper published in Vol. VIII. 
of the Transactions of the N.Z. Institute, I stated, and now repeat, 
that I have frequently with a stick turned the frost-fish from the 
shore while it was in sufficiently deep water to swim well ; 
and that after swimming from the beach for a short time, 
it invariably turns round and comes deliberately on shore. I 
have repeated this experiment many times, and always with the 
same result. I can also state positively that it is not driven on 
shore by any visible enemy, nor does it go there in pursuit of 
prey of any kind. All the frost-fish obtained by me at Clifford 
Bay were adults in fine condition, fat, strong, and seemingly in 
perfect health. I do not pretend to give any reason for their 
coming on shore, and only state the facts as I observed them. 






ON AN APHIDIAN INSECT INFESTING PINE TREES. 29 1 



ON AN APHIDIAN INSECT INFESTING PINE TREES * 



BY W. M. MASKELL. 



This "blight," as it is commonly called, seems to have 
appeared in New Zealand some five or six years ago, and it is 
now common throughout the country from Wellington and Nel- 
son southwards, chiefly on Pinus insignis, P. halepensis, and P. 
sylvestris. In general appearance it exhibits a white cottony or 
mealy fluff, thickly coating the twigs, but not usually extending 
along the leaf-tufts. Gradually the trees begin to turn brown, 
soon appearing dry and scorched, and at last the whole tree 
seems to wither and present all the signs of complete decay and 
death. The brown leaf-tufts often remain in their places ; but 
sometimes they fall off and leave only the naked brown twigs, 
and the tree becomes thus very unsightly and, seemingly, dead. 
Pines around Wellington are very much damaged by this 
" blight ;" at Nelson it is the same ; and accounts from Canter- 
bury and Otago speak of similar ravages in plantations there. 
Many people are, in consequence, thinking of altogether ceasing 
to plant pine trees at all. 

These injuries are caused by an insect of the family Aphididae, 
belonging to the genus commonly, but wrongly, named Chermes 
or Kermes. Its nearest allies are the European insects £ (Anis- 
ophleba) pini y Koch, and £ corticalis, Kaltenbach, which indeed 
may possibly be only one and the same. There are a few minute 
characters, such as the absence of peduncles in the eggs, absence 
of spots on the dorsum, &c, which seem to differentiate it, but 
it is evidently very nearly related to the above insects. The 
damage which it causes to the pine trees is effected in the early 
stages of its life history, being the work of the young "embryonic" 
larva and of the apterous oviparous female. The winged state 
of the female and the winged male have not been observed ; but 
it is probable that they would closely resemble those of the 
European insects, though the winged forms of £ pini are also 
scarcely known. 

The apterous oviparous female may be seen with a lens, or 
with difficulty with the naked eye, resting amongst the white 
cottony fluff on the twigs, in which she lays her eggs. She is 
dark brown in colour, semi-globular, about 1-2 5th inch long, with 
a slug-like segmented body. The " cotton " is secreted through 
a number of circular spinneret orifices arranged in groups over 
the body. Apparently she lays sixty or seventy eggs, and the 
cotton is full of these and of young larvae commencing their 
travels. These larvae are active little beasts, but the oviparous 

* Abstract of paper read before Wellington Philosophical Society, August 6th, 
1884. 



292 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

female is stationary. The insects live thus in colonies, and their 
united attacks on the juices of the tree, through their rostra and 
sucking tubes, produce the withering effect spoken of above. 

This pest, or " blight," is undoubtedly a serious drawback to 
pine cultivation. At the same time experience seems to show 
that it does not actually cause the death of the trees. As far as 
can be ascertained, the pines, after being reduced to the state of 
apparently complete withering, recover again ; the insects seem 
to desert them, they throw out once more green leaf-tufts, and 
after a few more months are to all intents and purposes as 
vigorous as ever. Trees which have so recovered may be seen 
in the Wellington Botanical Gardens and elsewhere ; indeed, it 
is not certain that any tree has actually been killed by the insect. 
Still, of course, it is no small thing that growth should be 
checked and, practically, entirely stopped for so many months ; 
even if ultimately recovering, there must be loss of constitutional 
strength. Moreover, it remains yet to be seen whether the insect 
would not after a while return to the tree ; if so, there will 
simply be an alternation of periods of seeming health and serious 
disease, which must be greatly injurious. There has not been 
time in New Zealand to investigate this point, which is certainly 
one of great interest to growers of pine trees. 

A very simple remedy may te suggested, which is the ap- 
plication of strong solutions of soap. Probably the most com- 
plete mode of employing this would be through some kind of 
emulsion with kerosene ; but soap and water, if sufficiently strong, 
is a useful and, from experience in Europe and America, an 
efficacious remedy. Whether it can be applied in large planta- 
tions of tall trees is a matter for individual experience ; but on 
young trees, or in gardens, there might be no difficulty. Sulphur, 
carbolic acid, and other substances commonly included in 
" blight-destroyers " are of small value ; sulphur especially is a 
delusion and a snare as against homopterous pests, whatever it 
may be against other insects. Tobacco is good, but expensive ; 
kerosene is one of the best, but it is both expensive and perhaps 
dangerous in many cases. On the whole, soap is the best 
remedy of all. 

The paper is completed by some remarks upon the erroneous 
use of the generic name " Chermes," or •' Kermes," a term 
which has been made to include insects of the families Aphididse, 
Psyllidae, and Coccidae, families really as distinct as the hawks 
and the magpies amongst birds ; the name having been 
originally applied by the Persians and Arabs to an insect pro- 
ducing a scarlet dye, and this insect being undoubtedly a true 
Coccid, Kermes ought to be restricted to the Coccidae, as indeed 
several entomologists have already strenuously urged. But the 
error is still prevalent, as is evinced by the work of Mr. Buckton 
(British Aphides), who follows it so lately as 1882. In the pre- 
sent paper the name " Chermaphis " is suggested for such insects 
as the pine blight, and other kindred Aphididae. 



ON MOA AND OTHER REMAINS. 293 

ON MOA AND OTHER REMAINS FROM THE 
TENGAWAI RIVER, CANTERBURY. 



The report in the Journal of Science for July of a paper " On 
Moa Remains from the Mackenzie Country and elsewhere," read by 
Mr. F. R. Chapman before the Otago Institute, has induced me to 
offer some observations on Moa and other remains collected in the' 
adjoining country, situated between the Opawa and Tengawai 
Rivers, below the Mackenzie Pass. The district is one of special 
interest, and possesses many valuable relicts of the Maori and Moa, 
being a limestone country and abounding with caves. They formed 
in ages passed awa) comfortable dwellings for the Maoris, and the 
walls and roofs of several are still adorned with grotesque figures 
of rock paintings. Some are perfect, others are in a sadly dilapi- 
dated state ; and judging by the quantities of Moa bones occurring 
in the swamps, caves, " swallow holes," and debris of the limestone, 
the district appears to have been thickly inhabited with Moas, and 
for a considerable period formed the hunting grounds of the 
Maoris. The bones, with several stone implements, have occa- 
sionally been found when ploughing the downs and open lands near 
the limestone, and I have frequently observed bleached and 
broken fragments lying on the surface for several miles around. 
It is, however, in the swallow-holes that the bones occur in 
quantities, those I procured from them being in an almost perfect 
state of preservation. In one we descended with a rope we dug 
nearly two sacksful ot mixed bones. They were embedded at 
various depths in a tenacious damp yellow clay. After digging to 
a depth of four feet, we were unable to sink deeper, owing to the 
small space and having to shift and re-shift the clay. The bed 
which contained the remains was thirty-three feet from the sur- 
face, and was not perpendicular with the mouth of the hole, but 
lay seven feet to one side. On the opposite side an underground 
cave stretched twenty-five feet into the rock ; a small stream of 
water flowed over the floor and disappeared in a fissure of the rock 
at one end. We felt with a crowbar in the soft mud beneath the 
waters, and succeeded in procuring more by this means. Among 
the bones have been identified a large number of Ocydromus aus- 
tralis, one skull of Nestor, three of Stringops habroptilus, four (with 
other bones) of Kiwi, and three species of Moa, as Dinomis cmssus, 
elephantopus and Palapteryx ingens. Although we failed to find a 
complete skeleton, there is little doubt that the remaining parts lie 
deeper in the clay, or perhaps are washed into fissures of the rock. 
There are twenty-two similar holes within a radius of halt a mile 
square, but many would be more difficult to explore than the one 
described. They all may therefore be expected to contain many 
precious relicts of the Moa. 

The occurrence of the Stringops (Kakapo) in the swallow-holes 
may be accounted for by the dense native bush growing near 
them, clothing the steep spurs sloping to the Tengawai Gorge, 
similar to those of the Grey and Buller Rivers on the West Coast, 
still inhabited by the Kakapo. The birds probably, like the 
Moas, while feeding on the more tender vegetation growing on the 



294 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

sides of the holes, accidentally fell into them, and perished. The 
extinction of this interesting bird in this district appears to have 
been assisted by the Maoris, who hunted it for its flesh. From 
the dry floor of a cave we dug numerous bones of birds, including 
Kakapo, Kaka, Weka, Pukeko, Kiwi, and Moa, with " cutting- 
stones " from the stomach of the latter ; but the bones were all 
(excepting the Moa's) in a crumbling state. The bill on one Kiwi 
skull, probably Megalapteryx, measured 8J inches. They lay nearly 
all in one corner of the cave, as if thrown there promiscuously. 
Many of them appeared to have been broken when thrown there. 
I likewise found scraps of burned bones near old camping grounds 
of the Moa hunters, but I never could discover the kitchen 
middens. 

At the meeting above-mentioned Mr. Gr. M. Thomson raised the 
question, " What did the Moa feed upon ?" The question is one 
of the highest importance in the history of the Moa, and there ex- 
ists considerable difference of opinion among scientists in dealing 
with the subject. The late Dr. von Hochstetter, writing on the 
Dinomis before New Zealand was inhabited by man, remarks, 
— " We must assume that at that time the large Dinomis and 
Aptevyoc species, whose bones we find to-day, lived in great num- 
bers upon open fern-iand, subsisting on the roots of Ptevis esculenta.'' 
But this could not apply to the numerous family of Moas, as their 
remains have been found in many places where the Ptevis esculenta 
never existed. The same author continues : — " Dr. Haast observes 
that the present Alpine flora furnished a large quantity of nutritious 
food quite capable of sustaining the life even of so large a creature, 
and as the fruits of those plants seem at present to serve no evident 
purpose in the economy ol nature, he argued the former existence 
of an adequate amount ot animal life to prevent an excessive de- 
velopment of vegetation. This part was played by the Dinomis." 
This again cannot fully be accepted ; for to compare the number 
of species or quantity of bones found in the Alps with those collec- 
ted in swamps, caves, and open lands in the lower country, they 
will be found to be only about one-tenth of the whole number. 
Moreover it could only be during certain months of the year that 
the birds could reach it or find subsistence there. It is more 
probable that during the summer months individuals fed up the 
mountain sides to considerable elevations, and during late autumn 
were overtaken by dense mists or sudden snowstorms, and perished 
before they were able to descend to the plains. A traveller in the 
Alps will not observe any " excessive development " in the 
vegetation ; while in some Alpine districts the flora, like some of 
the fauna in the lower lands, is rapidly disappearing, being sup- 
planted by other forms. Although bones and gizzard stones have 
been found in the Alps, there is little doubt that the Moa fed chiefly on 
on downs, plains, around forests, and especially on marshy lands, 
where their remains are always found more numerous than elsewhere. 
Their occurrence in large quantities in the kitchen midden at the 
mouth of the Rakaia River, one of the furthest points from the 
Canterbury Alps, where formerly extensive marshes stretched 
along the sea coast, would indicate that the moa existed there in 
great numbers. The leg bones of several having been found in a 
vertical position, suggests that the birds were at times mired in 
the swamps. 



COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION OF DIPTERA. 295 

Regarding the food of the Dinomis, and with such a number of 
species, many would have a natural preierence for certain food, 
as shown by the bones of distinct species being found far removed 
from each other. With a more humid atmosphere and more 
luxuriant vegetation, known to have prevailed in former times, 
there can be no doubt that nearly the whole vegetation, from the 
sea-shore to the wooded spurs of the lower ranges, contributed to- 
wards the food supply of the moas. It may be mentioned that the 
district around the Tengawai Gorge is particularly rich in native 
vegetation. The spurs are clothed with Veronicas and Celmisias up to 
2000 feet. The limestone range is overgrown with the Ant her icum 
hookeri. No better food plant could have existed. The succulent 
leaves and flower-stalks would provide food for adults and young 
during the summer and autumn months; if the birds were 
" sluggish diggers of the ground " the tubers of this plant would 
form substantial food during winter. The Moa hunters were more 
favoured by nature in this district with a supply ot food than in 
most places where their camping grounds are found, there being 
an abundance of " Maori onion," fern-root, and birds, together 
with caves to dwell in. 

w. w. s. 



COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION OF DIPTERA. 



BY SAMUEL WENDELL WILLISTON, NEWHAVEN, CONN. 



(From " Psyche," January, 1884). 

From dearly-purchased experience I have learned the neces- 
sity of care in the collection and preservation of etomological 
specimens, and it may be that a few hints will be of service to the 
collectors of diptera and similar insects. 

For collecting I use a cyanide-bottle, which, although objected 
to by European dipterologists, I have found the best and most con- 
venient. But I do not mean an ordinary cyanide-bottle, for speci- 
mens collected in such are worthless for scientific or other purposes. 
I select several two-ounce [60 c. c], wide-mouthed bottles of the 
same form, and carefully line the bottom and sides with a good 
quality of blotting-paper. Good firm corks are selected, which 
are interchangeable in the different bottles : in one of these corks a 
small hole is made, in which it is better to fit a small metallic 
ferule ; a strip of blotting-paper is then coiled within this cavity, 
and it is over this that a few drops of a solution ot cyanide of 
potash is poured. It is useless to collect flies in a bare bottle ; 
the insects soon exhale moisture sufficient to ruin them. The 
blotting-paper prevents this, and the cork can readily be removed 
from one bottle and put into another when a sufficient quantity of 
flies is collected. Moisture of any kind injures flies. Some flies, such 
as the hairy Bombyliidce, should always be pinned when caught. 
For this purpose a small, tight, pith-lined box may be carried in 
the pocket, together with a phial of benzine to kill the flies. 

In the earlier part of the season many rare specimens of diptera 
may be obtained by beating. For this purpose I employ a rather 



296 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

heavier net- wire, to which a pointed net of cheese-cloth is attached. 
On such occasions it is necessary to carry with one a larger bottle 
with a little cotton-wool in the bottom, and a phial of chloroform in 
the pocket. By thrusting the end of the net, with its contents, for 
a few seconds into the chloroform bottle, one can then remove 
the specimens undisturbed. Very minute flies it is expedient to pre- 
serve alive in small bottles filled with paper clippings and through 
the cork of which a small glass tube is thrust nearly to the bottom. 
For a collecting net, after many experiments and failures, I have 
found most serviceable a simple, rather light, brass wire, soldered 
together to form a ring about 28cm. in diameter and firmly at- 
tached to a light handle about one metre long. The net is made 
ol very coarse bobbinet lace, the most serviceable and, in the end, 
cheapest material. The net should be readily handled with one 
hand. 

For the collection of diptera a few hints here will suffice. The 
best season in New England is June, yet specimens may be collected 
every month in the year. In May and the early part of Jure, beat- 
ing will give excellent results. A little later, patches of black- 
berry (Rubus), wild cherry (Prunus), dogwood (Comus), Canada 
thistle (Cirsium), or other melliferous blossoms will afford desirable 
specimens. It is better to let specimens come to the collector, than 
to go hastily about looking for them. I have spent six hoars about 
a patch of Comus paniculata not ten metres in diameter, and been 
amply repaid. But few specimens are found in shady woods ; 
those few are to be sought for there. The favorite place for Taba- 
nidce, as indeed for most flies, is on the border of woods, open 
glades, meadow lands, etc. 

Specimens should not be allowed to remain over night unpinned. 
The large specimens may be pinned through the thorax, preferably 
with japanned iron pins. They should be placed on the pin only 
low enough so that the head may be grasped with the thumb and 
forefinger without danger to the specimen. The wings should never 
be spread. Spreading not only renders the specimens more difficult 
to study, but it spoils the natural appearance of the insects, and is 
a positive injury to them for the cabinet. All that is necessary is 
to push aside the wings so that they will not conceal the abdomen. 
Minute specimens should be pinned with fine iron wire from the 
underside, and then pinned upon small strips of thin cork, the 
upper surface of which has been covered with white paper, and 
through the other end of which a pin is thrust. Small specimens 
should never be glued to bits of card-board, as is commonly done 
with coleoptera. Only one specimen should be placed on the 
piece of cork. 

The greatest enemy to dipterological collections is dust : insects 
can be guarded against, but it is difficult to exclude dust, unless 
tight cases are used. Dampness and mildew do often much mis- 
chief. 

A good dipterological specimen must be unrubbed, unmoistened, 
not dusty nor greasy, and with the wings unspread. It is quite as 
easy to collect good specimens as poor ones, and much more satis- 
factory. 



NEW ZEALAND COLEOPTERA. 297 



RESULTS OF AN EXAMINATION OF SOME OF WHITE'S 
TYPES OF NEW ZEALAND COLEOPTERA CON- 
TAINED IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM COLLECTION 
AT LONDON. 



BY DR. D. SHARP. 



It is well known to entomologists that the descriptions of insects 
by Adam White, contained in " The Zoology of the Voyage of 
H.M.S. Erebus and Terror," Part XI., April, 1846, are so deficient 
and inaccurate that many of them cannot be identified. Shortly 
before his decease, Adam White himself spoke to me of this, and 
said that it was not his own fault that such is the case, but that he 
was instructed by his superiors to interrupt work he was doing on 
Crustacea to draw up these descriptions, and that no sufficient 
time was allowed him for the accomplishment of so difficult a task. 
It is no part of my duty to ascertain whose fault it was that so 
unscientific a work was published " by authority of the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty ;" but I have thought it right to 
record Mr. White's disavowal of responsibility in the matter. Owing 
to the deficient nature of the work the descriptions, where not ac- 
companied by figures, can in many cases not even be guessed at, 
and the only way to recognise them is to examine the individuals 
Mr. White described. These were carefully labelled at the time by 
White himself, the label being placed on the pm transfixing the in- 
sect, and many of them are preserved in the collection of the British 
Museum at London. As no thorough examination of these "type" 
specimens has ever been made, I recently visited London for the 
purpose of working them out, and these notes are the result. I 
have, however, only been able to accomplish the work in an incom- 
plete manner ; it is but little good trusting to memory in such matters, 
and it is necessary, in order that the elucidations should be satis- 
factory, to take specimens for comparison which may be certified 
as agreeing with the types. This, for various reasons which I need 
not mention in detail, I was able to do only partially. Moreover, 
the type specimens are, in some cases, dirty, and so badly mounted 
that no satisfactory examination can be made until the Museum 
authorities cause them to be put into proper condition. Hence 
there is still much to do to clear up White's work ; but I hope the 
following notes will contribute a little to the desirable result. I 
shall be happy at a future time, if desired by New Zealand natu- 
ralists to do so, to undertake a more complete examination of these 
type specimens of Coleoptera. 

Anchomenus elevatus, White. — This is the same as A . novce zealandice, 
Fairm., and the name must be relegated to synonymy. There is an 
example of Fairmaire's species ticketed with a label identifying the 
French author's insect, by White himself; it stands side by side 
with White's own type of A. elevatus, and it is probable that, the 
description of Fairmaire's insect having been published in the in- 
terval between the writing and publication of White's description 
of A. elevatus, White intended to suppress his own species, but 
omitted to carry out his intention. A. novce zealandice is closely 
allied to the Auckland insect called A . elevatus, by Bates, but is 



298 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

probably a distinct species, and I will take an early opportunity of 
defining and renaming the latter insect. 

Anchomenus colensonis, White. — This is an insect similar to A, 
hchnsi and A. otagoensis, Bates, and I expect will prove to be the 
same as the latter, though I have not compared examples. 

Ancliomcmis deplanatus, White. — This is a species of Dicrochile, like 
D. subopacus ; but I have not compared the two species. 

Feronia planinscula, White. — This is the species so identified by 
Bates. 

F. vigil, White. — This is otherwise unknown to me, but Mr. 
Wakefield has given me an example of an extremely similar insect 
from Wellington that, indeed, may not prove specifically different. 

Feronia capito, White. — Extremely close to Trichosternus sylvius, 
Bates, so that I am not sure the two will ultimately prove to be 
distinct. 

Feronia politissima, White. — This is a peculiar Anchomenoid P^ws- 
tichus quite unknown to me ; indeed, I have seen nothing like it 
from New Zealand. 

Feronia vagepnnctata, White. — This is, propably, as given by 
Bates, a synonym of Holcaspis snbcenea (Guer.) Bates. 

Feronia elongella, White. — This has already been identified cor- 
rectly by Mr. Bates with a species apparently not uncommon mthe 
eastern portion of the Southern Island, as it has reached us from 
Christchurch (Fereday) and Picton (Helms). 

Broscus carenoides, White. — The type of this species is not extant 
in the collection of the British Museum, but the individual alluded 
to by White as closely allied is in the collection, and bears White's 
ticket to the preceding effect. 

Broscus cereus, White. — Judging from my memory of Oregus in- 
cequalis, White's species is the same as it. 

Oopterus rotundicollis, White. — This is the insect so well-known to 
us as Cyclothorax insnlaris. 

Molopsida polita, White. — After much search this species was 
discovered in the collection by Mr. Waterhouse. The insect is 
extremely similar to Tropopterus sulcicollis, Bates, but the example 
will require to be cleaned and remounted before it can be thoroughly 
examined. 

Dorcus sqnamidovsis, White. — This is, according to the type, cor- 
rectly recorded in the Munich Catalogue as a synonym of Lissotes 
veticulatus. 

JJorcus pnnctulatus. White. — This we could not find in the Museum 
collection. 

Eusoma rossii, White. — The type of this is a species unknown to 
me. 

Prioscelida tenebrionoides , White. — Has been correctly identified 
by Mr. F. Bates. 

Adelium harpaloides, White. — Also correctly known to us by 
Auckland specimens named by Mr. Bates. 

Tit ana erichsonii, White, — Correctly identified by Mr. Bates. 
This insect is more metallic in colour than the other New Zealand 
species of this genus known to me. 

Rhinaria sex-tnberculata, White. — This description has been cor- 
rectly identified, and on comparing White's type with the Fabrician 
type of Curcnlio tridcns, which is contained in the Banksian collec- 
tion at the British Museum, I find the two to be the same species; 



VAN HENSEN'S HYPOTHESIS OF SPONTANEOUS GENERATION. 299 

so that, in accordance with the usual practice of zoologists, the 
species must bear the trivial name of " tridens," Fab., and White's 
name become a synonym. 

Platyomida binodis, White. — This is a species very closely allied 
to Empceotes orispatus, Pasc. 

Otiovhynchus griseus, White. — This is a species unknown to me ot 
the genus Catoptes. 

Hoplocneme cinnamomea, White. — This is a species of Eugnomus ; 

Hoplocneme hookeri, White. — There is no specimen with this name 
in the British Museum collection ; but there is a type labelled H. 
rufipes, White, and I have no doubt that this is meant lor H. hookeri, 
the latter name having probably been substituted after the original 
description had been drawn up; at any rate the " H. rufipes " is the 
insect common in New Zealand we call H. hookevi, which name it 
will, of course, continue to bear. 

Lyctus depvessiusculus, White. — 'This is one of the commoner of the 
species of Pycnomevus ; but not having suspected such a thing I had 
no specimens of the latter genus to compare with it. 

Ptenus suturalis, White. — This is the insect I described under the 
name of Atopida brouni. The type is pinned, and the wing-cases 
are gaping, so that the colour of the suture looks different from 
usual. As White's description is too brief and inexact to charac- 
terise the species which he referred, without a word of remark, to 
an erroneous family, I think it would be unnecessary to adopt the 
name he proposed His mistake is quite unpardonable, as in this 
same work he found the genus Atopida for another species con- 
generic with this insect, which he places in Ptericus — a well-known 
genus of another family — without any comment. 

Ptenus pilosus, White. — This is a small insect of a genus in the 
Anobiadce ; but the type is in such a dirty state that it cannot be 
identified till it has been cleaned. Ptenus muvinus and Anobium tri- 
costellum are not in the British Museum collection. 



VAN HENSEN'S HYPOTHESIS OF SPONTANEOUS 
GENERATION. 



BY DR. R. VON LENDENFELD, SYDNEY. 



Van Hensen* published a most ingenious hypothesis concerning 
this question, which, although it does not appear to hold good for 
the purpose of explaining the postulated " Unzeugung," still serves, 
as I think, to explain the vital phenomena in a manner equally 
clear and comprehensible. 

Besides fat granules and water, protoplasmic cells contain a 
spongy network of threads which consist of strings of molecules. 
Herein protoplasm resembles boiled starch or gum (Nageli). 
There appear to be two such networks interlaced, consisting of two 
different kinds of protoplasm. The one kind imbibes carmin very 
freely — Chromatin ; the other can not be coloured so easily — 

* Handbuch der Physiologie, Band VI. Van Hensen, Physiologie der Zeugung, 
Seite 147-148. 



300 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Achromatin (Fleming). It appears that there is a continual chemical 
action going on between these two substances, the manifestations 
of which are called life. The way in which these chemical actions 
may produce assimilation and growth can be easily explained by 
Van Hensen's hypothesis, which was, however, meant to explain 
spontaneous generation. 

Let us assume, as an illustrative example, that the chromatin, 
which we call B, is different from the achromatin A, by each 
molecule of it containing more carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen than 
A, in the following manner : — 

B = A + C N 2 H 8 

It we further assume that B cannot be oxidised by ordinary oxygen, 
and that B and A together can where they touch disassociate car- 
bonic acid by the aid of sunlight, the following chemical actions 
may take place : — 

A + B + 2 (C 2 ) = (A + C 2 3 ) + (B + O). 
The Oxygen set free by the decomposition of CO2 in a nascent 
state oxidises B, which is not influenced by ordinary oxygen. 
B + O may now be a chemical compound, which can be oxidised 
by ordinary oxygen and take up two more atoms of it, so that we 
have : — 

B + 3O 
At the same time we may assume that 2 replaces (C03N 2 H 8 ) 
Carbonate of Ammonia, a substance which is very often produced 
in connection with the oxidation of organic compounds. We 
would then have — 

B + O3 - C0 3 N 2 H 8 = B - CN 2 H 8 
This is, according to a first assumption, nothing but A : — By the 
action of carbonic acid and oxygen, with the aid of sunlight, a new molecule 
of A is produced by B. Let us now assume that A + C 2 3 (derived 
from A by the disassociation of carbonic acid as above) absorbs 
from the surrounding water nitrate of calcium ; we will have — 

A + C 2 3 + N 2 6 CaH 8 4 . 

The calcium is precipitated (skeleton of Foraminifera !) as 
carbonate ol lime. 

A + C 2 3 + N 2 6 CaH 8 4 - C0 3 Ca = A + CN 2 H 8 + O 10 
The ten oxygen are atoms exhaled and 

A + CN 2 H 8 = B. 
is left. In this way a new molecule of B has been produced together with 
a calcareous skeleton, whilst oxygen has been exhaled. In this 
way A may continually produce B and the chromatin continually 
produce achromatin. 

The problem of assimilation is solved. Protoplasm does not 
take up different compounds and turn them into protoplasm, but 
the protoplasm itself consists of two different substances, one of 
which always produces the other — a mutual formation of fresh 
molecules. 

Note.— Owing to pressure on our space all Meetings of Societies and Reviews 
have to be left out of the current number. They will appear in our next issue. 



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CONTENTS: 

page: 

Biographical Notices — ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... 301 

II. Professor F W. Hutton (with Photograph). 

Notes on some Mineral Occurrences at Dusky Sound, West Coast of Middle Island, 

New Zealand (with Plate). By Professor G. H. F. Ulrich 306 

Moas and Moa Hunters. By W. M. Maskell 315 

General Notes — 320 

A Plague of Parakeets • Teratkum typicum — A new species of Idotea — Embryology of Mono- 
tremes — Dr. H. E. Brady — The Kakapo as a Domestie Pet— Royal Society of New South 
Wales— A Fossil Egg— Mr. W. Saville Kent. 

Meetings of Societies — 327 

Linnean Society of New South Wales— Royal Society of Tasmania — Royal Society of New 
South Wales — Philosophical Institute of Canterbury — Otago Institute (Presidential 
Address). 



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Vol. II., No. 7, JANUARY, 1885. 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 
II.— Frederick Wollaston Hutton. 



Captain F. W. Hutton, or, as he is now better known, Pro- 
fessor Hutton, was born at Gate Burton, in Lincolnshire, Eng- 
land, of which parish his father, the Rev. H. F. Hutton, was 
rector, in November, 1836. His school education was com- 
menced at Southwell Grammar School, from whence he went 
to the Royal Naval Academy at Gosport, with the object 
of entering the Navy. Failing, however, to obtain a nomination 
before the age of 14, and being still bent on going to sea, he be- 
came in 185 1 a midshipman in the "Alfred," one of Messrs. 
Green and Co.'s ships, trading to Calcutta. Whatever anticipa- 
tions such a life may have held out to a young and vigorous 
spirit, the reality appears to have proved less fascinating, and 
seeing no career open for him in this direction, young Hutton 
left the sea, and settled down for a while to study in King's 
College, London. But unsettled times were at hand, officers and 
soldiers were in demand, and the quiet of a university life was 
exchanged in 1855 for a commission in the 23rd Royal Welsh 
Fusiliers. At the close of the same year he went out to the 
Crimea, in time to see the end of the war. But hardly were 
affairs settled in the Black Sea when the Indian Mutiny broke 
out, and to India Lieutenant Hutton went, serving there from 
1857 to 1859. He was present at the relief of Lucknow under 
. Sir Colin Campbell, and in many other engagements, for which 
he received a medal and clasps. 

During these years of active service he had not neglected to 
cultivate his observational faculties, his attention being chiefly 
directed to geology, a science which, together with mineralogy, 
he had studied under the late Professor Tennant, at King's Col- 
lege. In i860, after his return to England, he entered the Staff 
College at Sandhurst, and in the same year was elected a Fellow 
of the Geological Society of London. During his residence at 
Sandhurst he increased his practical knowledge of the science 
by accompanying the officers of the Geological Survey over 
parts of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. In 1863 he was 
appointed Brigade-Major at the Curragh, under the Hon. Sir 
Alex. Gordon ; and in the following year was placed on the 
Quarter-Master General's staff in Dublin by Sir G. Brown, then 
Commander-in-Chief in Ireland. 

Before this period he had commenced his contributions to 
scientific literature with a review on the " Origin of Species," 
published in the "Geologist" of April and May, 1861, and a lec- 
ture on " The use of Geology to Military Officers " to the United 
Service Institution, which appeared in its Journal for 1862. In 



302 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

the "Ibis" of July, 1864, appears his paper on "The birds in- 
habiting the Southern Ocean," which we may consider as his 
first original contribution to scientific knowledge. " A sketch of 
the Geology of the Island of Malta " came out in the " Geological 
Magazine" for April, 1866, but he had made a geological map 
of the island three years previously. These essays show that the 
mind of their author was become more and more engaged in 
scientific work, and probably impatient of the drudgery and 
routine of his official duties ; and it was to satisfy this craving 
after a more congenial mode of existence that the change which 
altered the rest of his life was made. 

New Zealand, then as now, presented itself as a country in 
every way attractive to English colonists, but above all to one 
with tastes for geology and natural history it was of surpassing 
interest as offering an almost untouched field. Turning his 
thoughts therefore abroad, it was to this Colony that Captain 
Hutton resolved to come, and accordingly in 1866 he retired from 
the army, and left the old country. At that period, as so many 
know to their cost, the manufacture of Phormium fibre was the 
industry which attracted most attention in the Colony ; and 
having settled in the Waikato, Captain Hutton tried his hand at 
it. But the adventure proved very unfortunate, and being com- 
pelled to turn his attention to some other work, he accepted 
occupation from the Geological Survey Department. Early in 
1867 he was employed to make a geological survey of the lower 
Waikato district, his work being published in pamphlet form by 
the Department. " This pamphlet may be said to have laid the 
groundwork of his most important geological researches in New 
Zealand, for his name is more specially identified with the 
tertiary rocks than with those of earlier date. It was, however, 
published hurriedly, and in 1870 he revised his classification of 
the rocks in a paper read before the Auckland Institute (Trans. 
N.Z. Inst., Vol. III., p. 244). During the year 1868 he was em- 
ployed to report on the Thames Gold Field, and called attention 
to the interesting fact that the rocks in which the auriferous 
reefs occur belong to a series of submarine volcanic tufas resting 
unconformably on the slates which form the framework of the 
Cape Colville peninsula. This submarine outburst he considered 
marked the commencement of volcanic activity in early Tertiary 
times, and which has lasted almost continuously to the present 
day. In 1871 Captain Hutton was appointed Assistant- 
Geologist, and removed to Wellington ; and in this position he 
remained for nearly three years, when he received the appoint- 
ment of Provincial Geologist of Otago in 1873, and took up his 
residence in Dunedin. " During these yeari of connection with 
the Geological Department he made some very extensive re- 
connaissance surveys in the north-east portion of the South 
Island and also in Southland. He also described the tertiary 
fossils which had been collected up to that time, and attempted 
to subdivide the tertiary systems by the per centage of recent 
forms," 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 303 

But these geological labours only represent a portion of the 
active work of these first years of Captain Hutton's Colonial life. 
Immediately on coming here he had commenced to make obser- 
vations on the zoology of the country, and these are embodied 
in numerous papers extending without intermission right through 
the volumes of the Transactions of the N. Z. Institute. His 
earlier articles are chiefly confined to the vertebrate fauna, and 
his strong bias for systematic work is shewn in the zoological 
publications of the Survey Department. Thus in 1871 his 
catalogue, with specific diagnoses of the Birds of New Zealand 
was issued, followed in the next year by a catalogue of the 
Fishes, together with papers in the Transactions on the Bats and 
Lizards. In this year also he contributed a long paper on the 
Chitonidse to the Wellington Philosophical Society; but it was 
not till 1873 that his Catalogue of the Marine Mollusca was pub- 
lished, and just shortly before his catalogue of the Tertiary 
Fossils. Sertularians, Echinodermata, and other groups of 
animals all received more or less attention, and a very excellent 
work was all along being done in the way of making collections 
for transmission to specialists in Europe. 

During the time that Captain Hutton held the position of 
Provincial Geologist of Otago he published a geological map of 
the province, and also, in conjunction with Mr. G. H. F. Ulrich 
(now Professor of Mineralogy and Mining in the University of 
Otago), brought out a work on the Geology of Otago. In this 
standard work he brought up an account of his palseontological 
researches to date. 

On the abolition of the Provinces in 1876 Captain Hutton's 
office of Provincial Geologist came to an end ; but so strong was 
the feeling in Dunedin and Otago generally to retain his services, 
that he was appointed to the newly-made Chair of Natural 
Science in the University of Otago. After holding this for four 
years, he was appointed to the Professorship of Biology in Can- 
terbury College, which position he still holds. While in Dunedin 
he published an excellent little manual for students, entitled 
" Zoological Exercises," which has not been as extensively 
adopted as it deserves to be. 

Throughout New Zealand and the Australian Colonies, Pro- 
fessor Hutton is as celebrated for his zoological as for his 
geological researches. It is chiefly as a systematist that he has 
made his name so well known, but he has by no means confined 
himself to this class of work, having shewn remarkable power of 
generalization in his examination of the origin of the fauna and 
flora of these islands. His first paper on this subject was read 
to the Wellington Philosophical Society in September, 1872 
(see Trans. N. Z. Inst, Vol. V., p. 227), and displayed the critical 
power of the author in bringing to bear on his subject informa- 
tion from so many and such various sources. The conclusions 
arrived at in that paper have been subsequently modified to a 
very considerable extent in the light of our increased knowledge 
of the regions — terrestrial and submarine — surrounding New 



304 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Zealand, but it was an excellent attempt to cast the problem 
into a shape in which it might be discussed. The most competent 
criticism on it came from Mr. A. R. Wallace, who re-discussed 
the question in his " Geographical Distribution of Animals," 
published in 1876. Captain Hutton in his paper insisted on the 
necessity of former land connections of New Zealand at various 
periods, and particularly at an early epoch, when it formed part 
of a large continental area, with which South America, Australia, 
and South Africa were all connected (though not necessarily at 
the same time). This opinion, which he founded on the evidence 
furnished by the distribution of the struthious birds, the frogs, 
freshwater fishes, and other animals which have no means of 
crossing tracts of ocean, was disputed by Wallace, who considered 
that there formerly existed here a sub-continental area little in- 
ferior in size to Australia (and which included all the outlying 
islands), which remained in existence, but isolated from all other 
lands, for a considerable geological period, sufficient at any rate 
to allow of the development and specialization of the many forms 
of birds peculiar to cur islands. The occurrence of so many 
characteristic Australian genera heaccounted for by an interchange 
of species during all this time ; while the South American 
element he believed to have been introduced by its great south- 
ward extension, bringing it within range of floating ice during 
the colder periods and within easy reach of the Antarctic con- 
tinent during the warm periods. Returning to the discussion of 
the problem in his " Island Life," published as recently as 1880, 
Mr. Wallace accords well-deserved praise to Captain Hutton's 
speculations on the subject, but adheres largely to his formerly 
expressed opinion. In this interesting work he is able with the 
increased materials for the solution of the problem which had 
accumulated in the intervening four years, to throw out a new 
and highly probable explanation of the origin of a large portion 
of the fauna and flora. After a lapse of eleven years Professor 
Hutton has again come forward with a re-statement of his views 
on this important subject* The most interesting feature in 
these latest papers is the argument advanced from the existence 
of an extensive submarine plateau extending in a north-westerly 
direction from Chili, and not very widely separated from another 
plateau which runs from New Guinea and North Australia in an 
easterly direction through Polynesia, and includes New Zealand 
in its southerly ramifications. This he believes to have formed 
the bridge by which the groups of semi-tropical plants and 
animals which connect Australia and Polynesia with South 
America travelled. 

Since his connection with Canterbury College, Professor 
Mutton has chiefly devoted his attention to a complete revision 
of our Molluscan fauna. But he has done and is doing excellent 
work in training a large number of students — many of them 
teachers — in the principles and practice of biology, and with this 
end in view he has recently devoted much time to botanical re - 

* N. Z. Juurnal of Science, Vol. II., pp, 1-20 and 249-274. 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 305 

search. Regarding his geological work, a competent critic — -whose 
remarks have already been quoted — says : — " It is to Professor 
Hutton we are indebted for the first really accurate work on the 
causes of the former extension of the glaciers in New Zealand ; 
his paper on this subject, contributed to the New Zealand Insti- 
tute in 1875, proved by a comparison of recent and fossil shells 
that this could only be due to greater elevation of the land and 
not to climatal changes. He has differed from the Geological 
Survey on several points, but some of these differences have 
arisen from misconceptions of the rocks referred to by local 
names. There yet remains, however, the important difference 
of opinion regarding the position of the break between the upper 
cretaceous and tertiary rocks, a difference which we yet hope 
to see settled by a convention in the field. At one time we 
feared that Professor Hutton had relinquished his geological 
researches, but he has lately once more resumed his investigations ; 
and we find in his later papers to the Geological Society and the 
New Zealand Institute, as well as in his masterly address last 
year as President of the Canterbury Philosophical Society, that 
he is still taking as lively an interest as ever in the geology of 
New Zealand." 

As a teacher, Professor Huttcn possesses the invaluable 
faculty of communicating a large share of his own enthusiasm to 
his students. In his methods of teaching he has all along shown 
considerable originality, and naturally being of a systematic turn 
of mind himself he attaches more importance to classification and 
systematization than is fashionable just now under the Huxleyan 
regime. From some practical experience of both modes of 
teaching, the writer is of opinion that Professor Hutton's method 
is on the whole best fitted for giving students an interest in 
their work, as Huxley's plan of teaching biology largely ignores 
the value of classification as an aid in instruction. 

In his public relations Professor Hutton shews the same 
enthusiasm in his own line of studies, and always succeeds in 
stirring up interest in natural science among those with whom 
he is thrown in contact. When in Dunedin he — as Hon. Sec- 
retary and afterwards President — raised the Otago Institute into 
a better position than it had ever occupied before ; and he has 
in Canterbury helped to put a good deal of enthusiasm into the 
Philosophical Society of that district. By inducing many a tyro 
to put his observations into writing and read them before one or 
other of these societies, he has been the means of bringing for- 
ward more than one of our younger naturalists. A warm friend, 
and one who abhors all sham and humbug, Pmf. Hutton is yet 
one who has not always succeeded in working along smoothly 
with his associates. He is often too pungent a critic to please 
those from whom he differs in opinion, and perhaps he calls a 
spade a spade with too much emphasis for the vast majority of 
people, who frequently would rather have it called something 
else ; and it may be this outspokenness of opinion, and perhaps 
want of that ambition which so frequently attaches even to 



306 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

eminent scientific men, which has prevented him from receiving 
many foreign honorary distinctions. There is, however, no one 
in or out of New Zealand who has done more for her scientific 
advancement and celebrity ; and the writer only echoes the wish 
which everyone who knows him must feel, that he may long con- 
tinue to make fresh additions to our knowledge, and to add fresh 
laurels to his fame as a colonial naturalist. 

G. M. T. 

[The accompanying excellent photographic likeness ol 
Professor Hutton was taken by Messrs. E. Wheeler and Sons, of 
Christchurch, and printed by the Autotype Co. of London. — Ed.] 



NOTES ON SOME MINERAL OCCURRENCES AT 
DUSKY SOUND, WEST COAST OF MIDDLE 
ISLAND, NEW ZEALAND. 



For several years past Mr. W. Docherty has with indomitable 
pluck and perseverance carried on a mineral exploration of the 
ranges bounding Dusky Sound, and of neighbouring parts of the 
wild romantic West Coast of the Middle Island. The chief and 
legitimate incentive for this dangerous work, in which he is still 
engaged, is the occurrence of mineral deposits carrying copper 
pyrites impregnated and in veinlets ; pyrrholite and pyrite more 
massively and abundantly developed ; and also a number of 
favourable gangue-minerals, as feldspar, hornblende, garnet, &c. 
— the mineral association as a whole presenting close analogy to 
those of certain rich copper-ore deposits of several European and 
American mining countries (Sweden, Norway, the Banat, 
Roumania, Tennessee, Virginia, &c.) Having been invited by 
him each time he returned from one of his exploration trips to 
inspect the specimens he collected, I had the gratification to 
identify several mineral species not before noticed as occurring 
in New Zealand,* and in other well-known species I observed 
characters rendering these minerals deserving of further 
examination. 

The main object of this paper is to give the results of ex- 
aminations, both of the newly-recognised and the before-known 
species referred to ; but as the mode of occurrence of these 
minerals, as well as the geological and mining features of the 
district which Mr. Docherty prospects, are highly interesting and 
instructive, it may be permitted to preface the purely mineral- 
ogical part by the following notes, gathered from that gentle- 
man's descriptions. 

* I take as my principal guide in this respect the elaborate paper by Mr. S. 
Herbert Cox, F.C.S., F.G.S., " Notes on the mineralogy of New Zealand," published 
in Transactions N. Z. Institute, Vol. XIV., 1881, p. 409-418, and Vol. XV., 1SE2, 
p. 301-40';. 



MINERAL OCCURRENCES AT DUSKY SOUND. 307 

The country in which hitherto he has found the most en- 
couraging mining prospects consists of a nearly square area of 
metamorphic rocks, comprising various species, such as horn- 
blendic and garnetiferous gneisses, micaceous and chloritic 
schists, garnetiferous quartz schists, &c. ; which area is from 
three to four miles in width from east to west, and stretches from 
sea to sea, north and south, across a mountain range about 3000 
feet in height, dividing a branch of Dusky Sound from Wet 
Jacket Arm, the distance between being about four miles. On 
both sides of this metamorphic tract, the rock consists of granite, 
which rises into mountains whose height is estimated as close 
upon 4000 feet, the mountain on the west being called Mount 
Hodge, that on the east Mount Pendar. The axis of elevation 
of the mountain range runs nearly east and west, a straight line 
in this direction passing the top of Mount Pendar, the highest 
part of the schist area, the summit of Mount Hodge, and further 
west that of Mount Phillips ; and Mr Docherty states the curious 
fact that in this line the tops of all three mountains are cleft in 
twain, as it were by large open fissures extending considerable 
distances downwards. On the highest part, near the eastern 
boundary of the schist area, Mr. Docherty affirms to have dis- 
covered seven distinct metalliferous deposits, varying from 2 to 4 
feet in thickness and running pretty close together, which from 
their general character he considers to be lodes, but whose mode 
of connection with the country rock, namely that they have the 
same strike and dip as the latter, are in fact interbedded in it, 
designates them as true mineral layers. And he is convinced, 
judging from surface indications, that other deposits of a similar 
class exist in neighbouring parts not yet well prospected. It may 
here passingly be remarked that according to descriptions at 
Roraas and Doore, near Trondhjem in Norway, rich copper-bear- 
ing layers are worked which in the nature of the minerals they 
carry, and that of the enclosing rocks, bear a striking resem- 
blance to some of the seven layers under notice. Four of these 
latter have a strike a few degrees west of north, and a westerly dip 
at between 3o°and 40 , whilst the other three strike^, little north of 
east with a northward dip at about the same angle as the others — 
the relation of the two systems being in fact such that all the 
north and south layers appear to come to a junction at nearly 
right angles with the nearest layer of the east and west system, 
as this is plainly traceable in front of and either side beyond and 
is not crossed by any of them (see sketch 1). Considering that 
in the case of each system the country rock, as before stated, 
conforms in strike and dip with the layers, the singular feature 
just noted would be proof, respectively the result of a complete 
break and turn of the schist rocks about the line of the first east 
and west layer. Owing to the favourable circumstance of a deep 
narrow creek- valley running north and south westward of and at 
no great distance from the layers, these conjointly could be pro- 
spected to depths exceeding 1400 feet by adits of comparatively 
short lengths, because of the fact that the layers of both systems 



308 fOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

dip towards each other at rather flat angles in the north-western 
quadrant. 

Besides the ore-bearing layers, Mr. Docherty observed a 
quartz lode and three massive dykes intersecting the schist- 
country. The quartz lode which is about 4 feet thick and well- 
defined, crosses the north and south system of layers at nearly 
right angles in strike, with a nearly vertical dip. No ore of any 
kind has as yet been disclosed in it by surface prospecting, 
though, considering the circumstances of its connection with the 
layers and the behaviour of lodes in many analogous cases, there 
certainly obtains a probability of ores, such as carried by the 
layers, making their appearance in depth. 

Regarding the three dykes, two of them of between 40 and 
50 feet in width each, are composed of granite and run due north 
and south close together near the eastern boundary of the schist, 
crossing the presumable junction-line of the two systems of 
layers. The third dyke runs near the western boundary of the 
schist, showing a thickness of over 100 feet. It consists mainly 
of a mixture of orthoclase, hornblende (Actinolite and Tremo- 
lite), and in places of large patches of asbestos, besides which 
magnetite, chlorite, garnet, and impregnations of copper pyrites 
and pyrite have also been observed. It strikes north and south 
and can be followed from the seaboard of Dusky Sound right up 
the range past a small lake situated on the eastern slope of 
Mount Hodge. At the beach of Dusky Sound there occurs what 
Mr. Docherty considers to be a branch of this dyke, consisting 
of a massive chlorite rock enclosing orthoclase in patches, and 
larger and smaller imperfect crystals, as well as two other 
minerals presently to be described. 

Comparatively speaking the Dusky Sound district, as de- 
scribed, is to my knowledge, next to that of Nelson, perhaps the 
richest mineral locality so far made known in the Middle Island, 
promising on further exploration not only to enrich our Colonial 
museums with specimens of more than average excellence of a 
number of interesting species, but also to initiate advantageous 
exchange with museums of other countries. The species and 
varieties of minerals that have come under my notice in Mr. 
Docherty's collections are the following : — Chalcopyrite, Pyrite, 
Pyrrhotite, Native Copper, Molybdenite, Galena, Sphalerite, 
Magnetite, Chromite, Rutile, Menaccanite (var. Ilmenite) 
Limonite, Quartz, Orthoclase, Albite, Amphibole (var. Actinolite), 
Tremolite, Common Hornblende, Asbestos, Titanite (Sphene), 
Garnet (var. Almandine), Common Garnet, Ouvarovite (Chrome 
Garnet), Muscovite (var. Common Mica), Fuchsite (Chrome 
Mica), Prochlorite, Epidote, Tourmaline (common black), Steatite, 
Kaolin, Dolomite. Of these have been examined : — 

Ouvarovite {Chrome Garnet). — This interesting, rare variety 
of garnet Mr Docherty, according to information received from 
M. H. Cox, pointed out to me as emerald, though its mode of 
occurence and habitus negatived this supposition, and it required 
but little examination to determine its true character. It occurs 



Jjfcetch, of ike- relative jrosutio/i/of 
-thelwo groups of Ore layers. 





Jjf/te^^y 



J&T4%ile< 



7.3. 




Fi# 6 



JfyM 




0rtho0lase< 




ty.Z 



^ . e' 

) 

3* j,. 7> 



J£e<rtJiM. 



MINERAL OCCURRENCES AT DUSKY SOUND. 309 

in one of the east and west layers as implanted grains of deep 
emerald-green colour in translucent rather greasy-looking quartz, 
which is richly interlaminated, as it were in parallel position with 
thin plate-like masses of pyrrhotite, imparting to it a gneiss-like 
appearance. The green grains are rarely over 1 mm. in size, 
generally smaller; sometimes several are grouped together to form 
patches of irregular outline and near 2 mm. in diameter. They 
show very rarely any determinable crystal faces, though judging 
from the outlines of most of the separate grains there is little 
doubt that they are all more or less perfect crystals, but being too 
firmly implanted in the hard quartz, they rarely break free from 
it in fracturing pieces. Owing to this T was only able, by break- 
ing a number of the quartz pieces, to obtain one small crystal 
representing a distorted rhombic dodecahedron 000(110),* 
i.e., one extended in the line of an octahedral or trigonal 
interaxis, giving it the appearance of an hexagonal prism 
terminated by a rhombohedron (see fig. 2) in striking resemblance 
to dioptase. On another grain could be observed several planes 

00 o. Examination of broken grains under the microscope be- 
tween crossed Nicols proved all the small fragments to be 
perfectly isotrope, as they remained dark in all positions on 
revolving the stage. Short of chemical analyses of the mineral, 
for which the quantity at disposal was far too small, testing 
before the blow-pipe proved it also to conform to chrome-garnet, 
as it was infusible, and imparted to beads of borax and micro- 
cosmic salt both in oxid. and reduc. flarrre; even if added in very 
small quantity, a fine emerald-green colour.*)* 

Fuchsite {Chrome Mica). — I first identified this mineral several 
years a^o in specimens broken from the same layer containing 
the Ouvarovite. Mr. Docherty had been told by Mr. Cox, who 
first examined it, that it was Uranium Mica ( ' Torbemite) ,but the 
outlines and elasticity of the scales at once proved the incorrect- 
ness of this determination.! Its colour varies from deep to light 
emerald green, light bluish-green and yellowish-green, and the 
scales, which, if very thin, are quite transparent, flexible and 
elastic, range from less than 1 mm. to several mm. in size. 
Their lustre is more or less pearly, and in the light bluish-green 
variety which Mr. Docherty brought from his last trip they are 
aggregated in plumose forms and associated with dark brown 

* The symbols given throughout the descriptions are those of Naumann and 
Miller. 

f In Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. XV. p. 408-409, Mr. H. Cox describes the species 
Emerald as occurring impregnated in the specimens submitted to him for examination 
by Mr. Docherty, and he likewise gives the figure of an implanted crystal of the 
mineral showing the combination of planes of the hexagonal prism, hexagonal 
pyramid, and basal pinacoid. As this, according to Mr. Docherty, refers to the same 
mineral which from my examinations I can confidently pronounce to be "Ouvarovite " 

1 must assume either that Mr. Cox, contrary to Mr. Docherty's assertion, examined 
a different mineral which did not occur in the specimens I saw, or that he made a 
mistake in the determination of the mineral and the definition and drawing ofthe crystal. 

% Mr. Cox subsequently described the mineral as Chrome Mica, in Trans. N.Z.' 
Inst., Vol. XV. p. 405, together with another occurrence of it in the Lake Wa'katipu 
district, discovered by Mr. A. M'Kay, and determined by quantitative analysis by 
Mr. W. Skey, Government analyst. 



3IO TOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

common mica. Crystalline outlines were not observable on any 
of the specimens. On trying to determine the optical character 
of the scales by the polariscope, their insufficient transparency, 
if of sufficient thickness for the purpose, did not allow the 
observing of a well-defined interference figure, but so much could 
clearly be seen that this mica is biaxial with a rather large 
angle (2 E.) -about 70°-8o°-between the optic axes. Before the 
blowpipe the mineral (fine green scales) imparts to the borax 
bead, both in the oxid. and reduc. flames a fine emerald-green 
colour, indicating the presence of a not inconsiderable per centage 
of chromium. 

Chromite {Chromic Iron). — This ore occurs also in the layer 
containing the chrome-minerals just described, and is sometimes 
associated with the fuchsite. What renders it worthy of special 
reference here is that, different from its generally massive mode 
of occurrence in the Nelson district and other parts of the island, 
it is in this case more or less abundantly impregnated in a feld- 
spathic base in lustrous black crystals, representing perfect octa- 
hedra, varying from finest black specks to over 1 mm. in size. 
It is very likely that on washing the surface detritus, near the 
ore-layer, good samples of sand of this crystallized chromite might 
be obtained, as is the case in the Heathcote district, Victoria, 
and at the Arthur River, Tasmania, where the mineral is derived 
from decomposed serpentinous rocks. 

Rutile. — Mr. Docherty brought this mineral from his previous 
prospecting trip, and it is one not hitherto noticed as found in 
New Zealand. It occurs associated with titaniferous iron in a 
feldspathic matrix in one of the N. and S. layers. The crystals 
are up to 12 mm. in length, and from 1 to 5 mm. in diameter, 
and present the common prismatic type deeply striated vertically, 
with the terminal planes too badly developed for determination. 
A crystal disclosed on breaking one of the feldspar pieces proved 
to be a metagenic twin (see fig. 3). The lustre of the crystals is 
rather poor, indicating that they are somewhat affected by de- 
composition ; their colour is blackish-brown, on fracture 
splinters are sub-transparent brownish-red. 

Prochlorite. — The dark green massive chlorite rock of the 
supposed branch of the large dyke at the seaboard, near the 
western boundary of the schist-area is, as far as the specimens 
brought by Mr. Docherty show, entirely devoid of any schistose 
structure ; but it contains in abundance irregular cavities, some- 
times narrow, fissure-like, in which the mineral constituting 
the rock has crystallized out in vermiform curved hex- 
agonal prisms, also, though more rarely, in divergent, 
fan-shaped groups of scales. Its hardness was found 
less than 2, spec, gravity 2.968 (mean of a number of determina- 
tions). Though their characteristics seemed to refer the mineral 
to Dana's species prochlorite, still on considering that ripidolite 
is perhaps more commonly found to form rocks of this class, as 
well as chlorite schist, and as examination before the blowpipe 
affords no distinguishing reactions between the two species, it 



MINERAL OCCURRENCES AT DUSKY SOUND. 311 

appeared of interest to solve the question as to which species the 
mineral really belonged to by a quantitative analysis. This was 
executed, under the direction of Professor Black, by Mr T. 
Butement, a student of the School of Mines, and gave the fol- 
lowing results : — 

Si O z - - 24.81 

Al a 3 - - 28.89 

Fe O - - - 22.17 

Mg O - - 13.23 

H 2 - - 10.18 



Total, 99.28 
On comparing these results with those given for prochlorite 
in Dana's System of Mineralogy, the identity of the Dusky Sound 
mineral with this species is unquestionable. 

Menaccanite (Titaniferous iron) Var. Ilmenite. — This mineral 
is abundantly impregnated in the just described chlorite rock 
as thin scales and in plates up to several centim. in diameter 
and several mm. thick, but generally thinning out towards the 
margin. It occurs in consequence plentifully distributed through 
the detritus derived from the degradation of the rock. Larger 
plates are mostly curved lamellae, and generally show fine stria- 
tions on the broad lustrous black surfaces which are not, how- 
ever, connected with any cleavage across the plates. Determin- 
able crystal planes are not observable. The ore gives a black 
streak powder, and very slightly affects the magnetic needle. 
Spec. grav. 4.835. Before the blowpipe it imparts to the micro- 
cosmic salt bead in the reduc. flame a deep, brownish-red colour, 
and affords also on fusion with soda and saltpetre on platinum foil 
reaction for manganese. According to a partial analysis by Mr. 
Butement, it contains from 45-50% of Ti o z? an amount which would 
place it under the variety Ilmenite. This ore was evidently of 
primary formation in the chlorite rock, and to its decomposition is 
no doubt in part due the origin of the mineral next to be described. 

Titanite, var. Sphene. — Mr. Docherty discovered this species 
(which has not before been recorded as found in New Zealand) 
whilst prospecting the chlorite rock at the beach of Dusky 
Sound. It occurs, as he states, pretty abundantly in the cavities 
of the rock, forming thin tabular crystals up to 7 mm. in size, yel- 
lowish, white opaque, and subtransparent oil-green in colour and 
which are mostly grown up on edge, sometimes so close together 
as to form a regular drusy coating, such as obtuse rhombohedra 
of calcite (Nailhead Spar) often show. They are, however, 
throughout very ill-defined. The best crystal I could find in Mr. 
Docherty's first lot of specimens has the form shown in Fig. 4, in 
which according to Naumann's position o. would be the basal 
pinacoid oP(ooi), p. the prism coP(ioi), x. the orthodome j£ 
Poo (102), and y. the orthodome P 00(101) ; these determina- 
tions being based upon some fair measurements of angles I was 
enabled to make on the crystal with the reflecting goniometer. 
Amongst the specimens Mr Docherty brought from his last trip 



312 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

I was gratified, however, to observe the fine crystal represented 
in Figs. 5a and 5b — a penetration twin of two crystals of the 
general form just described, but more symmetrically developed, 
and showing in addition the planes n and S, the former of which, 
according to measurements with the hand goniometer of angle o : 
n=i^4 o 30' (Naumann I44°56 / ) agrees with the hemi-pyramid y^ 
P 2 (123); "whilst S, which could not be satisfactorily measured, 
may possibly be the rare plane J^ P 4 / 3 (4.36) determined by 
Hessenberg. The indented angle y : y was found to be about 
120 (Naumann 120 34'), and that of x: x' about 102 (Nau- 
mann 101 26'). Owing to the brittleness of the mineral this 
crystal suffered considerable damage in transport. Judging 
from the impression left in the chlorite rock it must originally 
have been of an uncommonly large size, viz., good 1%" long, 
1" broad, and nearly y 2 " thick ; the parts broken away are in- 
dicated by dotted lines in Fig. 5b. The breaking away of 
certain portions revealed, however, the interesting fact, conclu- 
sively proving the secondary nature of the mineral, namely, that 
one half of the twin has grown over a crystal ol orthoclase pro- 
truding from the chlorite rock ; the exposed feldspar portion is 
shown in Fig. 5b by shading. As all the specimens of the 
mineral have hitherto come from the chlorite rock cropping out 
on the seabeach, within range of the tide, which no doubt con- 
tributed to their fractured character and the injuries they sus- 
tained, it is very probable, in view of the fine development and 
size of the crystal just described, that at greater depth in the 
rock, or out of reach of the sea, really fine crystallizations of the 
mineral will be met with. 

Epidote. — Of this mineral Mr. Docherty found two varieties, 
both rather uncommon in form, colour, and lustre. 

1st variety: This occurs in stout prismatic crystals, and largish 
patches of irregular outline in a large reef of white granular quartz, 
traversing Cooper's Island, Dusky Sound. It is of a greyish green 
colour, and has a strong greasy lustre in fracture. The prismatic 
crystals show no determinable planes at the ends, and owing to 
one appearing in cross-section in the quartz like a square prism 
with truncated vertical edges, I mistook the mineral at first for 
Vesuvianite, to which determination its behaviour before the 
blowpipe also conformed.* Finding later on that the mineral 
lias a very good cleavage parallel to one of the faces of the sup- 
p )scd square prism — a property absent in Vesuvianite — I pre- 
pared a thin section as nearly as possible normal to the vertical 
axis of a prism, and on examining this with the polariscope, the 
absence of the interference figure proved at once that the crystal 
could not belong to the tetragonal system. On trying to break 
crystals out of the quartz matrix only portions of prisms 
could be secured ; however, these sufficed for determining by 
means of the hand -goniometer (for the reflecting goniometer the 

Mr Cox fell into the same error, as his description of Idocrase (Vesuvianite). 
p 402, Vol. XV., Trans. N. Z. Inst., refers, according to Mr. Docherty, to the 
identical mineral. 



MINERAL OCCURRENCES AT DUSKY SOUND. 313 

planes were not bright and smooth enough) that the angles of 
the prism-planes conform well with those in the orthodiagonal 
zone of epidote — the apparent square prismatic planes being, 
according to Mohs' position, oP(ooi) ; 00 P 00 (100) and the re- 
placements of the vertical edges: P 00(101). — P 00(101); ac- 
cording to Miller's position, respectively (102) (100), and (101), 
(001). The orthopinacoid is the plane to which the cleavage 
goes parallel. The correctness of this determination of the 
mineral as epidote has since been proved by the following re- 
sults of an analysis by Mr. T. Butement : — 

Si (X - - 36.33 

A1 2 3 - - - 28.81 

Fe 2 3 - - .9.15 

Fe O - - - 1.05 

Ca O - - - 22.21 

Mg O - - - 0.16 

H 2 - 0.9 



Total, 98.61 
The spec. grav. of this epidote was found to be 3.454. 
The mineral evidently occurs in great abundance in the quartz 
reef, and is rather brittle, as regular " epidote sand," of which 
Mr. Docherty's collection contained a sample, can be washed out 
in quantity from the detritus in the neighbourhood of the reef. 

2nd Variety. — This is not so abundant as the one just de- 
scribed. It occurs in one of the N. and S. layers, and is of a 
dark brownish-grey to light greyish-brown colour, forming pris- 
matic crystals up to 2 centim. in length and 8 mm. in diameter, 
which penetrate orthoclase or project from cavities in it. The 
prisms have in cross section an irregular outline, are longitudinally 
deeply furrowed or striated, and show no determinable faces at 
the ends, appearing, as it were, as if gnawed off. In fresh fracture 
they have a strong greasy lustre, quite as strong as Elacolite, for 
which they might easily be mistaken if it were not for their 
irregular outline and behaviour of samples before the blowpipe. 
A peculiarity observable with respect to almost all the longer 
prisms is that they are curved and frequently broken crossways, 
in most cases so that the severed parts are slightly displaced and 
the fracture cracks open, indicating strain or contraction after 
formation. This variety was found to have a spec. grav. of 
3.472, and a quantitative analysis of it by Mr. F. Butement gave 
the following results : — 

Si O a - - - ■ 36.27 

Al 2 3 - - 23.76 

Fe 2 3 - - - 13.35 

Fe O - - - 0.82 

Ca O - - - 24.97 

Mg O - - - 0.32 

H a O - - 0.24 



Total, 99.73 



314 IOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Orthoclase. — Although occurring in greater or less abundance 
in both the E. and W. and N. and S. layers, as well as the dykes, 
determinable crystals of this feldspar have as yet been found by 
Mr. Docherty in only one of the E. and W. layers. All those I 
saw were distinguished by dominant growth in the direction of 
the clinodiagonal axis, and two deserve some notice on account 
of their uncommon mode of development and other peculiarities. 
No. I crystal : This is nearly 2 x / 2 inches long, and slightly over 
i inch in diameter. Its form is shown in Fig. 6, representing the 
combination of the planes : o = oP(ooi) ; m = oo P 00(010) ; 
t + t' = 00 P(i 10) ; p = P(l 1 1) ; x = P 00(101) ; y = 2P 00 
(201); z = j£P(ii2). The angles to determine these symbols 
could only be measured with the hand goniometer, and con- 
sidering the roughness of the planes, especially of the prism and 
positive hemi-pyramid, agreed very well with those found by 
accurate measurement. The rather rare positive hemi-pyramid 
z = y 2 Y was well determinable by the angle z : o = 150 30' 
(150 52' Dana), on account of the planes o and z being smoother 
than the rest. It occurs hemihedrally, as no trace of it is visible 
in the lower front quadrant, where it should appear. The planes 
p are very uneven, the projections and depressions having a 
glazed or fused -like appearance. At the back end, where the 
crystal was broken off its support, a tolerably plain cleavage is 
observable parallel to the prism-plane t', and this portion further 
shows that the mass of the crystal is abundantly impregnated 
with copper pyrites and pyrrhotite, ragged portions of which are 
also protruding from the basal and clino-pinacoid planes ; a few 
small scales of black mica can also be seen in the mass. No. 2 
crystal : This is about 1 inch long and ^ inch in diameter, and 
shows the same combination of plants as crystal No. 1, with the 
exception that the hemi-pyramid z is absent. In its mode of 
development it differs from No. 1 in that the basal and clino- 
pinacoid planes are of equal size and through the nearly equal 
growth of the prism-planes t and t' and of the positive hemi- 
pyramid p up to the small orthodome y (2 P 00), whilst the ortho- 
dome x(Poo ) forms only a narrow truncation of the edge p : p, 
the crystal has very much the appearance of one of the tetragonal 
system (see fig. 73) resembling Wernerite of the scapolite group. 
In other respects it is similar to No. 1, not only by having glazed 
or fused-like depressions and projections on the pyramidal faces, 
but also by showing at its broken end that it is thickly impreg- 
nated with copper pyrites and pyrrhotite, which latter forms also 
thin coatings over parts of the basal and clino-pinacoid planes, 
whilst black mica scales project from nearly all the planes. 

From what Mr. Docherty states there is no doubt that 
opening of the layer at the place where the specimen came from 
would reveal far finer crystallizations of orthoclase than those 
described. 

George H. F. Ulrich. 



MOAS AND MOA HUNTERS. 315 

MOAS AND MOA HUNTERS. 



A REVIEW OF MONS. A. DE QUATREFAGES' PAPER, BY 
W. M. MASKELL * 



Monsieur A. de Quatrefages has published in France (Annales 
des Sciences Naturelles, Nov. 1883) a paper on Moas and Moa- 
Hunters, with especial reference to the controversy excited in 
this country and elsewhere, as to the probable date of the ex- 
tinction of moas, and the people who exterminated them. The 
paper is, practically, a summing up of the facts made known up 
to the present time on the subject, containing the history of the 
discovery of moa remains, a brief description of the great birds 
themselves, a discussion of the vexed question referred to, and 
some remarks on the probable succession and frequency of the 
genera of moas. 

The chief interest of the paper (which does not appear to 
contain any new observations or information) is centred in what 
may be called its controversial portion, and as this is of general 
interest to science, and particularly to us in New Zealand, a 
brief review of it may be of use. M. de Quatrefages seems to 
sum up the whole question pretty completely. His references 
are almost all to works published by observers in this country, 
and it is most satisfactory to find that he has made much use of 
the papers in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute. 
The' volumes of our Transactions have taken a high place in the 
estimation of scientific men in Europe, and the work done here 
in different directions seems to be thoroughly appreciated there. 
On the great question of the extinction and date of the moas, 
the Transactions contain a complete view of the controversy, 
ranging through several volumes. This paper of M. de Quatre- 
fages, whilst containing his own opinions on the matter, sum- 
marises to a great extent the work scattered in the volumes. 
Few points of palaeontological enquiry have greater interest than 
this for us in this country, and the following review of the latest 
utterance upon it is therefore now offered. Our opportunities 
for pursuing the enquiry as to the moas are daily diminishing. 
Already their relics have become exceedingly rare, and any 
chances of obtaining knowledge from the Maoris are fast dis- 
appearing. Whatever, therefore, tends to elucidate the question, 
to confirm or to destroy opinions on either side, should be made 
known with the least possible delay. 

The theory which M. de Quatrefages sets himself to investi- 
gate is that of Dr. Von Haast (whom, by the way, he calls M. 
Haast), a theory by which the moas are supposed to have been 
destroyed, many thousands of years ago, by a race of men an- 
terior to the Maoris, and themselves also now extinct. This 

* Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 3rd September, 1884. 



316 FOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

theory has been promulgated by its author in various papers in 
the Transactions, and supported in his work on the Geology of 
Canterbury and Westland. M. de Quatrefages summarises the 
conclusions of Dr. Von Haast in eleven propositions, of which 
the principal are the following : — 

i. The different species of moas flourished in the post-pliocene 
period in New Zealand. 

2. They were destroyed at a period so remote that no reliable 
tradition of them remains. 

3. They were destroyed by a race of Autochthones, probably 
of Polynesian origin, who hunted and killed also a species of wild 
dogs, but had no tame dogs, and who were not cannibals. 

4. These men made no use of polished stone instruments, 
nor had they any greenstone. 

5. The fact that polished instruments are of very great an- 
tiquity in New Zealand, and are yet not found possessed by the 
moa-huntcrs, is a proof of the enormous distance of the period 
of extinction of moas. 

It ought to be noted here that some ol the propositions above- 
mentioned have received modifications in Dr. von Haast' s later 
works. M. de Quatrefages quotes them from a paper in Vol. 
IV. of the Transactions — that is, from a publication of 1 871-1872. 
But, in his work on the Geology of Canterbury and Westland, 
published in 1879, Dr. von Haast reproduces these propositions 
with some changes. For example, the phrase so much objected 
to in the paper now under review, "A race of Autochthones of 
Polynesian origin," becomes " An Autochthone race, having 
affinities with the Melanesian type;" and the statement that the 
moa-hunters had no polished stone instruments is abandoned 
(Geol. of Cant, and West., p. 430). 

The existence of a race of men in New Zealand anterior to 
the Maoris is entirely granted by M. de Quatrefages, as it is 
indeed, by many other writers. But, far from being " Autoch- 
thonic," this race is declared to be of Melanesian origin, as is 
proved by craniological observations and other evidence. It would 
be satisfactory, probably, if some clearer notion were obtainable 
as to the meaning of the word " autochthone " in the minds of 
those who use it. The word has a somewhat mysterious and 
captivating appearance, and, doubtles:, many who employ it, and 
many more who read or hear of it, are satisfied with its resonant 
syllables, without enquiring deeply as to its derivation and in- 
terpretation. Probably, to most men, it may convey the impres- 
sion of " the first arrivals " in a country — a harmless and simple 
idea. Whether those who may use it in its proper sense, " a race 
sprung from the land itself," are fully aware of the complications 
involved by such a meaning, is more doubtful. In any case, such 
a controversy as that of Moas and Moa-Hunters ought scarcely 
to be exhausted without complete enquiry as to the full inter- 
pretation of this word " autochthone," if it is employed therein. 
M. de Quatrefages seems to have combatted the " autochthonic " 
theory, as regards not only New Zealand, but other countries, 



MOAS AND MOA HUNTERS. 317 

in previous works ; and in the paper before us he refers to it 
only in passing. Leaving that aside, he is completely in accord 
with Dr. von Haast as to the existence of some archaic race of 
men in these islands distinct from and anterior to the Maoris. 

But the main point of the controversy is not the origin and 
nature of these men, but the question whether or not they 
exterminated the moas : that is, whether the moas ceased to 
exist so long ago that the Maoris never saw them, or whether 
they continued to live until, say, less than a century ago. On 
this point we need not refer to the first of the propositions 
quoted above, as the question is not of the beginning, but of the 
end of the moas ; and the last two propositions, involving 
matters practically abandoned by Dr. von Haast, may also be 
discarded. M. de Quatrefages devotes some pages to the 
discussion of the second and third propositions, which we may 
again divide as follows (neglecting the " autochthonism") : — 

1. The moa-hunters killed also a species of wild dog, but had 

no tame dogs. 

2. They were not cannibals. 

3. There remain no Maori traditions of any value as to the 

nature, or the destruction, of the moas. 
To these M. de Quatrefages adds another point discussed in the 
papers of Dr. von Haast — namely, a distinction between the 
moa-hunters and a subsequent race of shell-fish eaters. Lastly, 
he refers to the discoveries made in late years of portions of 
moa-bones still covered by flesh and skin, not in the least degree 
fossilised. 

The questions, whether the moa-hunters killed and ate a 
wild dog, and whether they also ate shell-fish, turn upon the 
same point — namely, the absence from their "kitchen-middens" 
of certain relics. In the first case, Dr. von Haast affirms that 
no moa-bones have been discovered gnawed by dogs — a clear 
proof, he says, that there were then no tame dogs to gnaw them. 
In the second case, he declares that there is a marked distinction 
between the strata containing moa-bones and no shells, and 
those overlying them containing shells and no moa-bones. M. 
de Quatrefages combats the first point by arguing — first, that in 
Dr. von Haast's earlier papers he had distinctly referred to a 
dog domesticated by these primitive men, its bones being found 
in their ovens, evidently having been devoured " either when its 
owner was short of provisions, or, perhaps, when killed by the 
moas." He at the same time seemed doubtful whether, after 
all, these were not the bones of a wild dog ; and this last opinion 
was the one which he finally adopted. But M. de Quatrefages 
points out very truly that in such a case dog-bones ought to 
have been found at some time or another in scattered positions, 
like those of its contemporaries, the moas ; whereas, in fact, none 
have ever been so found, and, on the contrary, the ovens, or 
" kitchen-middens" are full of them. It is, in fact, scarcely an 
evidence of the feral nature of an animal that its bones should 
always be found in abundance round the habitations of man, and 



3lS JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

never anywhere else. The second argument of the French 
savant seems less satisfactory. He accounts for the absence of 
"gnawed" moa-bones in the ovens by a theory that the dogs of 
those days were not carnivorous — that they had been brought 
from the islands of Polynesia — that they were, as in those islands, 
an article of food for their masters, — and that these latter would 
therefore confine them to a vegetable diet for the purpose of 
rendering their flesh more palatable. Whilst admitting the 
possibility of such a proceeding, it must be confessed that there 
is a somewhat doubtful air about it. Nor, indeed, does there 
seem to be much necessity for so elaborate a theory. The 
absence of "gnawed" bones is, at the very best, only weak 
negative evidence — one might say, of no value whatever ; — and, 
as a matter of fact, M. de Quatrefages refers to one case where, 
as reported by Mr. Booth, two moa bones in an oven did 
present the appearance of having been " gnawed." 

As regards the cannibalism of the " Moa-hunters," Dr. von 
Haast affirms that no human bones have ever been found in 
their ovens, and again from this absence of relics concludes that 
the moa-hunters did not eat men. M. de Quatrefages points 
out in reply, first, that human bones were also declared to have 
never been found in the heaps of shells indubitably left by the 
Maoris, and very rightly observes that this disposes of the argu- 
ment as to the moa-hunters. But, as a fact, he says that this 
absence of human bones is not correct, and he quotes from 
papers by the Hon. Mr. Mantell, Mr. G. Thorne, Mr. Roberts, and 
Mr. Robson, instances where bones of moas, seals, dogs, fishes, 
and men were found indiscriminately mixed together. Dr. von 
Haast indeed himself refers to Mr. Mantell's statement, though 
he attaches no importance to it (Trans., Vol. IV., p. 89). It is, 
by the way, somewhat curious that, on the same page, he 
mentions the finding by Mr. Fuller of a " moa-hunter encamp- 
ment " close alongside " the traces of a cannibal feast," but says 
that " there was nothing to connect the one with the other." It 
does not appear, however, that there was anything to disconnect 
the one from the other. On the whole, M. de Quatrefages con- 
cludes that the cannibalism of the men who killed moas may be 
taken as a matter of certainty. 

A very important point in the controversy is that concerning 
the traditions of the Maoris, a point from which a way may be 
found to affirmative instead of negative evidence. Here we are 
brought into contact with two directly contradictory statements, 
for whilst Dr. von Haast declares the absence of such traditions, 
a number of other observers declare precisely the contrary. Of 
these, M. dc Quatrefages quotes Mr. Mantell, Sir George Grey, 
Mr. Hamilton, and, particularly, the letters of Mr. John White 
to Mr. Travers, in Vol. VIII. of the Transactions. It would 
indeed seem as if there could not be the slightest possibility of 
doubt on the matter, so clear, precise, and definite in details are 
the statements of all these gentlemen. Mr. White goes minutely 
into the particulars of the Maori customs on the occasion of a 



MOAS AND MOA HUNTERS. 319 

moa hunt, of the weapons they used, of their mode of conducting 
the chase, of the implements employed to cut up the dead game, 
of the incantations pronounced before they started from home ; 
and he states definitely that the last moa hunt in the North 
Island took place under certain chiefs at a certain spot in the 
Bay of Plenty. M. de Quatrefages evidently places faith in the 
assertions of all these supporters of Maori traditions, and rejects 
the notion that the present race of Natives of these islands were 
not, at a late period, acquainted with the moa. 

But the most decisive proof referred to in this paper of the 
recent disappearance of moas is found in the discoveries of 
various bones with portions of skin and muscular tissue still ad- 
hering to them. Three such discoveries are mentioned, and so 
fresh were the specimens in at least one instance that the 
muscular fibres were capable of dissection by Dr. Coughtrey. 
Dr. von Haast has attempted to explain these facts by a partial 
fossilisation of the bones. M. de Quatrefages points out that, 
even so, no possible explanation is afforded of the entirely non- 
fossilised condition of the flesh and skin. It is not, he says, 
possible to imagine a fossilised bone covered with quite fresh 
flesh ; and if, at some places, bones of extinct animals have been 
found only partially fossilised, they have never been accompanied 
by any particle of muscle or tendons. He quotes, on this point, 
a letter from Professor Milne-Edwards, who, referring to the 
discovery of a mammoth in Siberia, whose flesh still remained 
intact, observes that this animal was embedded in ice, a very 
different thing from the, practically, open caves where the moa 
bones were found with adherent skin. 

Summing up the whole question, M. de Quatrefages rejects 
altogether the theory of the extinction of the moas in far distant 
ages anterior to the arrival of the Maoris. Referring to a paper 
by the late Mr J. W. Hamilton, in Vol. VII. of the Transactions, 
in which an old Maori, Haumatangi, is said to have told the 
author that he had actually seen a live moa, the French savant 
declares that he considers this statement as at least extremely 
probable, and that in all likelihood the moa continued to live in 
some parts of New Zealand down to about the year 1770 or 
1780. 

The controversial portion of the paper before us does not 
occupy the whole of its pages, and it is satisfactory to note that 
the author, after thus disposing of the vexed question, goes on 
to acknowledge in full the very valuable service rendered to 
science by Dr. von Haast in his researches upon the Dinorni- 
thidse. A somewhat curious point is noted in connection 
with the extinction of these great birds, namely, the suc- 
cessive disappearance of the different species. It would 
seem that the first to vanish was the Dinomis giganteus, the last 
to remain Enryapteryx and Meionomis. All the species seem to 
have existed at the time of the first arrival of the Maoris in 
these Islands ; but the largest rapidly became extinct — if, 
indeed, they were not already reduced to small numbers. M. 



320 JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

de Ouatrefages gives very complete accounts of the general 
characteristics of these birds, and a historical review of the 
observations made in the last thirty years, by different authors, 
in New Zealand and elsewhere. His paper, indeed, is a concise 
summary of all the knowledge obtained up to the present time 
as to the moas, and is a valuable contribution to the natural 
history of our adopted country. 



GENERAL NOTES. 



A Plague of Parakeets. — I have been informed by a 
runholder in the Mackenzie Country, beyond Burke's Pass, that 
the parakeets are swarming in his garden this year. In two days 
he shot ioo with a walking-stick gun, but with no apparent 
effect. His fruit crop is doomed. A settler in the Waihemo 
district also informs me that his garden is literally alive with 
them — they are destroying everything. This correspondent has 
before told me that he loses his crop of small iruit every year 
now through the ravages of small birds, and that his enemies are 
native, not English, birds. I have not yet noticed the little 
parrots about Dunedin, but there is no doubt we are to have an 
invasion. F.R.C. 



Teraticum typicum, Chilton. — I learn by a letter from 
the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing that this curious little amphipod 
belongs to Seba, Costa, a genus I had overlooked. To this 
genus Mr. Stebbing has added a species, Seba Saundersi, sup- 
posed to come from South Africa, which, he says, is almost too 
like mine to be distinct. The two species are certainly very 
much alike, but his descriptions and figures (see Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist, March 1875) being taken from a dried specimen, are 
scarcely detailed enough to make me feel quite sure ; and, con- 
sidering also the difference in habitat, it would, I think, be 
hardly advisable to unite the two species without further evidence. 
The locality from which his specimen came is somewhat doubt- 
ful, for he says : " My little specimen came from a lot of sponges 
and gorgonias from Algoa Bay in Africa, and from Australia. 
Your discovery makes me feel some suspicion of my correctness 
in giving South Africa as the locality for my specimen." 

Chas. Chilton. 



A New Species of Idotea.— Some time ago I took at 
Sumner a single specimen of an Idotea which is quite different 
from any of the species hitherto recoided from New Zealand, and 
as I cannot identify it with any of the species mentioned in Mr. 
Miers' elaborate " Revision of the Idoteidse " (Linni^an Society's 



GENERAL NOTES. 32 1 

Journal, Vol. XVI., p. 1), I propose to call it Idotea f estiva. It 
comes under Mr. Miers' division II. a* (I.e. p. 25), but is quite 
distinct from the four species given under that section. The 
body is oblong oval, about two and a -half times the greatest 
breadth ; head produced upwards and forwards into a rounded 
prominence divided into two lobes by a median depression, re- 
mainder of the head variously sculptured. Near each lateral 
border is a raised longitudinal ridge extending nearly to the end 
of the post-abdomen, within these ridges are sculptured mark- 
ings ; there is also a less perfect median ridge formed by each 
segment, having the posterior portion raised into two short